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tion of the psychologist until they pass into their chosen vocation Facilities have been instituted in Charlottenburg to enable gifte pupils to advance more rapidly in the elementary schools and com plete the work of a middle school. At Frankfort gifted pupils, o leaving the elementary schools, may be prepared in one year to ente Untersekunda of an Oberrealschule, and in four years to attain th Reifezeugnis. The Mannheim system is already well known in thi country.” The experiment is thus confined to the larger towns, and complaint: are already heard that the state should take over the further develop. ment of such plans to bring them within the reach of all. In the meantime critics even of this precipitate of the more ambitious and more democratic movement for the Einheitsschule are not wanting. There are those who express concern lest the gifted pupils become spoilt and conceited; that selection in itself would set up class distinctions; that school ability is not necessarily a guarantee of ability in after life; that pupils should not be selected on the basis of school marks, but on the basis of character, pronounced bent, and moral force. Further, the plans involve the danger of robbing the lower classes of their intelligent members, of depriving industry of its abler workmen, and of overcrowding academic and professional careers. Finally, faute de mieuw, psychological tests are not yet sufficiently developed to serve as a basis of sound and scientific diagnosis, and are inadequate until they have found a more extensive place in the schools. It is clear that the mind of the German reactionary follows the same kind of logic in domestic as in foreign affairs.

SECONDARY EDUCATION.” w The movement for the common school, in some of its aspects, involved the reconstruction of the secondary school or at least the organization of a new type based entirely on a purely nationalistic foundation and open to all without distinction. This agitation was reenforced from another direction. The successes at the front were felt to be due to the excellent technical preparation given in some schools and the continued collaboration of the leaders in the field of the applied sciences. At the same time the megalomania of the early period manifested itself not merely in a feeling of physical superiority but in a sense of moral and intellectual self-sufficiency that needed no reenforcement from external sources. There was still a third point from which the traditional curricula were sub

1 Seo Auxiliary Schools of Germany. United States Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1907,

No. 3. * See especially Friedel, W. H. The German School as a War Nursery. London, 1918.

This is a translation of a French work carefully analyzing German thought on education as it appeared in the daily press.

jocted to criticism—their failure to give a real preparation for the needs of modern life. The classical gymnasium in particular was attacked as an anachronism to be swept away as soon as possible and to be replaced by a genuine German nationalistic school adapted to the needs of to-day. To devote time to subjects that do not “function ” or pay is a gross mistake. The schools should teach things and not words, realities and not tradition. Business men, practical politicians, and nationalistic educators found themselves united in a tampaign to secure a school that would bring up German citizens in a pure German way and that would make the German civic spirit the

core of the curriculum.

The charge is made that the so-called reforms resulting from the Emperor's conferences in 1890 and 1900 did not result in a modifiation of the gymnasium, where Latin and Greek still form the core of the curriculum with an emphasis on the grammatical and philological elements. The pseudo-humanistic ideal of teaching nothing that is directly useful for life still animates such schools, which continue as ever to be the homes of conservatism. “Deutschtum,” Ger

man Kultur, must be the center around which secondary school studies

should revolve. The classics may have been the roots of German Kultur, but Germany now possesses the fruit and flower in her own culture and that alone. So far as antiquities are concerned, a knowledge of them can in these days be readily obtained through photographs, reproductions and models, and translations without the

waste of time involved in studying grammar and rules. As for the

disciplinary value of such studies, much better results can be obtained from mathematics. The same attitude was manifested on the question of the study of modern foreign languages, although the material loss that might be involved in their total abandonment made the discussion of the subject a little more wary. It was argued that, since the enemy had evidently not taken the trouble to understand Germany, it was waste of time for Germans to attempt to study their languages. Statistically it was proved that next to the English language German was the vernacular of the world and after the war English would inevitably be ousted. It was even proposed, and a motion to this effect

in the Prussian Upper House met with the support of all the uni-.

Versity representatives, that the languages of Germany's eastern allies should be introduced into the schools. Flemish was added to the list subsequently. The more cautious were not so ready to see English and French ousted, and, while admitting that Germany could gain nothing culturally from the enemy languages, suggested that commercially it might still be found profitable to retain English and add Russian and Spanish as the languages necessary for Germany's future commercial development. The one aim of the schools to-day

should not be formal training but an education for life founded in moral idealism; there must be, as the Emperor had urged in 1890 and 1900, “a more decided nationalization of secondary education” to develop citizens of a German state. The blatancy of these claims was not allowed to pass unchallenged. The advocates of the classics protested strongly. Did the opponents wish to make Americans of the youth of the country “to dry up their dreams, and to turn boys of 15 into makers of machinery, into dentists, or into surgeons”? The German moral and intellectual forces of which all were proud were founded, it was claimed, on the ancient cultures. The particular character of German culture was derived from the cult of the classics. One secondary schoolmaster sums up the arguments of the classicists in the statement that “Three persons have become one in us, the Greek, the Christian, and the German "-hence each must have its place in the development of youth. Nor were there lacking students of modern foreign languages to insist on their retention, but even here it was suggested that such languages and literatures be studied only in so far as they can contribute toward a clearer comprehension of German national culture. The attitude of the ministry of education on this subject is indicated in an instruction of March 20, 1915, which permitted the employment in secondary schools of Germans expelled from France and England to teach the languages of thcse countries, even if they did not possess the prescribed qualifications or previous teaching experience. It is obvious that no matter what the opinion on any subject might be, all who entered into the discussion of educational values were unanimous in accepting the nationalistic aim. This aim was stimulated by the Government in various ways, direct and indirect. Teachers were urged immediately on the outbreak of the war to turn the attention of their students to the study of the war events and patriotic endeavor. The ministry of war with the support of the ministry of education and other ministries interested in education urged the organization in schools and elsewhere of battalions and companies of boys of 15 or 16 (Jugendeompagnien, Jungmannen, Jungmannschaften) for physical training and instruction as a preparation ... for military training. Militarism in these organizations was at first disavowed, but it began progressively to enter and by 1917 no secret was made of their primary purpose." The direct method for the inculcation of patriotism, national pride, and devotion to the dynasty was adopted by the ministry of education when on September 2, 1915, it issued its “New Organization of the History Syllabus in Higher Schools of Prussia.” It appeared that the history syllabus for the secondary schools had grown too cumbersome, so that it was impossible to handle it satisfactorily in the present overcrowded condition of the curriculum. “Since it is just the period from 1861 to the present that for us Prussians and Germans surpasses in importance everything else that has happened in the history of the world, the earlier periods must be treated much more briefly and comprehensively, so that the history of the past 50 years can be dealt with in detail.” Under existing arrangements the modern period is not taken up until Untersekunda. The new regulations require Prussian-German history to be begun in Sexta and continued concentrically so that pupils will acquire a mastery of national history. The emphasis throughout it is urged should be on the outstanding character of the Hohenzollerns, more especially from the time of the Great Elector down to the present. Ancient and medieval history are retained but teachers are advised to dwell only on those movements whose influence has been more or less continuous. Briefly, analyzed the suggested syllabus is as follows:

1 See Friedel, op. cit., Chap. II.


Sexta—Stories from recent history. Quinta—Outline of Prussian-German history. Quarta—Ancient and medieval history to about 476 A. D. Untertertia—History of Germany in Middle Ages to the middle of the seventeenth century. Obertertia—Amplifications of the outline given in Quinta at least to 1870 or even the present day. Untersekunda—Review ancient history, begin Germany history, if not already begun in the previous class, and deal in detail with selected parts since 1870. Obersekunda—Close the ancient period and go on to the thirteenth century. Unterprima—German history up to Frederick the Great. Prima—German history from 1786 to the present.

Some flexibility was permitted to the teachers in the organization of the work. The experiment was to be inaugurated at Easter, 1916. By a prophetic anticipation the reports on this experiment in molding patriots to Hohenzollern standard were to be made in October, 1918.


The system of training of teachers for secondary schools has been somewhat modified by new regulations issued in June, 1917. The rules for the admission of candidates remain unchanged. At the close of the necessary period of university study of four years candidates are required to undergo a general examination (Wissenschaftliche Prüfung). This examination is conducted by a special board (Wissenschaftliches Prüfungsamt), which includes university instructors and schoolmen. The paper in general knowledge is abolished, but every candidate is examined in philosophy with special reference to education, including psychology, logic, and ethics related in particular to child life. I'amiliarity must be shown with the works of the leading writers in the special branch of philosophy bearing on education and with its place in the history of philosophy.

This general examination is followed by examinations in the special fields selected by the candidate from the following subjects: Christian theology, German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew (only as a minor), French, English, history, geography, mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, and zoology. Of these subjects two, instead of one as hitherto, must be taken as majors and one as a minor. An innovation is the addition of a large number of supplementary subjects that may be substituted for the minor. These include philosophical propaedeutics, pedagogy, applied mathematics, mineralogy and geology, classical archaeology, history of art in the Middle Ages and modern times, comparative languages, Polish, Danish, Russian, Spanish, Italian, Turkish, drawing, singing, and gymnastics. Candidates who pass the requirements in this qualifying examination must undergo two years of practical training. Six to eight probationers are sent to a selected school for one year at a time, so that at the end of the period each candidate becomes thoroughly familiar with two schools. During each of the two years regular sessions must be conducted for the study of education by the director of the school to which candidates are assigned. At least two hours a week must be given to history of education, principles of teaching, psychology, and ethics. ' The probationary period of two years is closed by a second examination, the pedagogical examination (Pādagogische Prüfung), conducted by a pedagogical examination board (Pädagogisches Prüfungsamt), which consists of a provincial school councillor, the director, and faculty of the schools in which the candidates have been trained. The subjects of the professional examination include the history of education and principles of teaching. It is claimed that the new regulations represent an advance in separating the professional from the general examination. The regulations are based on the view that a true insight can best be obtained into the problems, principles, and philosophy of education during the two years of practice. It is objected, however, that an intellectual appreciation of the problems involved could be better imparted in university courses, and the theory can then be subjected to the criticism of practice. The regulations, since they do not require attendance at lectures on education at the university as they do in the case of general subjects, depreciate the place of education as a science and deal a blow at the development of the subject in the universities. The new system, which came into force on April 1, 1918, involves the danger of reducing education and teaching to the level of a handicraft. It is suggested by critics that candidates sliould as a condition of admission to the examination be required to

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