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METAPHOR: "Harrowing care."
SIMILE : “ Care that affects the mind as the harrow does the soil."

Allusion, or reference to some well-known fact, fable, custom, or incident, is often embodied in a metaphor or a simile ; as, “That body is an Augean stable of corruption.”


The Allegory consists of a series of metaphors so connected as to form a story, each step of which is symbolic of something else. A well-known example is the “ Pilgrim's Progress.” In it the difficulties of the Christian life are symbolized and simplified by being depicted under the figure of the difficulties of a journey from the City of Destruction to the New Jerusalem.

The Parable and Fable are forms of Allegory.

A Parable is a short allegory in which some religious or moral truth is taught or illustrated. The incident or event may be real or supposed and is usually drawn from nature or human life. For examples, see “The Sower,” or the “Ten Talents."

A Fable, or Apologue, is a kind of allegory in which the story or incident that points or illustrates a moral, is supposed to be spoken by some animal or inanimate object.

Rhetorical Value. - As these figures contain an incident or story each possesses, in addition to the usual advantages of a metaphor, the clearness of the concrete and the interest of a plot.

PERSONIFICATION. Personification consists in attributing life and mind to inanimate things.

1. The lowest form of personification is produced with adjectives, and consists in ascribing the qualities of living beings to inanimate objects; as, “the raging storm”; “the angry sea”; “the hungry shore"; "the smiling land."

2. The next higher form of personification is produced with verbs, and consists in making inanimate objects perform the actions of living beings; as, “ The very walls will cry out against it.”

3. The highest form consists in ascribing to the objects human feelings and purposes, and with distinction of gender; as, “ Earth felt the wound.” This form of personification is sometimes combined with apostrophe; as, “Put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city.”

All Metaphors. — All forms of personification are metaphors, but they are called personifications because objects are raised to or towards persons.

Rhetorical Value. The rhetorical value of the figure arises from the fact that inanimate things are invested with a greater interest as they rise in dignity and become endowed with personal qualities that lead us to have a fellow-feeling with them.




Find resemblances to complete the comparisons.

1. He is as silent as 2. His heart is as weak as 3. Her life was as dull as 4. Her tears flowed like . 5. He spoke with a voice like ... 6. The tongue is like .. 7. The righteous shall flourish as 8. The horizon blazed like ... 9. The huntsmen swept by like . 10. His hounds were as fierce as 11. Their jaws were foaming like 12. Her eyes were as blue as 13. The muscle of his arm was as strong as 14. The wounded heart like ... soon closes. 15. The people flew before the savage foe like 16. Life passes by like . 17. Pleasures are like ....



DIRECTION. — Substitute plain language for the figurative and describe the effect.

1. Their eyes were like embers.
2. I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth.
3. Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel.
4. He fell as falls the thunder-riven oak.
5. They shall be like a tree planted by rivers of water.

6. Like a bird frightened from its prey, she disappeared from view.

7. Thy sniile is as the dawn of vernal day.

8. Lakes and rivers are as refreshing to the imagination as to the soil through which they pass.

9. Like the temples of the gods, virtue is venerable even in her ruins.

10. The yellow perch looked like sunbeams in the water. 11. The foe retreated like a wolf untimely scared.

12. These wonderful representations come and go like visions in a dream.

13. The gushes of melody warble along the roof like the pure airs of heaven.

14. His history is as a tale that is told.
15. The brand shot up like a streamer of the northern sky.

16. The agony of their lamentation was like a wind that thrills all night in a waste land.

17. Let thy voice rise like a fountain for me night and day. 18. The barge moved off like some full-breasted swan.

19. Intellect is to a woman's nature what her watch-spring skirt is to her dress.

20. Whatever comes from the brain carries the hue of the place it came from, and whatever comes from the heart carries the heat and color of its birthplace.



DIRECTION. — Name the two objects compared, state the point of resem. blance and the rhetorical value of the figure; then express the thought in plain language and estimate the loss.

1. He is a worthy pillar of the state.
2. He knew that there were dark spots in his fame.
3. The class are making rapid steps in knowledge.
4. This quarrel must be patched with cloth of any color.
5. The valiant taste death but once.
6. What his breast forges, that his tongue must vent.
7. Ferocity is the natural weapon of the common people.
8. He was a cruel and iron-hearted man.

Gaul may champ the bit and foam in fetters. 10. My child is a withered branch that will never bear the print of grace.

11. The door to success is always labelled “Push."
12. Procrastination is ththief of time.
13. Death is a debt which all are bound to pay.
14. He intended to clothe himself with this power.

15. That deep and flowing sympathy comes from the fountains of personal suffering.

16. He has sometimes smothered the child-like simplicity of Chaucer under the feather-beds of verbiage.

17. Ignorance is the curse of God, knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.

18. But let the curtains of the future hang.

19. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

20. We stood together beside the narrow house made for all living.

21. He dared to stem the tide of tyranny.
22. He appeared to be but the step-son of fortune.

23. The kirk was shorn of its beams.

24. The most efficient weapon with which men can encounter falsehood is truth.

25. The French shook the tree of Anglo-Saxon inflections so rudely as to bring down all its fruit.



METAPHORS. DIRECTION. — Expand the metaphors into similes. I. He is a wolf.

I bridle in my struggling muse. 3. Her disdain stung him to the heart. 4. They have passed happily through the storms of life. 5. That school-room is a hive of industry. 6. They reaped a golden harvest. 7. 'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical love. 8. The table was garlanded with guests. 9. There was a lion in the path. 10. The hero's ability was overshadowed by that of the heroine. II. The thought struck my mind. 12. The standards reel to and fro on the tossing sea of bayonets. 13. Beauty is unripe childhood's cheat. 14. Life's cup sparkles near the brim.

15. So the poor child, in her soul's hunger, began to nibble at the thick-rinded fruit of the tree of knowledge.

16. The moon threw her silver mantle over the darkness. 17. We loose our dogs of war against our own countrymen.

18. The poet should live in the country where he can hear the heart of nature beat.

19. The army of Hyder swept everything before it.
20. The clouds have dropped their garnered fulness down.

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