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DIRECTION. — Name the figure or figures in each of the following sentences, and then express the meaning in plain language. Also point out and correct any errors in the use or form of the figures.

1. The heavens are veined with fire.
2. She was the favorite lamb of the teacher's flock.
3. The Lord is my rock and my

4. Man is the creature of a day.
5. Nothing succeeds like success.
6. Rules are of no use till they are of no use.

7. He could scarcely earn enough to keep body and soul together.

8. She thought of her child as a flower of the field cut down and withered in the midst of its sweetness.

9. They died amid their country's shouts of victory.

10. The old man leaned his silver head against the breast of youth.

II. My beloved would shame the full moon and cause the evening star to hide its face.

12. The keen morning air bites our face and hands. 13. A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun. 14. The mountains and the valleys their joyous voices raise. 15. The sun smiled far over the summer sea.

16. In peace there's nothing so becomes a man as mild behavior and humility ; but when the blast of war blows, let us be tigers in our fierce deportment.

17. Fair laughs the morn and soft the zephyr blows.
18. His feet are nearing the grave.
19. I saw their thousand years of snow.

20. He knocks down a dinner with his gun twice or thrice a week.

21. Age shakes Athena's tower, but spares gray Marathon.

22. Solitude sometimes is best society.

23. There is a tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.

24. A friend cannot be known in prosperity, and an enemy cannot be hidden in adversity.

25. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation.

26. 'Twould scald my tongue to spit out your hated name. 27.

Your absence of mind we have borne, till your presence of body came to be called in question by it.

28. I shall watch your pen to see if it is consecrated to the state. 29. The legendary age is a past that was never present.

30. I love a cup of hot wine with not a drop of allaying Tiber in it.

31. This noble passion, child of integrity, hath from my soul wiped the black scruples.

32. I think our country sinks beneath the yoke. 33. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.

34. He remained too long under the influence of the views which he had imbibed from the board.

35. An upright minister asks what recommends a man; a corrupt minister, who.

36. This prior, they say, loves the wine-cup and the buglehorn better than bell and book.

37. What saw the winter moon that night as its beams struggled through the rain ?

38. Till Love and Joy look round and call the earth their own.

39. I am a young man with a very old pension; he is an old man with a very young pension : that is all.

40. A yell that rent the firmament from all the town arose. 41. That heart never melted at the concourse of sweet sounds. 42. The credulous multitude consisted of women of both sexes.

43. If you can get along with people who carry a certificate in their faces that their goodness is so great as to make them miserable, your children cannot.

44. The world is the chess-board, the pieces are the phenomena of the Universe, the rules of the game are the laws of nature.

45. Love though deep as the sea will wither as a rose.

46. His cup had been quaffed too quickly, and the dregs were wormwood.

47. The Countess of Darlington was a cataract of tallow, with eyebrows like a cart-wheel, and dim, coaly disks for eyes.

48. Choose and eat; there is life in the one and death in the other.

49. He drank his house and lot, and now his wife and children are on the street.

50. France was torn by internal strife.
51. Words were given us to conceal our thoughts.

52. Thus the successors of the old Cavaliers had turned demagogues; the successors of the old Roundheads had turned courtiers.

53. An ass covered with gold has more respect than a horse with a pack saddle.

54. God made man in his own image ; but the public is made by newspapers.

55. The spring sun was setting, and it flung a crimson flush over the blue waters and white houses.

56. Youth is a blunder, manhood a struggle, old age a regret.

57. Her gay spirits might revolt at the dark downward path of low humility suddenly pointed out before her, and might cling to the sunny regions in which they had hitherto revelled.

58. On a summer's day might be heard the appalling sound of the birch, as the master urged some tardy loiterer along the flowery path of knowledge.

59. Compared with her friend she is a rushlight to the waning star a glowworm to Antares.

60. These boys will grow to be men, and will drag the heavy artillery along the dusty roads of life.

61. He knew not that a phantom of Wealth had thrown a golden hue upon

its waters, nor that Love had sighed softly to their murmur, nor that Death had threatened to crimson then with blood.

62. Round thee the sea flings her steel-bright armor and shields thee from the guile and hurt of thy foes.

63. The quick eye of Clive soon perceived that the head of the young volunteer would be more useful than his arm.

64. That means the removal of hindrances and the surmounting of obstacles broad as continents, high as the Himalayas.

65. It is not the crozier spear, but the sceptre.

66. Another morning came, and there they sat ankle-deep in cards.

67. His purse was ever an assistance to the men of letters.

68. As the tall corn bends beneath the sweeping hurricane, wave succeeding wave, so did the steel-clad squadrons of the enemy before the victorious torrent of the dashing cavalry.

69. Can any one study Shakespeare without reaping benefit?

70. Their souls rose on the ardor of prayer like Elijah ascending to heaven.

71. Smiles are the channels of future tears. 72. The life of man is the path of an arrow, which immediately

closes up.

73. The soft snow came; it seemed as if nature had let fall its handkerchief to hide the earth.

74. Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry.

75. We may be sure that confidence sat undisturbed upon his brow.

76. In the best of Whittier's poems the pulse of human sympathy beats more strongly than in any of Longfellow's songs.

77. If I could shake off but one seven years from these old arms and legs, I would go with thee every foot.

78. His heart's his mouth : what his breast forges, that his tongue must vent.

79. Time writes no wrinkles on thine azure brow.



The properties of Style studied in preceding Lessons are called Elements of Style, because they belong pre-eminently to Words, Sentences, and Paragraphs, which are the mechanical elements of language. Besides these, Style possesses other subtler properties, known as the Qualities of Style. Among these qualities may be mentioned Perspicuity, Picturesqueness, Force, Pathos, The Ludicrous, Melody, Harmony, Taste, and Beauty.

These qualities may, with some correctness, be classified as follows:

1. Intellectual : Perspicuity and Picturesqueness ;
2. Emotional: Force, Pathos, The Ludicrous ;
3. Æsthetic: Melody, Harmony, Taste, Beauty.

Perspicuity is the quality of being easily understood. It applies to the general form of expression, to the way in which the thoughts are presented. Either simple or abstruse thoughts may be placed clearly before the reader; yet abstruse thoughts may still be difficult to apprehend, although clearly expressed ; and simple thoughts may be so expressed as to appear confused or ambiguous.

Perspicuity may be gained by — I Simplicity, a. In diction, (a) Familiar words convey ideas more clearly than do

those that are seldom heard. (6) Concrete terms call up more definite ideas than do

abstract. (c) Particular terms, likewise, are always more striking

than general. b. In structure, (a) of sentences, (b) of paragraphs, (c) of the plan of

the discourse.

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