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32. The relations between maid and mistress became sorely strained.
33. He is the individual who took the initiative in introducing piscine preserves in this locality.
34. I look upon it as my duty, so long as I keep within the bounds of truth and duty, and of decency.
35. Listlessly talking over village gossip, or telling sleepy, endless stories about nothing, they used to sit here in the shade through a long lazy summer's day. (Here ... through ... talking . . . nothing.)
36. Therefore nothing, neither learning nor knowledge of the world, neither forensic acuteness, nor that eloquence which charms political assemblies, was wanting to the defence of Clive. (To the defence ... assemblies.)
37. As they proceeded down the hill the rocks gradually receded from view.
38. Societies like these will help to educate society and to overthrow its drinking usages.
39. And see, first of all, that you have hearts, and sound hearts, too, to give.
40. After the appetizing banquet had been done full justice to, the party spent an extended period in pleasantly tripping the light fantastic.
41. She asked him to visit her paternal domicile, when the diurnal luminary sought his nocturnal resting-place behind the occidental horizon.
42. The Little Gentleman lies where he longed to lie, among the old names and the old bones of the Boston people. (Should old be repeated?)
III. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARAGRAPHS.
Hitherto we have considered only separate words and single sentences. We now come to study the connection of sentences in paragraphs, and of paragraphs in sketches.
The paragraph is a larger division of discourse than the sentence, and, like it, should deal with a single topic. It is, in fact, a whole composition and should therefore be complete in itself. It aids the reader by showing him where the development of a point begins and where it ends.
Principles. — The leading principles that govern the formation of the paragraph are :
I. THE TOPIC SENTENCE.
The opening sentence should set forth the subject of the paragraph. This sentence is generally most effective when short.
Example. — “ The government went on, oppressing at home and blundering abroad. (Topic sentence.) A war was foolishly undertaken against France, and more foolishly conducted. Buckingham led an expedition against Rhé, and failed ignominiously. In the meantime soldiers were billeted on the people. Crimes of which ordinary justice should have taken cognizance were punished by martial law. Near eighty gentlemen," etc. The paragraph goes on enumerating other acts of "oppressing " and “blundering."
Sometimes one or more sentences at the beginning of a paragraph are intended to connect it with the one that precedes, or to prepare
way for the topic sentence. Example. — “These were mere follies. (Connective and introductory sentence.) But the spirit excited by these writers produced more serious effects. (Topic sentence.) The greater part of the crimes which disgraced the revolution,” etc.
The different sentences that compose a paragraph must follow one another in natural and logical order. If they do not, the attention of the reader is distracted and he finds it difficult, if not impossible, to keep the thread of the discourse.
Example. “ On the third day after the action the dead were buried in the naval churchyard; the ceremony was made as public and as solemn as the occasion required. A public monument was erected upɔn the spot where the slain were gathered together. A subscription was opened on the day of the funeral for the relief of the sufferers, and collections in aid of it throughout all the churches in the kingdom. This appeal to the feelings of the people was made with circumstances which gave it full effect. A monument was raised in the midst of the church; young maidens, dressed in white, stood round it; and a suitable oration was delivered from the pulpit.”
In this paragraph the sentences do not follow the order of events.
3. CONTINUITY. It is not enough that the sentences of a paragraph follow one another in proper order; the connection of each with the preceding context must be made clear and unmistakable. It is of the utmost importance that the sentences should be connected in a clear, smooth, easy, and natural manner, so that the thought may be carried on without interruption from the beginning to the close.
How Attained. Continuity is secured in various ways:
1. By the use of conjunctions, adverbs, pronouns, or connecting phrases; as :
“One person might have fallen asleep, but two— but three – that was a mere impossibility. And even supposing all three together with the baby locked in sleep, still how unaccountable was this utter silence ! Most naturally at this moment something like hysterical horror overshadowed the poor girl. And now, ar
“ His canny
last, she rang the bell with violence. This done, she paused. Self-command enough she still retained."
The Connectives Used. — Among the most common connective words and phrases are :
a. Those called cumulative; as, – and, also, so, besides, further, moreover, first, secondly.
b. Those expressing consequence, similarity, repetition, or the repetition of a subject; as, — therefore, hence, consequently, accordingly, in this way, again, once more, in fact, upon this, in that case, on the other hand, to proceed, to return.
c. Those expressing opposition or negation; as, - otherwise, nevertheless, still, however, but, on the contrary, conversely. d. Those expressing suspension ; as, — some ... others; partly
partly; undoubtedly ... but; indeed . . . yet. 2. Connectives are often omitted, and other means employed for joining sentences; as :
a. The repetition of some word or words; as, humor lights up the political and theological controversies of the times with quaint incisive phrases. His reading was extensive; and he was a voluminous author on subjects which ranged from predestinarianism to tobacco. But his shrewdness and learning only left him the wisest fool in Christendom.”
b. The inversion of the order of the words, or the giving of some word or words à position that enables them to point definitely to what was said in the preceding sentence; as, “ Entering the gulf, he endeavored to find the river Darien. This river he could not discover.”
3. Sometimes the relation of the sentences is such that the connection is evident without the insertion of any joining word or phrase. This is the case :
a. When the thoughts are very closely related; as, “He turned his horse towards Thame, where he arrived almost fainting with agony. The surgeon dressed his wounds. But there was no hope."
b. When the sentence explains or repeats the one going before
“I need not enlarge upon the subject. The case is perfectly plain."
c. In cumulative statements; as in 2 (a), p. 148.
d. In a statement of consequence; as, “ Further resistance on your part is hopeless. I ask the surrender of your army.”
The paragraph should possess unity; that is, every statement should be subservient to one principal affirmation, and that principal affirmation should be kept prominent throughout the paragraph. Every sentence must be part of one whole, and that whole should be the presentation of one point of a subject, or one part in description or narration.
Example. — The following paragraph illustrates how every sentence should bear on the topic sentence :
“What, then, are the proper encouragements of genius? (Topic sentence.) I answer, subsistence and respect; for these are rewards congenial to nature. Every animal has an aliment suited to its constitution. (General illustration.) The heavy ox seeks nourishment from earth; the light chameleon has been supposed to exist on air. (Particular illustration.) A sparer diet than even this satisfies the man of true genius, for he makes a luxurious banquet upon empty applause. (Comparison.) It is this alone which has inspired all that ever was truly great and noble among us. It is, as Cicero finely calls it, the echo of virtue. (Amplification.) Avarice is the passion of inferior natures ; money the pay of the common herd. (Contrasting sentences.) The author who draws his quill merely to take a purse no more deserves success than he who presents a pistol. (Conclusion.)”
5. DUE PROPORTION. As in the sentence, a due proportion must exist between the principal and the subordinate statement. This is a principle of symmetry that applies to every work of art, and the utmost skill