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6. No. 5 may be worked in with No. 2.

7. No. 6 will have to be thrown out, as it does not bear directly on the theme. It may perhaps be used somewhere as an illustration.

From the complete frameworks returned the following is selected and given to the class to be written out.

Theme: Cheerfulness is Productive of Happiness.


I. INTRODUCTION : 1. An introductory sentence.

2. A fuller statement of the subject. II. DISCUSSION :

Reasons :

1. Cheerfulness fits us for the enjoyment of social life. 2. It tends to lighten the sorrows of life.

3. It promotes health. III. CONCLUSION : Let us endeavor to be cheerful.


Cheerfulness is Productive of Happiness.

Cheerfulness is like a sunny day, it sheds D A D its brightness on everything round about us.

No trait of character is more valuable or more is P

productive of happiness than cheerfulness. It W P

lightens our burdens, makes friends and pro

motes our health. Cn

Be cheerful, for it is the only way to live a P

happy life. Times may be bad but it will make D

them no easier to wear a gloomy and sad counD W

tenance. It is not the clouds, but sunshine that S

makes the flowers. We all have troubles and Trt

perhaps it is well that we should, for it gives us power and increases our courage if we cheer


No topic sentence.



fully grapple with every obstacle that may come in our way. It is a dull sea that makes unskilled sailors. It is therefore the duty of every man to extract all the happiness and enjoyment from life he can. To meet this end and purpose he must not go about hanging his head, but cultivate a warm and genial disposition.)

There are some men who are inclined to look always on the gloomy side of everything, searching all the troubles they can find, while on the other hand there are some natures so constituted that they can find good in everything. The latter considered in the relation to his fellow-men with whom he comes in daily contact, is productive of love and good will towards all. The man who is possessed of this excellent frame of mind is not only free and easy in his conversation and thought, but his imagination and judgment are always clear and undisturbed, causing every person to court his company. A cheerful man is not only disposed to be polite and obliging but it raises the same good humor in those who come under his influence; his companions feel drawn towards him they know not why. Like the soft rain gently penetrating the soil his influence finds its way to his associates.

Cheerfulness not only casts off gloom, but it helps to promote health. It is seldom found where there is not a certain degree of health, but very often it is found where there is not a great degree of health. There is no use of repining and mourning over our condition in time of afflictions, for if we give away to our feelings we encourage the malady, while



Complete the
Simile and Ex.


Trt in Expression.



Give both parts of the balance the same form.

if we brace up we banish all those discontented passions and soothe our spirits. Cheerfulness bears the same effect on the mind as to the body. If we have troubles or worries and continually harbor them in our mind, we cause our mental calibre to become languid and dull; so if we keep in mind our bodily afflictions we cause a jar to the delicate fibres of which our body is composed. On the contrary if we banish all thoughts of our ailments or troubles, we raise our spirits and promote our health.

Seeing that cheerfulness is productive of so much happiness, let us all endeavor, no matter how dark the gloom may be, to help at least to brighten it by our smiles and cheerfulness.


Cheerfulness is like a sunny day; it sheds brightness on everything around us. No trait of character is more valuable or more productive of happiness than is cheerfulness; it lightens our burdens, multiplies our friends, and promotes our health.

First, cheerfulness may do much to lighten our burdens and thereby make life happy. Times may be hard, but wearing a sad and gloomy countenance will make them no easier. It is not clouds, but sunshine that brings out the flowers. Sorrows will surely come, but, brightened by the hopeful views of a cheerful disposition, they appear less fearful and depressing. Cheerfulness makes the air seem more balmy, the sky clearer, and even the sunshine more beautiful ; while gloominess is a mildew that blights our talents, blasts our happiness, and beclouds our life.

Again, social intercourse is one of the chief sources of our earthly happiness; and nothing so well fits us for the enjoyment of that intercourse as cheerfulness. The possessor of this frame of

mind is not only free and easy in his conversation and manner, but has his imagination clear and his judgment undisturbed. He is disposed to be polite and obliging, and naturally awakens similar feelings in those with whom he comes in contact. As the soft rain, falling gently on the earth, penetrates the soil and endues all nature with freshness and beauty, so the influence of his genial disposition permeates all hearts and fills them with joy and gladness. In this atmosphere of happiness that he has created he breathes the sweetest joys of life.

Cheerfulness not only lightens the burdens of life and increases social pleasures, but it also promotes health. Cheerfulness affects beneficially not the mind alone, but likewise the body. If in ill-health, we give way to repining, we encourage the malady; while if we brace up, we banish our fretful passions and with them a large part of our trouble. If we continually worry over our sorrows, we cause our mental faculties to become dull and languid; so, if we keep in mind our bodily afflictions, we imperceptibly injure the delicate fibres of which our bodies are composed. On the contrary, if we banish all thoughts of our ailments, or troubles, we raise our spirits and promote our health.

Seeing, then, that cheerfulness is productive of so much happiness, let us all endeavor, no matter how dark the gloom may be, to help to brighten it by our smiles.



DIRECTION. — Make a framework on the following topics, as illustrated in the preceding Lesson; revise it; write out; revise your composition thoroughly; write in between the li es all the emendations you can; finally, rewrite the whole.

1. The benefits of gardening.
2. The use of the rain.
3. The pleasures of a well informed mind.
4. Why we should resist the beginnings of evil.

5. Why the wealthy are influential. 6. The advantages of shrewdness. 7. Why we should not kill little birds. 8. We should not waste time. 9. The schoolmaster's place in society. 10. It is more profitable to publish books than to write them.



As we

Prose embraces all kinds of composition not in verse. have already seen, the grand formal distinction between poetry and prose is metre. Metrical arrangement is effected largely by inversion of the natural or grammatical order of the words and other parts of the sentence. As inversion is the characteristic of poetic order, so directness is the chief feature of prose arrangement. Prose, however, is not confined to the strict grammatical order, but is allowed to deviate from it for the sake of clearness, force, or beauty.

Varieties. — The chief varieties of composition are, — Narration, Description, Exposition, Argumentation, Oratory, and Poetry.

NARRATION. Narration presents a succession of events in the order of time, or with special reference to time. The aim of the narrative writer should be to make the reader an eye-witness, as it were, of the events narrated.

Under Narration may be classed, - History, Annals, Chronicles, Memoirs, Biography, Diary, Travels, News, and Fiction.

Kinds of Narration. — 1. HISTORY, in its broadest acceptation, is a formal and connected account of the life of a nation. Every age has had its theory of what history should be. This has

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