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II. Between a word and its repetition; as, Sweet, sweet home.”
12. Between the parts of a transposed name; as, “ Thompson, Henry S.”
13. Before the explanatory or; as, “The skull, or cranium.”
14. Between words or phrases that express contrast; as, “Though deep, yet clear.”
15. To divide figures; as, 7,840,321.
16. To separate titles and degrees from proper names, also from each other; as, “ John Campbell, M.A., Ph.D.”
EXERCISE X. Tuesdiques
PUNCTUATION. DIRECTION. — Insert commas in the proper places, and give your reason in each case.
1. What then is your view of it?
4. All classes high and low rich and poor have the same opportunities.
5. To work is pleasant; to ride healthful.
6. There being no remedy he determined to endure his affliction.
7. Practically indeed the religious question hardly existed there. 8. Spring returning the swallows reappear.
9. Destiny which gives and takes away transfers fame from one to another.
10. When fell the night up sprung the breeze. II. To gratify his wish I was willing to do anything.
12. Our own heart not others' opinions forms our true honor.
13. It is an incessant act of creation ever advancing and ever developing
14. No man unless he is an absolute beggar should expect to receive an education for nothing any more than a loaf of bread.
15. Having frowned upon the abashed Bob the old gentleman began to read the letter.
16. What lay there was if I saw aright a wingless bird. 17. Come back come back Horatius.
18. Volcanoes throw out melted rock or lava ashes sand and dust.
19. Sugar also is found there as for example in the sugar-beet. 20. He could not only lead but mould an army.
21. It is easy Mrs. Dial for you who have always as every one knows set yourself above me to account for laziness.
22. The spirit and not the letter of the law should be followed.
23. He evinced astonishment at the eccentric not to say extraordinary behavior of his companions.
24. Yet a poet to be a poet must do something more.
25. The poet when he finds a truth not to his liking forthwith derides evades or perverts it.
The semi-colon is used :
1. To separate the members of a compound sentence less closely connected than those requiring a comma.
a. In contrasts ; as, “Flattery brings friends ; truth brings
foes." b. In enumerations, when the parts are particulars indicated,
or preceded by a colon; as, “The following articles were to be added to the free list : agricultural implements; bark for tanning purposes ; bath bricks; bricks for building; hay; lime ; malt; manufactures of iron and steel.”
c. When the parts are short, independent sentences, but
are written as a compound sentence to avoid abruptness ; as, “ Cæsar was dead; the soldiers were dis
persed; all Rome was in confusion.” 2. To separate such members of a sentence as are already subdivided by commas; as, “A man ought warily to begin changes, which once begun will continue ; but in matters that return not, he may be more magnificent."
3. When a sentence, complete in itself, is followed by a clause containing an inference, consequence, iteration, or enumeration; as, “Of what consequence are all the qualities of a doctrine, if that doctrine is not communicated; and communicated it is not, if it be not understood.”
4. Before as followed by an example. See illustrations in this Lesson.
THE COLON. The colon is used :
1. To indicate a greater break than that indicated by the semicolon. For example, parts that have the semi-colon are separated by a colon. See (1.6) above.
2. Before a sentence added as an explanation of a word or sentence; as, “ English Grammar : an exposition of the Principles and Usages of the English Language."
3. Before a direct quotation; as, “ Pope makes this remark : "There never was any party in which the most ignorant were not the most violent.'
When the quotation is short, a comma is used instead of a colon.
4. A colon may be used instead of a semi-colon when the connective is omitted.
5. A full stop or a dash is now often used where a colon would formerly have been placed. See Bacon's Essays.
i uendag criteri
DIRECTION. — Insert commas, semi-colons, and colons where they are re. quired. State your reason in each case. 1. Economy is no disgrace
it is better to live on a little than to outlive a great deal.
2. You have called yourself an atom in the universe, you have, said you are but an insect in the solar blaze; is your present pride consistent with these professions.
3. Mr. Gladstone says:“The older I grow the more confirmed I am in my faith in religion.”
4. Our strongest sentiments are enveloped in obscurity/modesty virtuous love sincere friendship have all their secrets which the world must not know.
5. The lake the bay the waterfall and then the spirit of them all.
6. Mercy is twice blessed it blesseth him that gives and him that takes.
7. Man counts his life by years the oak by centuries.
8. The artillery closes up the flanking fire from the guns opens upon the head of their column the column breaks the Duke seizes the moment and advances toward the ridge.
9. Provisions having failed the garrison was obliged to capitulate one of the terms being departure with military honors.
10. While I write the bell rings I wonder if it tells the correct time strange is it not if it does.
11. You may swell every expense still more extravagantly accumulate
every assistance you can beg or borrow traffic and barter with every prince that sends his subjects to the shambles of a foreign country your efforts are forever vain and impotent.
12. He always observed the metrical form which is of itself of the nature of poetry he also used the choicest of ordinary words for the expression of fact very often he did more.
13. Poetic truth is a misnomer it is a play upon words.
14. He had brought all but one and that one was very heavy had he had more time he could have brought it also.
15. The Lord is my shepherd I shall not want.
16. The outline of the story was A slave determined to avenge his own wrongs by inflicting terror upon the town.
17. The first great lesson a young man should learn is that he knows nothing and the earlier and more thoroughly this lesson is learned the better.
18. Reading makes a full man conference a ready man and writing an exact man.
19. If the ship strikes upon Scylla it is dashed in pieces upon the rocks if upon Charybdis it is swallowed outright.
20. The proposed treaty suggested (1) that the duration of the treaty should be twenty-one years (2) that all the conditions of the old treaty of 1854 should be renewed.
21. For Addison three defences may be set up (1) his satire arouses no bitterness (2) it is never personal (3) it is always employed on the side of virtue.
The dash is used :
1. To indicate a pause made for rhetorical effect; as, “I have - only poverty and rags."
2. To mark suppressed feeling or an unexpected turn in the sentiment; as, “He had no malice on his mind no ruffles on his shirt."
3. Instead of parentheses or commas, especially when the parenthetical clause is abrupt or unexpected; as, “I believe - at least I know that he was not rich.”