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The State normal schools of Wisconsin are authorized to give a two-year college course, for which the State university allows two years' credit. Five normal schools are at present offering such a course; namely, Eau Claire, La Crosse, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, and Superior.

No very pronounced attempt has been made in this State to organize junior colleges.


The following standards for the accrediting of junior colleges were agreed upon at the 1917 meeting of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools:

A standard junior college is an institution with a curriculum covering two years of collegiate work (at least 60 semester hours, or the equivalent in year, or verm, or quarter credits) which is based upon and continues or supplements the work of secondary instruction as given in an accredited four-year high school. A semester hour is defined as one period of classroom work in lecture or recitation extending through not less than 50 minutes net or their equivalent per week for a period of 18 weeks, two periods of laboratory work being counted as the equivalent of one hour of lecture or recitation. 1. The minimum scholastic requirements of all teachers of classes in the junior college shall be graduation from a college belonging to this association, or an equivalent, and in addition graduate work in a university of recognized standing amounting to one year. 2. The junior college shall require for registration as a junior college student the completion by the student of at least 14 units of high-school work as defined by this association. 3. The work of the junior college must be organized on a collegiate as distinguished from a high-school basis. 4. The teaching schedule of instructors teaching junior college classes shall be limited to 22 hours per week; for instructors devoting their whole time to junior college classes 18 hours shall be a maximum; 15 hours is recommended as the maximum. 5. The limit of the number of students in a recitation or laboratory class in a junior college shall be 30. 6. Students registered in a junior college who are permitted to enroll in regular high-school classes shall not be given full junior-college credit for such work, and in no case shall the credit thus given exceed two-thirds of the usual high-school credit. No junior college will be accredited unless it has a registration of 25 students if it offers but a single year, and 50 students if it offers more than a single year. 7. The junior college shall have library and laboratory facilities sufficient to carry on its work the same as it would be carried on the first two years of an accredited standard college. 8. No junior college will be accredited by this association when maintained in connection with a high school or secondary school unless such school is also accredited by this association.


The following definition of a junior college is published in the sixth report of the Commission of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church South:

The junior college is an institution offering two years' work of college grade, or at least 30 college hours beyond the regular four years of secondary or high-school training, but not equipped for a four-year college course leading to the bachelor's degree. To be classed as a junior college, an institution, in addition to the entrance requirements named on page 25, must meet the following conditions: 1. A faculty of not less than six competent teachers, having at least a bachelor's degree, exclusive of teachers of art, music, expression, or household arts and sciences. 2. A library of 1,000 bound volumes selected with reference to college uses and exclusive of Government publications. 3. A laboratory equipment worth at least $1,000, unless the college is exclusively a classical institution. 4. The academy or preparatory department to be a standard secondary school, whose graduate is admitted without examination to the freshman class of the standard college. 5. In the two college years the institution is to do the work usually done in the freshman and sophomore years of the standard college (see p. 26), so that the junior college graduates may enter without prejudice the junior year of the standard college. Each institution should conform as nearly as possible its course of study to the requirements for the freshman and sophomore years of the college with which it is most closely affiliated. o 6. The standard college is to grant 30 hours' college credit or full junior standing, and no more, to the graduate of the junior college. 7. The junior college shall not confer any bachelor's degree.

In May, 1917, this board published the following official list of junior colleges:

Alexander Collegiate Institute, Jacksonville, Tex.
Andrew College, Cuthbert, Ga.
Blackstone College for Girls, Blackstone, Va.
Central College for Women, Lexington, Mo.
Clarendon College, Clarendon, Tex.
Davenport College, Lenoir, N. C.
Hiwassee College, Sweetwater, Tenn.
Howard-Payne College, Fayette, Mo.
Logan College, Russellville, Ky.
Louisburg College, Louisburg, N. C.
Mansfield College, Mansfield, La.
Martin College, Pulaski, Tenn.
Marvin College, Fredericktown, Mo.
Memphis Conference Female Institute, Jackson, Tenn.
Meridian College, Meridian, Tex.
Morris Harvey College, Barboursville, W. Wa.
North Texas College, Sherman, Tex.
San Antonio College, San Antonio, Tex.
Scarritt-Morrisville College, Morrisville, Mo.
South Georgia College, McRae, Ga.
Stamford College, Stamford, Tex.
Weaver College, Weaverville, N. C.
Wesley College, Greenville, Tex.
Young L. G. Harris College, Young Harris, Ga.


The condition upon which junior colleges may become members of the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools of the Southern States are as follows:

1. The college work must be the essential part of the curriculum of any institution recognized as a junior college; therefore junior colleges must publish in their annual catalogues a classified list of all their students. 2. If a preparatory department is maintained, its work must be approved by the association. 3. The minimum requirements for admission to the college classes must correspond with the present requirements of this association. 4. For graduation from the junior college the student must complete satisfactorily 30 year, or 60 semester, hours of work equivalent to that given in the freshman and sophomore years of colleges belonging to this association. 5. No junior college shall confer a degree; a junior college diploma may be awarded. 6. The number of teachers, their training, the amount of work assigned them, the number of college students, the resources and equipment of the junior college are vital factors in fixing the standard of an institution and must be considered by the executive committee in recommending any institution for membership. On these points, therefore, the executive committee shall issue recommendations from time to time for the purpose of informing institutions seeking membership in the association concerning conditions to be met.


None of the above regulations, so far as we are aware, make the claim of being complete and final. For the most part they represent the first attempt of the kind that has been made by each of these particular accrediting agencies. They have been based upon standards which have proven more or less successful when applied to other institutions and not upon a thorough knowledge of what the junior college should attempt to accomplish. Many times, also, they have been arranged with reference to more or less local conditions, or, on the other hand, some are so vague and general as to be of little value to the practical administrator. For these reasons it has been thought wise to bring together from all such attempts those points upon which there is more or less of an agreement, with the occasional addition of certain other regulations, which, though mentioned but once or twice, seem to be especially desirable. According to this plan the following composite picture of a standard junior college is arrived at.


1. Establishment.—According to the school law of the State of California “any high-school district having an assessed valuation of $3,000,000 or more” may establish a junior college or prescribe junior-college courses of study. Under this law the junior college becomes a part of the public-school system of that State, and the students enrolled in such courses are counted in figuring the amount of State aid which that school should receive, $15 per student.

Act 148 of the Michigan State Legislature provides that the board of education of any school district of the State having a population of more than 30,000 people is authorized and empowered to offer advanced courses to high-school graduates, such course not to embrace more than two years of collegiate work. No legal provision has been made for the establishment of a private junior college, but such have been recognized in several of the States. 2. General standards.—The following statements may be taken as typical of the general specifications that have been laid down relative to standard junior colleges: The University of Kansas senate provides that “a junior college must do its work after the manner of a college and must adopt the aims and ideals of a college. This means that the work of the junior college shall be far different from the work of a postgraduate course in a high school or academy.” The regulation of the Kansas State Board of Education states emphatically that “Instruction in the junior college must be of college rank.” The State Department of Education of Texas states that “the character of the curriculum, efficiency of instruction, scientific spirit, and the standard of work shall be factors in determining the standing of the institution.” 3. Material equipment.—(1) Means of support: The University of California has published the following significant statement, based upon a number of years of experience with junior colleges: “The burden of establishing a junior college should not be undertaken by a community which lacks either abundant financial resources or unity of interest in higher education. Any plan to establish a junior college without involving the community in an expense beyond that of the high school is an attempt to do the impossible.” The regulations of the University of Kansas senate state that “it is to be noted that the maintainance of a junior college will involve an expenditure greatly in excess of the expenses of an ordinary high school. Before organizing a junior college the community should carefully consider its financial ability to maintain such an institution without impairing the character of the work in the elementary and secondary schools.” The regulations of the Texas State Department of Education state that the financial support must be sufficient to meet the expenses of the institution. (2) Buildings: The University of Kansas senate provides that either a “separate building or suitable rooms in the high-school building shall be reserved for the exclusive or principal use of the college classes; they must provide suitable accommodations in respect to capacity, convenience, efficiency, health, and tasteful appearance.” The Texas standards provide that “the location and construction of the buildings, the lighting, heating and ventilation of the rooms, the nature of the laboratories, corridors, closets, water supply, school furniture, apparatus, and methods of cleaning shall be such as to insure hygienic conditions for both students and teachers.” (3) Libraries: There is complete agreement in emphasizing the fact that the library of the junior college must be chosen with reference to and be adequate for college work. This means that there must be furnished a good supply of books in addition to the regular high-school library. The number of volumes that should be provided varies in the different regulations from one to five thousand, exclusive of public documents. The general consensus of opinion is that there should be at least 2,000 volumes selected with special reference to college work. Other suggestions seem reasonable: The library should be equipped with a complete card catalogue and be in charge of a trained librarian. There should be an annual appropriation of from $15 to $75 for each subject taught, according to its nature, and finally there should be provided a reasonable supply of carefully selected periodicals. (4) Laboratories: It is agreed also that the laboratories should be adequate and available for strictly college work. This means that they should be sufficiently 117675°–19—7

large and well equipped to provide the opportunity for the student to perform individually all experiments outlined for all such courses in colleges. Estimates as to the cost of such an equipment vary with the subjects to be taught Those for physics range from $1,000 to $2,000, for chemistry from $500 to $1,500, for biology from $500 to $1,500, and for agriculture, botany, and zoology about $500 each. The University of California suggests that an addition to the high-school equipment of from $1,500 to $3,000 for each science taught is necessary. 4. Administration of the curriculum.—(1) Scope of the work: It is quite generally agreed that the junior college should not attempt to offer more than the first two years of the standard course above and beyond the standard four-year high-school course. Provision is sometimes made, however, for additional course of a vocational Inature. (2) Departments of instruction: Practically all of the standards agree that there should be at least five departments of instruction. The following are the ones most frequently named: English, history, mathematics, foreign languages, and science. (3) Requirements for admission: The present consensus of opinion is that the requirements for admission to the junior college should be the same as those for admission to the standard college or university as prescribed by the various accrediting agencies throughout the country. There is practically unanimous agreement that students should not be admitted to junior college until they have completed not less than 14 or 15 secondary units, as such are generally defined at present. The only exception to this rule that has been found is the regulation of the University of Illinois whereby seniors ranking in the upper one-third of their class are permitted to enroll in junior college courses. This regulation has, however, been severely criticized in a report of a special committee appointed by that institution to investigate the junior college situation. (4) Requirements for graduation: The standards in regard to requirements for graduation are fairly uniform. It is agreed that such should include the completion of the first two years of a standard college course with 60 to 64 semester hours of credit, A period of at least one or two years in each of the five departments mentioned above is usually required. For example, the Kansas State Board of Education requires three-quarters of two years in history and English and one or two years in foreign language and science. The requirements of the University of Missouri are: Six hours of English, five hours of history, ten hours of one foreign language, three hours of mathematics or logic, five hours of physical science, and five hours of biological science. By an hour is meant a 60-minute period of class work, or a 120-minute period of laboratory work, each week for one semester. (5) Recitation periods: The requirement that the recitation period should be 60 and the laboratory period 120 minutes in length is generally accepted. 5. Faculty.—(1) Number: There should be at least five heads of departments devoting all or nearly all of their time to college work. This means that there should be at least one specially prepared person for each of the five departments of instruction above mentioned. (2) Training: All agree that an instructor in a junior college should have at least a bachelor's degree from a standard college or university. All except one of the accrediting agencies specify at least one year of graduate work in a standard univer. sity in the subject to be taught. By many the master's degree is thought to be an essential requirement. In this connection it will be worth while to quote from the suggestions offered by the University of California to supplement the minimum requirements given above: “It is desirable that the junior college teacher should have had some experience in university instruction. And certainly he should not be inferior to the university instructor with reference to advanced scholarship. This means that he should have devoted two or three years to graduate study in a chosen

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