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10. Classify all the epic poems you have read. 11. How does dramatic poetry differ from epic?
12. State the prominent features of each kind of dramatic poetry.
13. Point out clearly the distinction between the tragedy and the comedy.
14. Classify all the dramas you have read, with reasons. 15. How does lyric poetry differ from dramatic and epic? 16. Describe each class of lyric poetry.
17. Make a line of the classes of lyric poetry, and write down under its proper class the name of each of the lyric poems you can recollect reading.
18. Describe didactic poetry.
19. What relation does satiric poetry bear to what you consider true poetry?
20. What is poetry?
23. How does the method of poetic description differ from that of prose?
24. Why does poetry choose the concrete and the particular?
25. What is meant by saying that “the language of poetry archaic”? Illustrate.
26. Illustrate what is meant by the music of poetry. 27. How is the use of figurative language in poetry limited ? 28. How do Songs differ from other lyric poetry? 29. Describe an Ode. 30. What arguments in favor of the existence of didactic poetry?
Versification is that part of Rhetoric which treats of versemaking. Its leading features may be studied under (1) Metre, (2) Rhyme, (3) Stanza.
METRE. Rhythm. — All well-written composition has a smooth and graceful flow known by the name of rhythm. Rhythm varies in prose from the quiet level, or harsh abruptness, in which the music of motion is scarcely perceptible, to a measured flow closely approaching the regularity of verse.
This rhythm arises from such a choice and arrangement of syllables as cause the voice to fall at intervals that tend to produce a pleasing and effective cadence. When these cadences occur at regular distances, we have metre; in fact, metre is rhythm reduced to regularity.
Accent. - From this it appears that metre is based on accent, which is a stress of the voice laid on a certain syllable or syllables of a word or of a collection of words. When it falls on one of the syllables of a word of two or more syllables it is called word accent, and when on a monosyllable it is called metrical accent. Example :
Avenger of his kinsman's death."
Here the accent on avenger and on kinsman's are of the former kind, while the accent on of and on death are of the latter. They have the same value in scansion.
Feet. The regular recurrence of the accent naturally divides the line into parts. These parts are called feet. A foot, therefore, consists of a combination of two or more syllables, one of which is accented.
we have v
The syllables comprised in a foot do not necessarily form a single word, but may be any parts. Thus:
“One cell | there is | concealed | from vul gar eye,
The cave of pov ertý | and poetry.” Kinds of Feet. — In prose two accented syllables may follow in succession; as, “ divine providence.” In poetry one or two unaccented syllables must intervene between the accents; except in the case of a substituted foot, or of pauses taking the place of the unaccented syllable or syllables; as, —
“A little angel unawares.” “ Her all had a meaning, her movements a grace.” This gives rise to two kinds of basal feet. But, as the unaccented syllable of syllables may come on either side of the accented one, four varieties of feet are produced. Thus, if denotes an accented syllable, and denotes an unaccented one,
or if the accented syllable comes first, we get
named as follows:
; as, mournfully.
Kinds of Verse. - Metre is doubly named: first, from the kind of foot; secondly, from the number of feet in the line. Thus : A line of one iambic foot is called iambic monometer. two feet
iambic trimeter. four
iambic tetrameter. five
iambic pentameter. six
iambic heptameter. The other three kinds are similarly named.
; as, beheld.
An iambic. pentameter is often called heroic measure, because it is used in heroic or epic poems.
An iambic hexameter is sometimes called an Alexandrine, because in the Middle Ages poems about Alexander the Great were written in this measure.
Other Feet. Other combinations of accented and unaccented syllables may be made, but they are unnecessary. One is named Amphibrach ; as, “receiving." Examples :
, Sweet dell.” Iambic dimeter :
«Ì feel like one
Who treads | alone." Iambic trimeter :
“The village smíthly stands.” Iambic tetrameter :
“Sow peace, | and reap | its harvest bright.” Iambic pentameter :
Know well | thyself ; | presume | not God to scan.” Iambic hexameter : “ The fróst | nipped sharp | without, I the can|ker preyed |
within." Iambic heptameter :“Yon is land strength is guard|ed well, I say, brothers,
will | you in?”
Trochaic monometer :
“ Sweetest.” Trochaic dimeter :
Rich the treasure,
Sweet the pleasure.” Trochaic trimeter :
“Go where | glory | waits thee.” Trochaic tetrameter :
In her ear he | whispers | gently.” Trochaic octometer :
And tře sisken, | sad, un certain | rustling | of each |
purple | curtain."
ANAPÆSTIC MEASURE. Anapæstic dimeter :
“There is smoke | in the flame.” Anapæstic trimeter :
“of the beautiful Annabel Lee.” Anapæstic tetrameter :
“Have waksened thy fond est thy loveliest thrill.”