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SECOND PARAGRAPH.

Cap

Farming is An Important Industry.

Farming is an important industry not only Il W

to the farmer, but to the whole community. W P

The farmer not only works for himself as some D

stingy men do who despise the farmer, but he Cn

works for the benefit of others. It has been D PD well said that the farmer is a slave and also a W

patriot to his country. The farmer is the chief W PD member of business and as the mainspring of W Cap a watch keeps the other members in motion P

so the farmer by his incessant toil keeps the W Il

business world in motion. Thus we see, if it Gr P

was not for the farmer the world would soon W

be in a sad condition. The following are two of those returned.

FIRST PARAGRAPH REWRITTEN.

Farming is an Important Industry. Farming is one of the chief industries in the world. It furnishes employment for laboring men. It increases the commerce, the wealth, and the power of a country. For example, the shipping trade exists chiefly to carry produce from one country to another. By it, food and other necessaries of life are supplied. If it were not for the farmer how would the city people live? Since farming is so important, it should receive every encourageinent from the State.

SECOND PARAGRAPH REWRITTEN.

Farming is an Important Industry. Farming is an important industry not only to the farmer, but to the entire community. The farmer works both for himself and for others. His is the foundation of almost every other industry.

As the mainspring of a watch keeps the other parts in motion, so the farmer by his incessant toil keeps the business world moving. Indeed, it has been well said, “The farmer is a slave and a patriot to his country.” So we see, if it were not for the farmer, all other industries would soon come to a stand-still.

SECOND EXAMPLE.

The ques

In this instance the theme, “Why is Labor Necessary?” is given to the class with the same general instructions. tion, What shall form the subordinate heads of the paragraph? is then discussed. It is asked, Why is labor necessary? Various answers are given. These are all written down, and from among them the following are selected as subordinate heads :

1. In order to obtain a living.
2. For the promotion of health.
3. To bring forth the fruits of the earth.

4. To develop manufactures and arts. Of the paragraphs written, one is here selected. It is marked as in the margin, and returned to be rewritten. Below are the original and the improved copy.

ORIGINAL PARAGRAPH.

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St

Why Labor is Necessary.

There are many reasons why every one must P

do a certain amount of labor. In the first С

place there are a great many people who could Trt

not obtain a livelihood were it not for the work DP W Gr we do, and to these idleness would mean povSt P

erty and perhaps starvation. In the next place

P Ind it is essential to good health and happiness, Happiness is de for the most miserable persons are generally pendent on health.

found to be those who are most inclined to “ For," etc., is not

D laziness. Besides this, much labor must be precedes.

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performed before the earth gives forth her

Too formal

a reason for what

“for,” etc., not a reason. increase, for manufactures and agriculture canAlready included S not be carried on without the constant employP

ment of large numbers of men. Thus it would Make both parts W

be impossible to live were it not for the labor

of some, and impossible to enjoy life unless we W S Inc ourselves do a certain amount of work.

of same cstr.

REWRITTEN.

Why Labor is Necessary. There are various reasons why every one must labor. In the first place, most people are dependent on their own exertions for a livelihood; to them idleness means poverty, and perhaps starvation. Further, our bodies are so formed that they cannot be vigorous unless employed in labor, either voluntary or enforced. Labor is, therefore, essential to health, the great source of happiness; indeed, the idle are the most miserable, both in body and in mind. Besides, much labor must be performed before the earth will yield her increase ; nor can manufactures, or, in short, any industry be carried on without the continued toil of large numbers of men. Thus, it would be impossible to live without the labor of the many, and equally impossible to enjoy life without doing some kind of work.

EXERCISE XC.

WRITING PARAGRAPHS.

DIRECTION. — Note the directions given in the preceding Lesson, and then write a paragraph on each of the following subjects. Lay your exercise aside, and the next day criticise it closely under Diction, Formation of Sentences, Construction of Paragraphs. After this is done, write it over, inserting your emendations.

1. Pleasures of Spring.
2. The Evil of War.
3. Unity is Strength.
4. The Importance of the Period of Youth.

5. The Difference between Labor and Exercise.
6. We need Rest.
7. The Benefit of Adversity.
8. Flattery is Agreeable.
9. Money is a good Friend.
10. Virtue is its own Reward.
II. All the World is a Prison.
12. Silence is Golden.
13. Time is Money.
14. The study of English.
15. Character is the Valuable Possession.

LESSON XLV.

PRACTICE IN COMPOSITION. – A THEME.

Having in the preceding Lesson obtained an idea of how to construct a paragraph, we may now attempt a complete theme, or collection of paragraphs. In doing so, we follow a class through this greater effort. The subject chosen is “ Cheerfulness is productive of Happiness." To assist in making the framework, the following suggestions are made:

1. The essay, like the paragraphs already written, consists of three parts : Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion.

2. The first and last part may be one short paragraph each, the second may consist of several paragraphs.

3. The Introduction and Conclusion may be written as suggested in Lesson XL.

4. The proposition is submitted to be established by reasons. We must, therefore, search for such as will support the statement. The chief question to keep before the mind is, How?

5. To find reasons, turn the subject over and over in your mind, asking yourself, “How is cheerfulness conducive to happiness?"

Read anything you can find that in any way bears

upon the subject. Note down any thoughts as soon as you get them.

6. After the thoughts are noted down, select such as you think suitable, and arrange them in order.

The following is one of the frameworks brought in.

Theme: Cheerfulness is Productive of Happiness.

FRAMEWORK. 1. INTRODUCTION : The general statement. 11. DISCUSSION : —

Reasons :

1. A cheerful man expects to find others cheerful.
2. The heart becomes light.
3. It fits one for social life.
4. It tends to make others happy.
5. Sorrow is banished.
6. Thought of slights or insults in mere jokes is ex-

pelled.

III. CONCLUSION: Let us endeavor to be cheerful.

This framework is placed on the blackboard and carefully examined with the assistance of the class. It is then given to the class to study and bring back improved.

Below are the suggestions for improvement.

1. Divide the Introduction into two parts, an introductory sentence and a fuller statement of the theme.

2. Reason No. 1. “What a man expects to find” is not a reason why “Cheerfulness is productive of happiness.”

3. No. 2. This, although poorly expressed, is a good reason.

4. No. 3. As the pleasures of social life are among the chief scurces of our happiness, whatever fits us for that life, enhances our happiness. Express this reason " better.

. 5. No. 4 might be used in showing how cheerfulness indirectly contributes to happiness.

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