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d. There lived Baron Landshort, the oracle of his table, the absolute monarch of his little territory, and happy above all things in the possession of superior wisdom.

e. His head was covered with a brown wig, faded and shrunk from time and use, a fringe of thin grizzled hair showing below it at the sides, and corresponding to his ragged whiskers.



Write a simple sentence having for subject (1) a noun (or an adjective, or adverb used as a noun), (2) a pronoun, (3) a verbal (infinitive or gerund), simple or phrasal.

5. Expand by one or more modifiers each of the subjects of the sentences required by the preceding question.

6. Write a number of simple sentences having each a complete verb for predicate.

7. Enlarge the predicate of each of the sentences of the preceding question by an adverb, an adverbial phrase, an indirect or adverbial object, or by a nominative absolute.

8. Write sentences with nouns or pronouns for subjects, then expand the subject of each by an adjective, adjective pronoun, numeral adjective, an adjectival case or phrase, a verbal adjective, or a participial phrase.

9. Write a simple sentence with a copula completed by (1) an adjective of each of the various classes, (2) by a substantival of each kind, (3) by each of the different kinds of adverbial complements.

10. Write simple sentences whose predicates are incomplete verbs, completed as in the last question.

II. Expand each of the complements of the predicates required in the last question by one or more modifiers.



A complex sentence consists of a principal statement with which is combined one or more subordinate statements. It is a simple sentence in which the modifying words or phrases are developed into clauses.

The modifying clauses are of three kinds: (1) substantive, (2) adjectival, (3) adverbial.

1. A substantive clause has the value of a noun and therefore may be :

a. The subject of a verb; as, "That one should be shut out from all society, is unendurable."

b. The object of a verb; as, "I know not what can be done." c. The object of a preposition; as, "I will give the estate to whoever may deserve it."



d. The complement of a verb; as, "The objection is, that people are not disposed to lay this truth to heart."

e. An appositive modifier; as, "Many people are of opinion that whatever is, is best."

f. In the adverbial objective relation; as, "We investigate till we are positive only that we are positive of nothing."

A substantive clause may be inserted directly, or introduced by a word of adverbial or conjunctive power. See above.

2. An adjective clause has the value of an attributive or appositive adjective; hence it is always attached to a substantive.

An adjective clause may be attached to the words it modifies

(1) A relative pronoun; as, "Fortunate is he who finds so merciful a judge."

(2) A relative adverb; as, "It was the day when we last met." (3) A word having the value of a relative pronoun; as, "Such books as I have "; “Not a man but thinks so.”

The connecting word may be omitted; as, "They roused me at the hour (at which) I desired to be called."

The antecedent and the connecting relative may be contained in the same word; as, “The actual fact differed materially from what was first reported."

3. An adverbial clause has the value of an adverb and, consequently, qualifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

An adverbial clause may be connected with the word it modifies by:


(1) A subordinate conjunction of time, place, cause, manner, etc. Thus: "As he wended his way back, every sound fluttered his imagination"; "Water goes on contracting till it reaches 39° Fahrenheit"; "War is an evil because it produces human misery."

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(2) By words ordinarily used as relative pronouns. Thus: "The man had no covering on his head which (though it) was defended by his own thick hair."

Each subordinate clause may be modified as if it were a principal clause.

By the omission of easily supplied words a complex sentence is often made to resemble a simple sentence; as, "The supper was twice as good as the dinner" (was good).

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1. Analyze the following complex sentences into simple sen


a. We know that this is sometimes a hard lesson.

b. I shall only add that when I awoke I was sorry because I found that my golden scales had vanished.

c. Though the copying of this piece of music was strictly forbidden, yet Mozart, who was then but fourteen years old, determined that he would make himself master of it.

d. It is probable that when this work was begun, which must

have been many hundred years ago, this people had some religion; for they give it the name of a temple, and they have a tradition that it was designed for men to pay their devotions in.

2. Combine the following simple sentences into complex sen


a. The blossom perishes. recollection causes a pang. she would not forget it.

b. Shakespeare is buried. He is buried in the church. He is buried in its chancel. It is a large pile. It is a venerable pile. It is mouldering with age. It is richly ornamented.

The infant perished similarly. The It causes a pang to the mother. Still

c. The "Vicar of Wakefield" is captivating. The bookseller did not appreciate it. He kept it by him two years. He then published it. It has since attained popularity. It has attained this in several languages. It retains that popularity.

3. Compose a complex sentence in which the predicate (1) is modified by an adverbial clause of (a) time, (b) place, (c) degree, (d) manner, (e) cause; (2) is completed by a noun clause.

4. Compose a complex sentence in which a noun clause (1) is subject, (2) is an appositive modifier, (3) is the object of a preposition, (4) completes the predicate, (5) forms the object of the predicate verb, (6) is in the objective adverbial relation.

5. Compose a complex sentence in which the subject is limited by an adjective clause introduced (1) by a relative pronoun, (2) by a relative adverb, (3) by as, (4) by but.

6. Compose a complex sentence in which the object is modified as is the subject of the sentence required in 5.

7. Compose a complex sentence in which the adverbial clause is introduced (1) by a subordinate conjunction (a) of time, (b) of place, (c) of cause, (d) of manner; (2) by (a) who, (b) which.



A compound sentence consists of two or more independent


1. The relation existing between the clauses of compound sentences is usually expressed by co-ordinate conjunctions. Thus :a. In cumulative, by and, also, likewise, moreover, etc.

b. In adversative, by but, yet, or, nor, nevertheless, otherwise, etc. c. In illative, by therefore, hence, for, so, thus, then, etc.

2. Sometimes the relation between the parts of a compound sentence is disguised by the connective, so that the sentence appears to be complex; as, “He had a ready command over his countenance, which (and. . . it) he could contract at pleasure into solemnity."

3. Occasionally the connective is omitted; as, "Goldsmith tells you shortly all you want to know; Robertson detains you a great deal too long."

4. The members of a compound sentence may be all simple; one or all of them may be complex, or even compound. When one or both are complex, the whole sentence is called Compound Complex.

5. One of the members of a compound sentence may be abbreviated by the omission of words easily supplied; as, "Now inspiration seemed to be at an end, and the poetic fire extinguished."

6. A compound sentence may be abbreviated by the use of a compound subject or of a compound predicate or of both; as, "Men and money are asked for (and obtained)"; "He reads and writes." One so abbreviated is called a Contracted Compound Sentence.



1. Complete the following sentences by the addition of another clause :

a. Time passes away and . .


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