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Minnesota, and Iowa are now offering one or two years of standard college work. During the same period, and especially since 1911, when the University of Missouri launched a vast educational experiment by accrediting the small colleges of that State, the junior college idea has made wonderful progress in connection with the small and poorly equipped colleges of the country. For various reasons, considered in another chapter, an ever-increasing number of these institutions, such as those existing in Missouri, Texas, and other Southern States, are accepting gladly this readjustment. The success of the movement so far as these institutions are concerned seems to be assured. Aa15 The rapidity of this growth is indicated in Table 3 and Graphs II and III. Of the 76 junior colleges replying to the questionnaire, 69 have been organized since 1907. The median date for the organization of these 69 institutions is 1907. This means that half of that number have been established within the last three years, a rate of growth that must certainly be recognized as significant. As the underlying reasons for this growth have already been discussed, we may pass now to a consideration of the various types of junior colleges in operation at present and the number and distribution of each type.
2. WARIOUS TYPES OF JUNIOR COLLEGES.
As we have already indicated, the junior college affects and is affected by at least four of our traditional educational institutions— the university, college, normal school, and high school. This interplay of influences resulted in what one may call four different types of junior colleges. These are: l, The junior college or lower division of the university. The normal school accredited for two years of college work. The public high school extended to include the first two years of college work. The small private college which has limited its course to two years beyond the standard high school. The close relation existing between the general influences and the types of institutions resulting has been roughly illustrated in Graph IV. Consideration will be taken in order of each of these types, speaking briefly of the nature, organization, number, and distribution of each.
TABLE 3.-Growth of the junior college movement from 1907 to 1917
Year: organized. Year: organized. 1907.--------------------------- 2. 1914 - - - 9 1909.--------------------------- 2. 1915 - 15 1910---------------------------- 5 1916---------------------------- 15 1911---------------------------- 3 1917---------------------------- 7 1912...------------------------- 5. 1913-...------------------------ 6 Total.----------------------- 69
Median year, 1915.
1. THE JUNIOR COLLEGE IN THE UNIVERSITY.
Mention has already been made of the organization of a junior college at the University of Chicago and of the so-called “lower division” at the University of California. This organization is still maintained in these institutions, which justifies their classification under the above heading. To these must be added the University of Washington, which more recently has adopted the same plan.
In these three institutions there is at present a distinct recognition of the junior college idea as affecting university organization. Each
GRAPH IV.-Influences that have contributed to the origin and development of the various types of junion - colleges.
has divided its traditional four-year course into two quite distinct divisions. The lower division, or junior college, includes the first two years; and the upper division, or senior college, the last two years of the standard college course. In order to show that this distinction is not in name only, it may be well to consider at length the organization of these institutions.
In the circular of information of the University of California we find the following regulations:
The work of the lower division comprises the studies of the freshman and sophomore years. The junior certificate markes the transition from the lower division to the upper division of the undergraduate course. All candidates for the bachelor's degree in the college of letters must qualify for the junior certificate before proceeding to the upper division. * * * For the junior certificate, 64 units of university work are required, in addition to 45 units required for matriculation, making a total of 109 units. A surplus matriculation credit does not reduce the amount of work (normally 64) required in the lower division (except by examination or advanced work in the same field completed successfully). These 64 units of the lower division may normally be completed in two years, but students are required to remain in the lower division only until they are able to complete the requirements for a junior certificate.
The interesting thing about these requirements is the combining of admission and lower division credits in the total of 109 required, and the possibility of the student completing this amount in less than two years after leaving high school. It should be said that, in a recent report of a committee of this university, these two features were severely criticised and changes suggested. It was said that the whole matter was up for discussion, but that it was doubtful whether any change would be made at present. The work as now organized in this institution most certainly considers the first two years of the university as an extension of the secondary school course and does not permit specialization until the student is enrolled in the upper division.
The bulletin of the University of Washington for April, 1917, contains the following significant statements:
The work of the lower division comprises the studies of the freshman and sophomore years of the undergraduate curriculum and leads to a junior certificate. The work consists primarily of the elementary or introductory courses of the various departments. Its aim is to supplement the work of high school and to contribute to a broad general training in preparation for the advanced work of the upper division. To receive the junior certificate the student must have earned not less than 60 college credits and must have completed in high school and college together the amount of work specified in the subjects mentioned below. The object of these requirements is to secure for the student a knowledge of a wide range of subjects: to distribute this knowledge over the fundamental fields. To this end the high school and college are viewed as essentially a unit.
It will be of interest to know that in the detailed statement of the requirements for the junior certificates in this bulletin four groups of subjects are mentioned: (a) Those required in high school; (b) those required either in high school or college; (c) those required in college; (d) those conditionally required in college.
Here again is found the junior college idea strongly emphasized in the close relation of the high school and first two years of college work and the recognition of the end of the sophomore year rather
than graduation from high school at the close of the period of secondary education. The University of Chicago has maintained the junior and senior college plan of organization since the days of President Harper. In this institution the “junior colleges” include the first and second years of residence. After completing the requirements of the junior colleges and receiving the title of Associate, students pass for their third and fourth years to the senior college. The junior and senior colleges have their separate administrative officers and regulations and are treated in every way as quite distinct. The requirements for admission and for graduation for the junior college in this institution are similar to those already mentioned, and further discussion of this feature will not be necessary here. Attention is called, however, to the regulation relative to college work done in high schools as a further evidence of the recognition of the junior college idea. In the circular of information for April, 1918, we read: The University of Chicago is prepared to encourage any adequately equipped secondary school to extend its work so as to cover the work now offered in the freshman and sophomore years of the college. Any high school which is prepared to undertake such work can come in contact with the junior college officers of the university with a view to organizing advanced courses. The university aims to develop this intimate cooperation with a view to promoting wherever possible the enlargement of the secondary school curriculum. The three institutions mentioned above are probably the only three that now maintain a distinct organization for the upper and lower divisions of the university or standard college course. Many other institutions, however, have recognized the junior college idea to a greater or less extent. For further information the reader is referred to the chapter on the accrediting of junior colleges. A point of special interest to be noted in this connection is the recent recommendation of President Butler, of Columbia University. (See Chapter III.)
2. THE JUNIOR COLLEGE IN NORMAL SCHOOLS.
As a result of a tendency, previously discussed, on the part of normal schools to undertake college work, there has appeared in several States what may be called a second type of junior college. This is the normal school accredited for two years of college work. The chief justification for classifying these institutions as junior colleges is the fact that they are so referred to by several of the State institutions and State departments of education in replying to the questionnaire. In a number of the States they are the only junior colleges reported.
It has not been thought advisable, considering the limits of this investigation, to discuss in detail the work and organization of these institutions. So far as known, they are typical normal schools, interested primarily in the training of teachers. They have, however, found it to their advantage for one reason or other to undertake certain standard college work; in some cases the entire four years are offered. Naturally, this practice was soon followed by a demand for the accrediting of the work offered. The situation was thus in many respects similar to that of the small college. Many of the normal schools might safely be intrusted with two years of work at least, but for obvious reasons should not expect to do more. The result is that State legislation and university regulations have officially recognized these institutions as junior colleges. The extent of this practice may be inferred from the following outline which is based upon facts gathered from replies to the questionnaire. It is not claimed that these data are at all complete.
Pir Es ENT STATUS OF THE RECOGNITION OF NORMAL schi OOLS As J UNIOft Col. LEGEs.
Arizona.-Graduates of State normal schools are entitled to 30 units blank credit at the university. Indiana.-One normal school accredited as a junior college. Michigan.—One normal school accredited as a junior college. Minnesota.—Graduates of normal schools receive one or two years of credit in university, according to course which they have taken and which they expect to pursue; five institutions are thus accredited. North Dakota.-Graduates of the State normal schools receive credit at the university according to the amount of college work completed, up to two full years. Nebraska.-Three normal schools are approved for two years of college work. Oklahoma.-Graduates of seven normal schools are given credit at the university according to the amount of freshman and sophomore work completed. Utah. —Standards have been established for normal schools which offer two years of college work. These agree substantially with junior college standards of other States. West Virginia.-Six normal schools are offering college work with a definite understanding as to the amount of credit that will be received at the State university. Wisconsin.-The State normal schools have been authorized by law to give a twoyear college course which is accredited at the State university. Five institutions are now offering such a course.
3. THE PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGE.
The type of junior college that is attracting most attention at present is that which has arisen as a result of the extension of the traditional high-school course to include the first two years of college work. This institution has been designated throughout this report as a public junior college.
In its typical form it consists merely of the first half of the standard college course offered in the high-school building and taught for the most part by high-school teachers. In contrast with the private junior college, discussed in the following section, it is distinctly a