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DIRECTION. — Change the adjectives, infinitives, adverbial clauses, prepositional phrases, participles, and appositive nouns into adjectival phrases or clauses.

1. No ancient or modern hero ever had more contempt for death.

2. In the proclamation offering the reward, the criminal was described.

3. The king, curious to see the result, went to the prison.
4. She redeemed the tyranny of her father's reign.
5. A murmur of astonishment ran through the company.
6. The mirth of the company rapidly increased.

7. We breathe by means of lungs, placed in that part of the body called the chest.

8. No man of ordinary intelligence would venture the statement. 9.

He was the first to make the discovery. 10. Virtue extends to those parts of our existence lying beyond

the grave.

11. Our eternity is to take its color from the hours here employed in virtue or in vice.

12. That man has but a small talent to improve. 13. Country life abounds in healthful pleasures.

14. His stable doors are patched with noses of foxes of the Knight's own hunting down.

15. They use sauces of a hundred ingredients.


ADVERBIAL PHRASES AND CLAUSES. DIRECTION. - Change the adverbial phrases and clauses as illustrated in the preceding Lesson.

1. The majority of the passengers had been made aware of the state of affairs.

2. Passe-partout made a grimace when he gazed at his elegant but thin slippers.

3. The animal had been purchased for a fighting elephant, not for carrying purposes.

4. Elephants in India are dear, for they are becoming some what scarce.

5. As the night wore on, the accounts grew much worse.

6. To this place many of the rioters had straggled, because it afforded the means of a barricade.

7. As they had been warned by each other and by the scout, they knew something about the matter.

8. Nothing is more amiable than true modesty. 9. Discretion does not always show itself in words. 10. A man should conduct himself so that he will be respected. 11. Nature delights in the most plain and simple diet. 12. This observation, in my opinion, has no foundation in nature. 13. The Son of Man hath no place where he may lay his head. 14. After I had dined, I returned home. 15. When I was young, I thought as you do.

DIRECTION. — Change the participial, prepositional, infinitive, and absolute phrases, the imperatives, and adverbs, into adverbial phrases or clauses.

I. He turned his head to look behind him.
2. She was a beautiful girl with flowing flaxen hair.
3. The spot was immediately erased.
4. Admit that point, and all the rest follows.
5. Uttering these words, he left the room.
6. Having made this remark, he soon began his task.

7. This preface being made, they addressed themselves to the work.

8. He calmly contemplates the approach of death. 9. The evening was spent conversing with friends.

10. The object of the book being discovered, both parties were indignant at the writer.

II. His mind was busy planning schemes of improvement.
12. Taylor being released determined to remain in Wales.
13. I scrambled up with pain and shame.
14. He did not care to live with his friend dead.
15. Grant the supposition, and the conclusion must follow.



DIRECTION. — Change the noun clauses as indicated in the preceding Lesson. 1. I believe you are a friend of the defendant. 2. I hope I shall have the pleasure of judging. 3. He determined that he would sell his entire stock. 4. He has long had a notion that he would retire from business. 5. He found that the boys were disobedient. 6. He expected that he would meet him at a dinner.

7. The king commanded that the leaders should be put to death.

8. He asked that they should be his friends also. 9. They found that the place was inhabited by savages. 10. It seemed to him that he had become a new boy again. 11. He denied that he had used that expression. 12. They did not think they were doing anything wrong. 13. It is not always enough that we should mean right.

14. We are not certain that mind and matter are necessarily connected.

15. They cannot tell where they ought to sell their produce.

DIRECTION. — Change the infinitives to noun clauses, to participles, to nouns, or to other infinitives.

1. He begged to know if he could do anything.
2. They were anxious to hear what was to follow.
3. My friend proposed to walk through the park.
4. He hurried out to meet his friend.
5. I shall be permitted to die for my country.
6. He did his utmost to be here.
7. His being punished was an act of justice.
8. It was impossible for him to come.
9. The object of educating children is to develop the mind.

10. I was much surprised to hear my old friend tell him not to disturb the congregation.

11. I believe him to be a thorough scholar.
12. The chief's being absent was unfortunate.
13. To be united is to be strong.
14. He is not a man to forget his promise.
15. He struck with such violence as to injure his skull.



Sentences may be varied by changing the predicate.

1. The verb be and an adjective may be substituted for the predicate verb; as, “That suffices for me"; "That is sufficient for me.”

2. Sometimes the verb be and an attributive noun may be substituted for the predicate verb; as, “He invents"; "He is an inventor."

3. The verb have and an object may be substituted for the predicate verb; as, “He is not discreet"; "He has no discretion.”

4. The voice of the verb may be changed; as, “They searched for you”; “You were searched for.”

5. The chief part of the predicate may be changed to an adjective; as, “Her disease cannot be cured”; “Her disease is incurable."

6. Instead of an affirmative statement we may use a denial of the opposite ; as, “He is learned”; “He is not uneducated.”

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The construction may be varied by combining, contracting, and expanding sentences.

Simple Sentences. 1. Two or more simple sentences may be combined by changing one of them into :

a. An Appositive Phrase; as, “ The keeper was a man of great strength. He killed a lion”; “The keeper, a man of great strength, killed a lion."

b. A Participial Phrase; as, “The trees are growing along the river. They are very large"; "The trees, growing along the river, are very large."

C. An Infinitive Phrase ; as, I have come. I shall tell you”; “I have come to tell you."

d. A Prepositional Phrase; as, “There is a path through the woods. It is shady”; “The path through the woods is shady."

2. Two or more simple sentences may be combined into a complex sentence by making one the independent clause, and turning the others into dependent clauses :

a. Into an Adjectival Clause; as, “ The tree is dead. The tree was struck by lightning"; "The tree which was struck by lightning is dead."

b. Into an Adverbial Clause; as, “I have come. I shall tell you”; “I have come that I

may 6. Into a Noun Clause ; as, “ Plato's enemies had spoken ill of him. He was told this ” ; “ Plato was told that his enemies had spoken ill of him."

3. Two or more simple sentences may be combined into one simple sentence with a compound subject or a compound predicate ; as, “ Life is work. Life is warfare”; “Life is work and warfare.” “The men are diligent. The boys are diligent”; “ The men and the boys are diligent.”

“ He is a wise man. He is a good man. He is a patriotic man”; “He is a wise, good, and patriotic man.”

4. Simple sentences may be expanded into compound or into complex sentences.

Example. "On approaching the house, we saw the enemy retreating”; “As we approached the house we saw the enemy retreating." Or: “We approached the house and saw the enemy retreating."

tell you.”

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