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65. Though lampoons do not relieve a man of his money, they lacerate his soul.

66. He soon acquired the custom of using tobacco. 67. In spite of all their threats he remained perfectly dumb. 68. We had a delightful dinner yesterday. 69. It is not difficult to discriminate between orange and green.

I am prepared to give my evidence on the case. 71. “We are,” said the preacher, “incessantly reminding people of their sins."

72. The public will heartily indorse the sentiments uttered by the court.

73. The state was, as the century crept on, invaded by bands of courageous settlers.

74. In spite of their universal determination, midnight arrived without anything decided.

75. His friends pardoned him for the injury he had done them. 76. There was a general outcry of surprise. 77. They assumed a seat at the banquet.

78. The island was then frequented by no travellers and few visitants of any kind.

79. He led us into a room lighted up with abundance of candles.

80. He read the recital of that dreadful accident. 81. He acts like a downright dude,

82. One would have thought by their acts that they had just blown in from the country.

83. Obstacles are overcome by diligence.
84. He was notorious for his charity.
85. Believe me, Yours respectively.

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The formation of sentences will be considered under four heads : 1. Clearness, 2. Strength, 3. Unity, 4. Elegance.

I. CLEARNESS. Clearness requires a sentence to be so constructed that the meaning is easily and readily apparent to the reader. When the meaning is not clear, the sentence is said to be obscure; and when there is an uncertainty as to which of two different meanings the author intends to convey, the sentence is said to be ambiguous.

How promoted. - Clearness is a relative term. What is clear to one person may be obscure to another. A writer's aim should be to make his meaning easily intelligible to persons who understand the language. Clearness is promoted by attending to the following points: The Words, Arrangement, Pronouns, Emphatic Words, Same Construction, Ellipses, Length of Sentences.


If we wish to make our meaning clear, we must use such words as are understood by the persons addressed. Discourse is sometimes rendered partially or wholly obscure through an excessive use of long, unfamiliar words. In dealing with abstract subjects, and in unfolding the principles of the various sciences, difficult, technical language is often necessary and proper ; but in treating of subjects, such as are dealt with in ordinary narration or description, short, simple, familiar words should as far as possible be used.

ARRANGEMENT. Qualifying words, phrases, and clauses should be placed so near the words they modify, that there can be no mistaking the connection intended.

1. An adverb should stand close to the word, phrase, or clause, that it modifies; as, “ The general nearly lost a thousand of his

Here "nearly” is placed so as to qualify“ lost," though it was probably intended to qualify “a thousand."

2. Adverbial phrases and clauses must, likewise, be placed near the words they qualify. Thus, "The eagle saw the lamb while flying." Here “ flying" seems to qualify “ lamb,” but it was no doubt intended to qualify “ eagle”; so the sentence should read, “The eagle while flying saw the lamb.”

3. Participial Clauses. — In placing participial clauses, care must be taken not to leave it ambiguous to which of two nouns the participle and its qualifying words belong. Thus," I saw my friend by mere accident when I was in the city at the fair, walking down the main street.” Arrange : “When I was in the city at the fair, I, by mere accident, saw my friend walking down the main street."

When using, instead of adverbial phrases, participles implying “while," " when,” “though,” “ that,” or “if,” make it clear, by the context, or by the arrangement, which conjunction is implied. If this cannot be done, turn the phrase into a relative pronoun and finite verb; as, “Deafened by the sound, he went away.” This sentence, as it stands, is open to different meanings, and unless the context makes clear which meaning is intended, the conjunction should be inserted. Thus, it may read, “ because,” “since," "as,” “though,” “when," "he was deafened by the sound, he went away.”

“Men, following after shadows, are sure to be deceived." This may mean, “Men that,” etc.; or “When men,” etc.

“Seeing his danger, he withdrew." In a sentence like this, the ambiguity may be removed by inserting a preposition; as, “On seeing," etc.

4. Clauses. — Dependent clauses should be so arranged as to keep them distinct from each other and from independent clauses; as,

“He stated that he wished to be present, and intended to speak on the question." To make the intended arrangement clear, that should be inserted before intended.

5. Misleading Arrangement. Sometimes sentences are so arranged that the reader is led to suppose that a certain meaning is intended, but as he proceeds he finds that something very different is the sense conveyed; as, “The Rev. J. Jones is the only gentleman travelling authorized to collect subscriptions for this paper."

6. Words that have a number of meanings must be placed so that there can be no mistaking which sense is intended; thus, “The general had some fast friends in the city." “ Fast" is ambiguous; say, "firm,” or “dissolute."



DIRECTION. — Study these sentences till you understand them, and then write out the meaning in simpler words.

1. That conflagration consumed numerous edifices.

2. That audacious individual continued an incessant disturbance, terminating only with the termination of the lecture.

3. The lunar effulgence shed a luminous radiance over our pathway.

4. He expired amid circumstances of the most direful indigence.

5. Here we discovered a spacious cavern which afforded us adequate protection from the inclemencies of the elements.

6. He gently insinuated the incapacity of the entire assemblage.

7. I remember a similar objection being made to a company of sable functionaries.

8. Her maternal relative had been snatched away by the relentless hand of Death.

9. Nor is it improbable that the teeming future may usher in existence men whose resplendent genius will entitle them to take rank with the immortals of extinct civilizations.

10. An inventive genius who was a profound searcher of nature and a sagacious scholar, founded the immortal system of Homeopathy.

II. A youthful personage was declared culpable and was sen. tenced to be chastised.

12. He was not prepared to confront parental displeasure under the stigma of dereliction.

13. The benignant pedagogue arranged matters satisfactorily by administering a sound castigation.

14. I bore the diminution of my riches without any outrages of sorrow or pusillanimity of dejection.

15. Dialect has become the appellation for the centrifugal tendencies of languages, whether originating in individuals, in families, or provinces, as opposed to the centripetal power of analogy, represented by the sway which majorities always exercise over minorities.



DIRECTION. — Arrange these sentences so as to make the intended meaning clear.

PART I. 1. Everybody thought that it was destined to be a great city twenty years ago.

2. The French, having nearly lost five thousand men, became discouraged.

3. Being the only boy, I was loved by both my parents, and almost allowed to do as I liked.

4. I am this year offering the public a large and well selected stock to select from at reduced prices.

5. Suppose an adult man could be suddenly placed in the world, as Adam is said to have been, and then left to do as best he might, in the full vigor of his faculties.

6. It was my father's custom to hear me repeat to him the lessons I was learning when I was a boy.

7. He is bound to execute any order you give. 8. He walked away very reluctantly acknowledging his fault. 9. I saw some boys going to school through the window.

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