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1845.

Cincinnati Observatory.

583

ernor.

answer the charge for “abating the Nauvoo Expositor,” a mittimus was issued on the evening of the 25th, and the two Smiths were committed to jail on a charge of treason, " until delivered by due course of law.” On the morning of the 26th, another interview was had between the Governor and the accused, and both parties seemed to be satisfied. Instead of being confined in the cells, the two Smiths, at the instance of their friends, were put into the debtor's room of the prison, and a guard assigned for its, as well as their security. During this time their friends, as usual, had access to them in jail, by permission of the gove

On the same day, (June 26,) they were taken before the magistrate who had committed them to prison, and further proceedings, on the complaint for treason, were postponed until the 29th. On the morning of the 27th, Governor Ford discharged a part of the troops under his command, and proceeded with a portion of the residue, a single company only, to Nauvoo ; leaving the jail, the prisoners, and some two or three of their friends, guarded by seven or eight men, and a company of about sixty militia, the Carthage Grays, a few yards distant in reserve.

About six o'clock in the afternoon of the 27th, during the absence of Governor Ford, the guard stationed at the prison were overpowered by an armed mob in disguise; the jail broken and entered, and the two Smyths, (Joseph and Hyrum,) without any pretence of right or authority whatever, were wantonly slain. Having effected their object, all of which was accomplished in a few minutes, they immediately dispersed.*

The Mormons, who appear to have ascribed the outrage to persons from Missouri, were prevailed upon to continue quiet, and no farther outbreak occurred, until those troubles began which have so lately ended in their expulsion from Nauvoo. I

In June of this year occurred a rise of the Mississippi, which caused vast suffering and extensive damage. Many towns were entirely under water.

1845. .

May Sth.-On this day the first observations of consequence were made at the Cincinnati Observatory; they were upon the Transit of Mercury. This Observatory, one of the first in the world in respect to the power of its Equatorial, is entirely the

Brown, 487. # The account of the Mormons in Illinois we take entirely from Brown. A trustworthy and full history of Mormonism up to the destruction of Nauvoo, is much to be desired.

+ See the letter of Richards and others (leading Mormons) in Brown, 489.

584

Cincinnati Observatory.

1845.

result of the energy, perseverance, and patience, of one man, Olmsted M. Mitchell. Mr. Mitchell, then a Professor in the Cincinnati College, in the spring of 1842 delivered in Cincinnati a course of lectures upon Astronomy, in order to see if the subject could be made popular.—He perfectly succeeded. About May 1st of that year he began to ask the citizens of Cincinnati to contribute toward the purchase of a Great Equatorial Telescope to be mounted in or near that city. During the same month, through his exertions, a Society was organized whose object it was to found an Observatory and prosecute Astronomical researches. This Society soon took into consideration the best mode of procuring a first rate Instrument, and upon deliberation, authorized Professor Mitchell to go to Europe and obtain one. He left Cincinnati for this object on the 11th of June, 1842. Having visited London and Paris, Mr. M. determined that his mission could be satisfactorily accomplished only by going to Munich, where Frauenhofer had established his celebrated manufactory of achromatic refracting lenses. At that place Mr. M. made his contract, and returning to England stayed for awhile as an operative in the Greenwich Observatory, in order to learn the detail of observation, and thence returned to the United States.

In November 1843 the Corner Stone of the Cincinnati Obseryatory was laid by John Quincy Adams, and an address was delivered by that venerable statesman and student. The building, however, was not really commenced until the following May, and was then carried forward only by the energy and untiring perseverance of Mr. Mitchell, who at the same time planned, directed, contracted, raised, or rather made funds, acted as paymaster, advised the mechanics, and labored by their side. In April, 1845, the Observatory building was finished. Meantime the Telescope had been paid for, mostly by the single subscriptions of men laboring to support their families ;— its cost being $10,000. It was received at Cincinnati in the spring of 1845, and was mounted about the close of April; every arrangement having been made by the projector and executor of the whole plan.

This we note, as the First Observatory ever erected by “The People” in modern times.

note, 63

page

page
Adair, Major, attacked,

383 Brown, John, representative from Ky. 312. 313
Adet’s intrigues,
425-note Brownsville, (Redstone)

64
Akamsca or Arkansas,

8 Bryant's station attacked,

249 to 252
Alabama, or Ochequiton river,

44 Burk, the historian,
Albany, Indians met at, 1775,
147 | Bullitt, Captain, gallant conduct of,

85
Alleghanies explored by Spoitgwood,

42
goes west,

110. 119
Allonez, Claude, founds earliest permanent Butler, Williain, Indian trader,

123
mission in the northwest,

4 Butler, General,

358. 369 and note
Alton, riots at,
574 Buntin, Captain,

377
Anderson, Colonel, surveyor,
266 Burr first visits west,

493
Anthony, St, falls of, discovered by Hennepin, 16 his movements in 1806,

496 to 502
Arbuckle, Capt. commands at Pt. Pleasant, 163 his letter to Wilkinson,

496
Arkansas reached by Marquette,

8
his arrest and trial,

503
fort built on, by Tonti,

27
his plans,

504
Armstrong attacks Kittaning,
79 Byrd's invasion of Kentucky,

224
Gen. John, secretary of war,

542
Artaguerte, d', commissary of Louisiana, 33 Canada, Upper, explored by French
goes against Chickasaws,
37 Calarocouy, fort, or fort Frontenac,

10
his fate,
37 Cadillac de la Motte founds Detroit,

30
Assassination of Jumonville, alledged 64 Cahokia founded by Pinet,

30
Assumption fort, (Memphis,) army at, 1739, 38 Cadillac, with Crozat, takes Louisiana, 34
Athens, university of, in Ohio,
477 Cahokia in 1750,

38
Carolana, province of,

43
Baggatiway, an Indian game,
92 Carlisle, treaty at, in 1753,

57
Bank, first, In Kentucky,
483 Canada given up by French, 1760,

80
United States, in Ohio,
558 Carver, Captain,

93-note. 177
Banks in Illinois,
576 | Camp Charlotte,

131
in Ohio,

554 Carondelet, or Vide poche, history of, 181
Barclay, Captain,

544
Baron,

427
Battle of Point Pleasant,

130 Campaign of 1812 in N.W. blunders in, 527
Beaujeu, M. de, commands fleet bound to

Harrison's plans,

535
mouth of Mississippi,
20 of 1813, plans for,

542
Beleter yielde Detroit,
88 Campbell, Col. in 1812,

537
Benham, Captain, his adventures,
217 Cass's expedition, 1820,

561
Bienville sounds Mississippi, and turns back Canals in England, United States and Ohio,

562
English,
32. 44

to 565. 567. 568
goes against Chickasawe,
37 in Illinois,

567
Big Boitom settlements destroyed,

345 Cessions of land to Union, 225 to 228. 230. 258.
Big Gate, Clark's treatment of,
194

284
Biloxi, bay of, d'Iberville at,

32 Celeron places medals along the Ohio, 51 and note
Blackhawk war,
569 to 572 Chickasaws visited by English,

32. 36
Blue Licks, Boone taken at,
195 war with French,

37. 38
battle of
252 to 254 offended by Americans,

222
Bolt, captain, travels of.
45 Charlevoix's account of N. Orleans,

35
Boone, Daniel, explores Kentucky, 114 to 118 Chartres, fort,

36
his character,
136-note Choctaws and French,

37
conducts in surveyors,
128 Cherokecs attack Carolina, &c.

86
employed hy Transylvania co. 135 to 137 claim Kentucky,

108
• rescues his daughter,

155

sell a portion of their claim, 107-note
Laken prisoner and escapes,
195 to 198 attack whites, 1774,

123
at battle of Blue Licks,
253. 255 Christian, Col. commands, 1774,

130, 131
moves to Missouri,

464 Chillicothe, Indian town on Scioto, 131. 462--note
Boone, Squire,

116, 117

do

Little Miami.
Boonsborough founded,

138

195. 462-note
Bouquet, Colonel,
80. 87. 88, 97. 100 founded,

462
Boundary, Indian, proposed and agreed Chouteau, Auguste and Pierre,

180. 183
to, 1768,
101. 106, 107 Cholera in west,

571. 572
Bowman, Col. John, 165. 168. 174. 185. 217 Cincinnati founded,

308
Bowman, Major, or Capt. Joseph, 202 to 213 growth owing to Fort Washington, 321
Braddock. Gen. his march and defeat, 67 to 78 named by St.

Clair,

329
Braddock's road,
80 Observatory,

583
Bradstreet, General,

80. 99 Clark, George Rogers, his account of
Brant, Joseph, 145. 332, &c. 347, &0.371. 376.

Cresap's conduct in 1774, 125 to 127
381. 382, 386 his steps in Kentucky, 1776,

150
Brickell's account of his captivity, &c. 414

procures powder, 1776,

160
British influence over Indians, 332 to 336. 347 to procures ihe erection of Kentucky

349. 510
into a county,

161
Brodhead, Col. Daniel,
216. 265 carries powder down the Ohio,

161

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Clark, George Rogers, his brother's statement Detroit founded by de la Motte Cadillac,
as to Dunmore, in 1775,

133
its extent,

Dote-20
his journal, 1777,
164 first grants at,

ib.
proposes to conquer Illinois,
174 visited by Rogers,

88
receives bis instructions, 1778,

184
yielded by Beleter,

88
descends to the falls,
185 attacked by Pontiac,

93 to 97
conquers Kaskakia, &c.
186 to 189 size of, in 1767,

93--note
treats with the Indians,
189 to 194 in 1765,

104
hears of llamilton's plans,

201 proposition to take, 1776 and 7, 175
marches against Vincennes,

202

might have been taken by Clark,
bis efforts and sufferings, 203 to 207

214 and note
summons Hamilton to yield, 209. 211 proposalto attack in 1780-1
takes Vincennes,
212 steps relative to, in 1783,

260
embarrassed by paper money,
213 in 1804 and 5,

489. 490
builds fort Jefferson,

222 Delawares, treaty with, at Pittsburgh, 1778, 200
attacks Indians on Miamis,

224 Delaware objects to land claims of Vir.
to attack Detroit,

228

ginia, ốc.
made commander in west,

234 Debts in west in early times,
attacks Indians on Miamis,

255 Denman and others purchase site of Cincin-
his commission withdrawn,

260
nati,

304
grant of land to,
200 Deposite, fort, built,

405
treats with Indians, 1786, 276 to 278 & note Defiance, fort, built, &c.

404. 410
goes up Wabash and fails, 1786, 279 Dearborn, fort, (Chicago) taken, 1812, 530
his illegal acts at Vincennes
281 Diego Miruelo visits Florida,

1
becomes leader under Genet's influence, 421 D'Iberville,

31, &c.
Clarkesville founded.

260 Disunion, Spanish plan of,
Cleveland founded,
463 Dog feast of Indians,

note-7
Clay, General, 1813,

343 Donaldson, Col. deeds of Kentucky to, 107--note
Connecticut cedes her western lands, 284 and note Doughty, Major,

273. 321
reserve settled,

457. 473 Dorchester, Lord, his speech to Indians,
Company, Mississippi, (company of West

395, 396-note
and company of Indies.) 34 to 36 Dress used in west in early times, 235. 238
Coxe, Dr. Daniel, claims to Carolana,

43 Duquesne, fort, plan of,

63-note
his accounts, &c.
43. 44 to be attacked,

67
Contreceur commands at fort Duquesne, 63. 64 taken by Forbes,

80. 85
Connolly, John, explores west,
111 Duquesne commander of Indians,

198
owns part of Louisville,

119 Dunmore, Lord, said to have allowed
bis conduct at Pittsburgh, 1774, 122. 123

surveys, 1769,

109
attacks friendly Indians,
129 gends Copolly to fort Pitt,

122
plot of 1775,

151 is said to have thanked Creeap, 123—note
in 1780,

228
prepares for Indian war,

128
his land at falls,

229
reproved for Conolly's conduct,

130
visits Kentucky, 1788,

315 prepares to invade Indian country, 130
Cornstalk tries to preserve peace,

129 enters the Shawanese country and
at battle of Point Pleasant,

130
makes peace,

131
makes peace,
132 his conduct in 1774,

133 and note.
betrayed by the Americans and killed, 162

153-note
Cornplanter,
347 and note denounces Transylvania company,

137
Congo creek,

131 Dunmore's war,

121 to 133
Colbert leads Chickasaws,

234 Dunmore fort, at Pittsburgh, built, &c. 123
Commissioners, Indian,

259. 383. 390 Duer, Col. his connection with the Ohio
Couvention, first Kentucky,

265
company,

289, 454-note
second
do
271 Dudley, Colonel, at fort Meigs, 1813,

543
third
do

272
fourth
do
274. 279 Earthquake of 1811,

520
fሰh
do
274. 285 Education provided for in Kentucky,

223
bixth
do
285. 313 Edwards, Governor, in 1812,

536
seventh
do
314. 315 Ellinipsico, son of Cornstalk, killed.

163
eighth
do
320 Ellioti, Matthew,

131-note. 335-note
nioth
do
420 English claims to the West,

43. 46. 47
Crevecæur, fort, built by La Salle,

14 English traders in N. West,

50 and note
Crozat Louisiana transferied to,

33
West,

46 - pote
bis plans all frustrated,

34
on Great Miami,

51.-53
Croghan, Major, (1813.) defence of fort

Maumee,

52
Stephenson,

544
and French in 1753.

56
attacks Mackinac, &c.

55) England, conduct in relation to Indians,
Croghan, George, visits west, 1765, 101 to 104

1790--95, 332. 384. 394. 400. 403. 411
oath of, relative to claim of Iro-

relations to U. States, 1790-95,

397
quois,
47, note., Erie, (Presqu'ile.)

396
deed to, by Troquois,
107-note vessels built at, in 1813,

542. 544
Cresap, Capt. Michael, murder of Logan's Estiil's defeat,

249
family, &r.

123 to 127 | Evans' maps of West, 52--note. 111-note
Crawford sent against Mingoes,
132 Excise on spirits, 1791,

435
sent west, 1777,

175
Crawford's expedition and death, 245 10 248 Fauquier, Governor, of Virginia,
Cumberland fort built,

66 Falls of the Ohio visited and surveyed,
Cutler, Dr. agent for Ohio company,
288, &c.

52. 109, 119
Cumberland road, origin of,
494 Federalism and anti-federalism,

432

Finley explores Kentucky,
Dablon and Marquette found a mission Fincastle county, Va, includes Kentucky, 119
at St. Mary's falls,
4 Fincastle fort, at Wheeling,

169
Dates, difficulty in settling,
252—note Fighting in West, in early times,

243
Danville founded,

261 Filson's work on Kentucky,

265--note
Dayton eetlled,
458 Filson, John,

304

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531

321

page

page
Fitch, John,

522 Hanbury, Mr. of London, member of Ohio Co. 50
Floyd, John,
119 Half-king, Iroquois chief,

59, 61, 63
his letter, 1776.
155 Harrod, James, goes to Kentucky,

121
Floyd, Colonel, saved by Wells,

233 Hart, Colonel, buys land of Cherokees, 136
Flood in the Ohio, 1832,
572 Hand, General, at Fort Pitt,

169, 199
in Mississippi. 1844,

583 Hamilton, Gover nor, takes Vincennes," 201
Food in West in early times,

235
summoned to yield,

209
Forbes, General,

80 to 85
his reply,

210
Fork of Ohio, post at,

60 to 64
meets Clark,

211
Fort Assumption, Memphis,

38
capitulates,

212
Dearborn, Chicago,
530 bis treatment in Virginia,

213
Defiance, on Maumee,
404 410| Hamilton, Fort, built,

359
Deposite, on Maumee,
406 Hamilton's fianancial measures,

434
Dunmore, Pitsburgh,

123 Habits and manners of the West, 235-244
Duquesne, Pittsburgh,
63 Harmar, Fort, commenced,

273
Fenney, Finney or Ferring, Jefferson. Harmar, treaties of,

317
ville,
329, note. Harmar, General,

328
Finney, mouth of Great Miami,

275
bis campaign,

337 to 345
Greenville, Greenville,

399 Harrison, Wm. H. Secretary of N. W. Terr. 465
Hamilton, Hamilton, Ohio,

359
Delegate in Congress,

468
Harrison, on Wabash,

515, 531
Governor Indiana Territory,

473
Henry, Wheeling,

169
treats with Indians, &c.

481. &c.
Jefferson, near Granville, Ohio, 359. 398 W. H. appointed to command in N. W. 535
Jefferson, on Mississippi,

2-22
his plans,

535
Knox, Vincennes.

329

his conduct after movemeuts of Win.
Mac Arthur, on Scioto,

536.537
chester,

541
Meige, on Maumee,
541. 543 at Malden, &c.,

547
Miami, British post on Maumee, 396, 407, resigns,

551
note,
Harrison, Fort, built,

515
Piti, Pittsburg.

63

Fort, defence of, by Z. Taylor,
Recovery, ground of St. Clair's defeat, 400 Hardin, Colonel John,

338 to 344. 350. 381
403.
Hennepin, Louis, his character,

JO
Sackville, Vincennes,

213
meets La Salle, 1768,

11
St. Clair, 20 miles north of Fort Jeffer.

sent to explore Mississippi,

14
son,
383 his adventures,

15
Schuyler, Rome, N. York,

146. 267
his return,

16
Shelby, on upper Mississippi,

552 works and their authenticity. 16. note.
Stanwix, Rome, N. Y.
267, 107 Heath, Sir Robert, grant lo Charles I.

43
Stephenson, Lower Sandusky,
544 Henry, Alexander. goes to Mackinac,

89
Steuben, Jeffersonville,
337 Henry, Fort, at Wheeling,

169
Washington, Cincinnati,

hesieged by Indians,

169 to 174
Wayne, at head of Maumee, 411. 531. 535 Henderson, Col. Richard,
Franklin, Benjamin, helps Braddock, 68. 69

goes west ; his letter,
concerned in Walpole Co. 105 to 109 calls settlers together,

140
Franklin, Guvernor, concerned in Walpole Co. 105 bis address,

141 to 143
Freeman, sent to Indians, 1792, 381 & note. runs south line of Kentucky,

223
French in West, 4. 5. 41, note-53. 54. 56. 58 & Henderson & Co. grant of land 10.

220
note. 62. 61. 101 to 104. 181 & note. Helm, Captain, bis conduct at Vincennes, 202
French account of the death or Jumonville, 64 Heckewelder, Mary, horn,

231
French Creek-Riviere aux Boufs, 53. 59 Hendrick, chief of Stockbridge Indians,
Frenchtown, battle and massacre of, 538 to 540 Howard, John, goes down the Ohio,

45
Frontenac, Count,

10 Holderness, Secretary of State, authorises col.
Fort.
10 onists to resist French. 1783.

60
Fry, Joshua,
54 & note, 62 Houses in West, in early times,

235. 237

House-building in West in early times, 240
Gallisoniere sends Celeron to Ohio,
51 House-warming,

241
Gallipolis,
79, 452 to 455 Hospitality,

243
Gage, General,
70. 105. 106 Hopkins, General, in 1812,

536
his proclamations,
176. 177 | Holmes, expedition, 1814,

550
Gamelin sent to Wabash tribes, 329 to 331

killed,

551
Genet's intrigues, &c.
421 | Hurons or Wyandots,

note, 4
Gist, Christ's, goes down Ohio, 1751, 52 & note. Hutchins, Thomas,

176. 178. 288
surveys south of Ohio,
52. 56 Hull, Wm., Governor of Michigan,

490
lives west of Laurel Hill,

56.64
commands N W. army,

526
goes west with Washington, 58. 60 & note. his progress and conduct, 526 to 529
warns Washington of vicinity of French, 64 his surrender,

529.
Washington at house of,

65
bis sentence,

529
crosses Kentucky and Onio, 111 & note.
Gibson's evideuce as to Logan's speech, 132 Illinois, tribe first visited,

7
Gibson, Colonel John, at Fort Laurens, 201 Illinois country, productions of

38. 51
Girty Simon and his brothers, 170 & note, 248. 251 transferred to England,

176
Gower, fort,

131

state of, from 1762 10 1777, 176,187 & note.
Griffin, built by La Salle,
12 Minois and Wabash Companies,

177
Gravier, father, founds Kaskaskia,
30 Illinois settlements in 1781, &c.

271
Greenbriar Co.
50. 53 plinois Banks,

553.576
Great Meadows,
64. 65 Illinois, State formed,

556
Grant, Major, defeated, 1758,
84 Indians, western, in 1762,

87
Grant, Colonel, defeats Cherokees,

86
in 1763,

91
Great house kills Indians, 1774,

124. 128
lands protected,

97
Green, Thomas,

281
in 1764,

99
Greenville, fort, built,

399
in 1765,

101
treaty of,

415


in 1766,

105
in 1770 10 1773,

110. 119. 121

135
138

379

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