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DIRECTION. — Express in different phraseology as illustrated in the preceding Lesson.

1. He gives his parents no anxiety. 2. Truth, crushed to death, shall rise again. 3. Cradles rock us nearer to the tomb. 4. He hides his own offences, and strips others' bare. 5. The gale had sighed itself to rest. 6. When faith is lost, when honor dies, the man is dead. 7. He who would search for pearls must dive below. 8. The evil that men do lives after them. 9. They never pardon who have done the wrong. 10. That life is long which answers lise's great end. 11. Mammon wins his way where seraphs might despair. 12. Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. 13. It is more blessed to give than to receive. 14. They all with one consent began to make excuse. 15. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

16. How very much happier we should all be if people attended to their own business, and let their neighbors attend to theirs.

17. The Court of Elizabeth was as immoral as that of her successor, but its immorality was shrouded by a veil of grace and chivalry.

18. He was a most severe judge of himself as well as of others.

19. There is scarcely a man living who is not actuated by ambition.



DIRECTION. — Render the following in different phraseology as illustrated in the Lesson.

1. Whatever I have tried to do in life, I have tried with all my heart to do well; whatever I have devoted myself to, I have

devoted myself to completely. In great aims and in small, I have always been thoroughly in earnest.

2. It was a mystery to many people why Governor Briggs, of Massachusetts, wore a cravat but no collar. Some people thought it was an absurd eccentricity. This was the secret : Many years before he was talking with an inebriate and telling him that his habit was unnecessary, and the inebriate retorted upon him and said, “We do a great many things that are not necessary. It is not necessary for you to wear that collar. “Well,” said the governor, “I will never wear a collar again if you won't drink.” Agreed," said the inebriate. Governor Briggs never wore a collar. They both kept their bargain for twenty years. They kept it to the death. That is the reason Governor Briggs did not wear a collar.

3. When Syracuse was taken, Archimedes was describing mathematical figures upon the earth, and when one of the enemy came upon him, and asked his name, he was so engrossed with the desire of preserving the figures entire, that he answered only by an earnest request to the soldier to keep off, and not break in upon his circle. The soldier, thinking himself scorned, ran Archimedes through the body, and the purple stream of blood soon obscured all traces of the problem on which he had been so intent. Thus fell this illustrious man by the mere neglect to tell his name, for the general, Marcellus, had given orders to respect the life and person of the philosopher.

4. Sir Cloudesley Shovel, whose melancholy shipwreck on the rocks of Scilly is well known, was, when a boy, on board a ship commanded by Sir John Narborough, who, during an action, expressed a very earnest wish to have some orders of

consequence conveyed to a ship at a considerable distance. Shovel, hearing this, immediately undertook to convey it; and this he actually performed, swimming through the enemy's line of fire with the despatches in his mouth.


EXPANSION. DIRECTION. — Expand each of the following into a paragraph of two of more sentences.

1. Columbus discovered America.
2. Brevity is the soul of wit.
3. Wisdom is justified of her children.
4. It is glorious to die for one's country.
5. War is a great evil.
6. There is strength in unity.
7. The amiable gain many friends.
8. Party is the madness of many for the gain of a few.

Procrastination is the thief of time. 10. There's nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. II. We know what we are, but know not what we may be. 12. There is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow. 13. Every one can master a grief but he that has it.

14. The great clock at Strasburg is a wonderful piece of mechanism.

DIRECTION. — Condense the substance of the following paragraphs into one or two sentences.

1. I was not, like His Grace of Bedford, swaddled and rocked and dandled into a legislator. “Nitor in adversumis the motto for a man like me. I possessed not one of the qualities, nor cultivated one of the arts, that recommend men to the favor and protection of the great. I was not made for a minion or a tool.

2. Malevolence to the clergy is seldom at a great distance from irreverence of religion, and Dryden affords no exception to this observance. His writings exhibit many passages, which, with all the allowance that can be made for character and occasions, are such as piety would not have admitted, and such as may vitiate light and unprincipled minds. But there is no reason for supposing that he disbelieved the religion which he disobeyed. He for

got his duty rather than disowned it. His tendency to profaneness is the effect of levity, negligence, and light conversation, with a desire of accommodating himself to the conception of his times by venturing to be wicked as far as he durst.

3. “I'll tell you a story, gentlemen, which is as true as that this pipe is made of clay. When I was delivered of my first book, I owed my tailor for a suit of clothes; but that is nothing new, you know, and may be any man's case as well as mine. Well, owing him for a suit of clothes, and hearing that my book took very well, he sent for his money and insisted on being paid immediately. Though I was at the time rich in fame, for my book ran like wildfire, yet I was very short in money, and being unable to satisfy his demand, prudently resolved to keep my chamber, preferring a prison of my own choosing at home to one of my tailor's choosing abroad. In vain the bailiffs used all their arts to decoy me from my citadel ; in vain they sent to let me know that a gentleman wanted to speak to me at the next tavern; in vain they came with an urgent message from my aunt in the country ; in vain was I told that a particular friend was at the point of death and desired to take his last farewell. I was deaf, insensible, rock, adamant; the bailiffs could make no impression on my hard heart, for I effectually kept my liberty by never stirring out of my room."

4. Write a paragraph on “Our Sight," taking the following as principal and subordinate subjects: A general statement about “Our Sight” — The pleasure it affords — Contrast these pleasures with those received through “the sense of feeling ” — The ideas it furnishes the imagination, and their nature

- How much we should value “Sight."

5. Write a paragraph describing “A Meadow suitable for a Tournament.” Take the following as heads : An introductory sentence - The location - Surface Kind of enclosure — The size The form — The entrance and how guarded.

6. Write a paragraph on “Successive Steps to Prohibition." Heads : No sale to minors - No sale to drunkards - No sale of adulterated liquors - High license — Prohibition.




Two Forms. — All thought may be expressed either in the form of poetry or in that of prose. Sometimes these two forms approach very closely, at others they stand very widely apart, but they never coincide. Moreover, the effect produced on the mind by a thought when dressed in the most artistic garb of poetry is very different from the effect produced by the same thought when clad in the commonplace habiliments of ordinary prose ; and even when clothed in the humblest poetic attire, thought carries with it a charm that it does not possess when couched in the highest form of prose. The learner should try to distinguish between the effect of the naked thought itself and that of the language which gives it expression. In this he will be aided by the exercise of transposition.

Methods. — Poetry may be transposed into prose, either by a change of phraseology, or by merely eliminating what is poetic.



The first method consists in writing out in good prose the general meaning of the poetry under consideration. This, if properly carried out, is a profitable exercise for beginners in composition, as it trains them in examining closely the meaning of terse and compact language, and in expressing thoughts with care and exact

This exercise scarcely differs from that in the last Lesson, where prose is transposed into other prose by changing the phraseology. The object in both is to reproduce the same thought in different language.

How to Paraphrase. — The following directions will assist in paraphrasing : -

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