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that period the Emperor Alexander de individuals; one prints in the Tartar lanclared that it should be in future a Consti- guage; another prints music. There are tutional Vonar hv; and that the will of thirteen foreign booksellers; and about the Sovereign should be regulated by a thirty Russian. There are also reading corle of laws.
Besides the public libraries, there are The Government is composed of 1. The
about a score which belong to individuals, Senate of the Empire, which in 1811 was
some of them are very considerable. The com osed of thirty-five members; 2. of the Directiug Senate, as the superior autho. collection of MSS. formed by M. Domrity; 9. of the Holy Directing Senate, and browsh; is famous ; it contains a number
of memoirs ; aud of origin al ietters, writ4. of the High Ministers.
teo by Sovereigns, Ministers, and other The Revenues of the State in 1811 were
celebrated personages. R15,000,000 rubles. The Expenses were the same year in 1805, to the sum of 55,509, 118 rubles;
A to Commerce, the imports amounted 274,000,000. The Army in 1810, was 021,155 men; The balance of that year, therefore, was
and the exports amounted to 72,434,085. of which 110,000 were irreguir troops. The Navy in 1803 comprised 269 sail of in favour of Russia, 16,004,967 rubles. different sizes, carrying 4348 gms; 32,046
According to the Petersburgh Gazette sailors ; 8,268 marines; aud 4,000 gunners. nufactories and shops in the Russan Em
of September 8, 1815; the number of maThe Established Religion is the Greek, pire was 3,258. But, in 1812 the number which reckons four Metropolitan clurebes; did not exceed 2,922. eleven Archbishoprics; nineteen Bishop As to Fisheries, Russia possesses estabrics; 26,747 churches, and a great num lishments for this purpose ou the Caspian ber of convents.
Sea, the Black Sea, the White Sea, the Toleration is general : in 1811 there Northern Ocean, the Baltic, and on the were estimated of the following persuasions great inlaud Jakes, on the Wolga, and 3,500,000 Catholics ; 1,400,000 Lutherans ; other great rivers. These fisheries bring 5,800 Reformed Protestants ; 9,000 of the in, according to Hermann, the sum of Vuitas Fratrum, or Moraviaus, 5,000 2,256,521 rubies, all expeuces paid. To Memnonites ;60,000 Armeniaus; 3,000,000 encourage the fisheries in the Northern Mahometans; 300,000 worshippers of the Ocean and the White Sea, a White Sea Dalai Lana; 600,000 adorers of Fetiches, Company was established Angust 19, 1805, or Idols, &c. &c.
with privileges to continue during twentyIn the city of Astrachan are reckoned five years. twenty-three Greek churches; four Arme
The expenses of the Court were, in the nian ; two Catholic ; one Lutheran; six time of Peter the Great, no more than teen Tartar, or Mohammedan Mosques ; 600,000 rubles: the present expenses a and ove Temple consecrated to the worship mount to S,223,497 rubles. of the Hindoos.
The Orders conferred by the Sovereigo The Mahometans settled in Russia, have are in number seven. 1. The Order of established schools in each of their vil- St. Andrew, founded by Peter the Great, lages, and in the towns they have also November 30, 1698. 2. The Order of Caschools of instruction for their daughters. therine, founded for Ladies, by the same The merchants, generally, and even many Sovereign, November 24, 1714. 3. The rustics of this Religion possess copies of Order of St. Ann, founded by Duke Charles the Koran. Some have formed collections Frederic of Holstein, February 3, 1736, in of Historical MSS. and are competently ac honour of his wife, daughter of Peter the quainted with the history of their country. Great. 5. The Order of St. George, a The Christians who live among the Tartars Military Order, founded by Catharine II. 84) Pagans, are brutish, ignorant, and su August 26, 1769. 6. The Order of St. Wloperstitions.
danir, founded by the same, September The excavations among the ancient 22, 1782. 7. The Order of St. John, inTombs in Siberia are continued, and the troduced by the Emperor Paul I. Janteniiquities found are sent to Petersburgh. ary 15, 1795. They consist principally in utensils, often
Saxony. of gold, vas s for containing water, others for drinking from, diadems, military de
Rural Economics. corations, arms, idols, and images of ani Erfahrungen, &c. Experiments in Rural Dals.
Economy, by t'r, M. Schmalz. The first voThere are at Petersburgh fourteen print- lume comprizes sis memoirs on the study ing houses, of which three belong to the of rural economy.-on the choice, the estimaSenate, the Synod, and the War-office. tion, and the undertaking of a farm-on the The others belong to the Acadernies, or to ordering of a farm, directly after andertak:
ing it-on agreements with the labourers, and on the best methods of treating them
PATENTS IN FRANCE. ou the relations of proprietors with their
We understand that many of our counfarmers and bailiffs--on the culture of plants as food for cattle. In the second trymen, who have taken out Pateuts in volume the author warrates his experiments Britain for various discoveries, have been ou the art of raising cattle, of all kinds, induced to take out Patents for the same, in beeves, sheep, pigs, horses; also, those on the best manner of freding them. A third France, without delay; kuowing very well, Folume will contain experiments on ma
that every English invention is immediately nores, on sowing, on proper implements, transferred to that country, by persons seed, and ou the culture of plants, which interested in taking advantage of British are raised for sale. The fourth volume will
ingenuity. contain moltiplied experiments made by the author in economics, and the general
It may, therefore, be of use to such gen. Jabours of rural life.
tlemen to know before hand, what they We should conjecture that this work have to expect from France; on what terins might afford valuable hints to our agricul- and to what extent, Patents are there turists: the soil of Saxony is not wholly unlike that of England.
granted, and how far they are useful. We It may be proper to add in this place, have known great disappointments take that prudence should guide the agricultu: place, for want of such information, in both rist in the extent of his experiments, and countries : as well Foreigners coming over the maynitude of the obje: is included in his undertakings. We understand that M. to London, to obtain Patents, here, who dt Feliruberg, whose labours ju Switzer- supposed they might be had on the same lauid, have several times been brought he terms as in France; as Englishmen going fore our readers, is reported as being far frum satisfied with the result of his patri
over to Paris, who expected to find the otic endeavours : his appearance bespeaks same principles adopted, as they were aca profound melao holy; his collection of customed to in Eugland. agricultural machines, thougii confessedly important, and invaluabie, are considered FORMALITIES TO BE OBSERVED BY THOSE
WHO SOLICIT PATENTS, AND AVOUNT OJ as being suitable to large farms only; and consequently, those who hold small firins, think themselves dispensed with from avail The patents delivered by the present ing themselves, generally, of their advan- French Government bear no resemblance tages.
to the exclusive privileges which TURKEY.
obtained under the antient monarchy: they Greek Dictionary, in progress. are inerely certificate given to an indiviFrom Constantinople is announced the ual of the declaration which he makes of publication of a National Dictionary of having invented a machine', or a process, the Modern Greek language. This Dir from the employment of which a new tionary will comprize beside the explana- ranch of industry is the result. Threa tion of words, that of Mythological terms kim is of brevets are issued; viz. of inyen-terms used in History--in Geography, 101, prefecimury, and importatio.. and in other Sriences. It will form three Patents of importation are granted to volumes in small folio. Price :20 piastres. those who procure for our industry a pro
Homer, reports of a new Poem of cess or machine knowniu for ign countries It is reported on the Continent-hut we ouly. The laws of the 7th of January and have not been able to trace the report to 25th of My Hot h:ving determined in a any satisfactory source,-that an English positive manner the duraiion of these man at Smyrna has viscovered an ancient patents, an imperial decree of the 19h of Greek Manuscript, containing among August 1810 orains that it shall be the other things, a new poem of Blomer's. same with that of patents of invention. That such a thing is not impossible ap
improvements in the arts often form an pears from the discovery of Homer's Hynin invention as important as the prmitire to Ceres; but who this fortunate indivi- discovery. It was therefore proper to give dual is, has not yet appeared. One thing, an extensive property in them by a patent. however, we think ourselves warranted in But if the French laws have gone this asäerting, that there is no Greek Poet length, they do not regard on the other living, who can pass off a poem of his own, haud as improvements, any or mens or for one of Homer's.
mere changes of fornis and proportious.
THE SUNS WHICU THEY MUST PAY.
There must be an addition to the disco. , vets which have expired; and if there is
any surpluis, it is to be employed to the Several discoveries cannot be included advantage of the national industry. in oue brevet: each must be the subject The secretary-general of the prefecture of a partiruar petition. In order to obtain draws up a procès-verbal on the back of a title of this kind, the compliance with the packet placed in his hands, and he different forn alities is indispensable. delivers to the petitioner a certificate of
The claimant must, in the first plare, de having so received it. The whole is afterposit at the general secretariat of the pre. wards aduressed by the prefect to the ferture of the department where he resides, minister for manufactures and commerce. I sealed packet, containing
Principles ESTABLISHED BY THE Laws in 1. His petition to the minister of many. DELIVERING BREVETE OR PATENTS, factures and commerce, to the effect of ob It has been seen above, that in France taining a brevet for five, tent, or fifteen there is nothing else than the certificate years, according as he pleases.
delivered to an individual of the deciaration 2. The memoir describing the means which he has naile, of having invenied a which he uses.
machine or pro ess giving rise to a new 3. Double sets of drawings signed bv bruch of industry. The alministration himself, or a molel of the objeci of bishes vor judge, in fact, of the ment of the discovery.
inventions for which patents are solicited.
Whoever his complied with the forma4. An inventory, in luplirate signed by him, ofthe pieces coutained in the packet
l'ie's presenuerlig thoa luwe of the 71h of He must besides pay a tix, were or less Janurry and 25th of May 1791, may obtain considerable, accoriing to the duration ther, as these laws enici expressly that of the brevet, which cannot exceed 6s they shall be granted on a simple request,
:41 without previous erumination. Thus
they may be applied for, for a process Three hundred francs (LIS 10s.) are kiiowu to every body; the legislature prill for a brevit for five years.
hasing determined that they are null, and Light hundred francs (£6) for te even prejudicial to those who have obtained years.
them, if the object for which thes have Fifteen hundred francs (£67 1os. for a beeu granted has no existence; or if it has brevet for filieen years, besides fifty francs been known or practisert before the date (£2_2s., for the fees of making out the pa of the brever. l fact, if the discovery be tent.
purely imaginary, the experises which the The law admits of the duration of bre. patent has cost are whoils losi. if the vets being extended: but in order to ob-process was already knowl, Article 16 of tain this favour, which is but rareiv grant the law of the 17th of January pronounces its ed, a roval diverse is vecessary. A new Hullity. The rights coutérred by brevets bum is then paid in the above proportions are therefore conditional only, i. f. tney
The climani noust pas as a deposit with secure an exclusive enjoyment ople if the his pers, one hit of the tax. He is al
patentee is really an inventor. Ai the first vid six nionths to pay the other half, once, it may be thought strange that if not paid then, ihe patent falls to the lities of this nature should be given without yround. If patenters wish to mahe ang previous exammation; but ou reflection changes in their original petition, they it will appear that it would have been must deposit the description of obeir new very difficult to have found a mode better method in the secretriit or the paferture, adapted to the end in view. Several and pry a second tax, which is iis ontv-fonr motives dirtated this live of pro:eeding : francs : 208.' for the last of lirevets, and ou the one hand, it was proper 10 save the twelve fre's to the secretariat of the pre administration die embarrasune ol of a song ferture. The minister for manufactures and nd ditt u't examination, and the responsi. commerce 1000 delivers a seront lite, bility of a judgement whiidi, if it had been which is called 'emifii ate of additions, unifovourabie, might have given rise to changes and iniprovements.
borces of pritiality or malignity: and og Artrie 19, title int, of the law of the the o:her band, to spare to inventors the oth of Many regnates the destination of necessits of a conimunication, the abuses of the soirs raised from the ollaining of bre which they might dread. In fact, the vets in the first place thry go to pay the nee ious crummution would have been ex! ???95s of five mikine ont savo piutlishing completely to the disadvantage of artists, the prints, wierwarels to pay the 13o since they must have communicated, with. peuses of printing and engraving the bie out any pledge of success, processes the
property of which might have been snatched a patent must be brought before the Judge from them. It would have been necessary de Pais, who, after hearing parties and to have submitted these processes to com. their witnesses, pronounces his decision : misssaries following the same career with which, if there be nio appeal, is forthwith themselves, and whose private interests, executed. prejudices, or spirit of rivalship, might ARPANCEMENTS MADE SINCE THE PROMULA sway their judgments. In the most fa
GATION OF THE LAWS OF THE 7TH JA. vourable point of view, the previous exa NUARY, AND 25th May, 1791. minatiou would therefore have had for a result to dissipate some absurd projects and of May are not the only ones which have
The laws of the 7th of January and 25th some futile inventions: but if they had been issued upon brevet.. There exists anbeen allowed to appear, the public, would soon have done justire to them; and if the other law, dated the 201h of Septeniber, invention had been useless, the patentee 1792, which prohibits all, granting of brewould have thrown away ihe expense of vets, for any other objects that those conhis brevet. This motive is sufficient, we
pected with the arts. Petitions for patente
for financial and commercial operations apprehend, to diminish in the minds of artists, generally not very rich, the partia- gave rise to this prohibition. Subsequently lities which they have for their discoveries,
a decree was published, which merely con• and prevent them from presenting peti- viously they were granted by the supreme
cerns the mode of delivering brevets. Pretions without any object.
It remained 10 provide for the case in authority, but thenceforth by the minister which a patentee should make a dangerous tificate of the petitioner which he gives is
for manufactures and commerce. The ceruse of his brevet, or one injurious to the health or norals of the public. The laws of only a provisional title: but it becomes de the 7th of January and 25th of May have of the article in the royal decree which ap
finitive by the transmission to the patentee in this case provided the means of depriving plies to his invention, when the brevets dehim of a privilege which he might abuse, livered in the conrse of every four months and even of punishing him if he does They have likewise pointed out the steps to
are published. Difficulties liaving arisen, be taken 10 deprive him of a right which whether, upon receiving the certificate of he has usurped over some thing already might be prosecuted, or, if it was neres,
the application, the infringers of a patent known. NuLlity of BrevETS, AND AUTHORITIES the publicity procured to it by His Ma
sary to wait until the patent had received WBICI DECIDE UPON THEM.
jesty's prociamation,-a decree of the 25th The nullity of brevets is decided, ac of January, 1807, puts an end to these cording to circumstances, by the admi- doubts, by enacting “ that the duration of nistrative or justiciary authorities. The a patent begins to reckon from the date of minister of manufactures and commerce the certificate which establishe's provision-decides upon it when the patentee has not ally this privilege." The same decree has paid the balance of his fees, and when the decided that the priority of invention, in inventor without assigning a good cause case of contestation between two patentees for his delay, has not brought his discovery for the same object, is acquired by him into use within the space of two years. who has been the first that has deposited The tribunals are to judge upon the dis. at the secretariat of the department the puies which may rise between a patentee documents which ought to accompany ile who wishes to maintain his privileges, and claim for a patent. An arrangement in any individuals who pretend that his inven- article 14 of Titie II. of the law of the 25th tion was known previously to the date of of May, had prohibited the obtaining of bis patent, either by being in nse, or by brevets by what is termed actions. This description in a printed work. The intera was abrogated by a decree of the 25th of ested parties trust therefore use all the ne November, 1806, on the representations of cessary and usual means to obtain a deci- some individuals that it would prejudice sion. In ordering this measure to be pur- the interests of inventors, insa sinuch as it sued, the law considers the patent as a pro- | would deprive them of an easy method of perty, of which no person can be deprived taking advantage of their disi overies. without a due observance of the established It sometimes happens that patentees adforms. Articles 12 and 13 of the law of dress themselves to Goverument, ju order the 7th of January, and 10, 12, and 13,) to obtain recompenses as the authors of of Title II. of the law of the 25th of May, important discoveries. It is impossible to regulate the method of proceeding. Ac- listen to all their demands in this respect. wording to those articles, the infringers of Article II of the law of September 12,
1791, prohibits the granting of particular, Russell Brigade about five miles from the encouragements to those who have prority of Hydrahad, it was still miore violent; vided themselves with a patent. This re the stones were generally 1 inches in cir. solution was adopte!, upon the considera umference, and they remained upwards tion that no recon pense is due to those in- of 20 hours uvdissolved. Of our large flock ventors who reserve to themselves the ex- ofsbeep 118 were kitled by the bail siones." clusive enjoyment of their discoveries; and
Earthquake ; Earth opened. that those persoiss only merit favour, who
We bave been favoured with the follow. render their discoveries of free and coming transasion of' a Malırattah letter from moni use, and thus add to the welfare of Provah, which gives an account of an earthsoriety, which all goveriments ought to quake that has lately taken place. seek Hissantly to ameliorate.
“ Near Tsainbar Gondall, there are beParis, Oct. 13, 1913. Count De Sussy,
longing to lo!kar, iwo towns called Ca
trabaz and Mander Ghur-some time after Minister of Manufactures and Commerce.
the nviddle of lacghesver, in the afternoon,
There was suddenly a great voise heard, and INTLRESTING INTELLIGENCE the earth opened, and the noise was so
great as to be heard at the distance of so
ross, in every direction : the opening of the BRITISH SETTLENENTS IN INDIA. curtha is 25 cubits in hreadth, and upwards
ofa hored in length. Three persons and CALCUTTA.
some cattle that bappened to be near the ECCLESIASTICAL PROCEEDINGS.
plaie at the time, died." Resolutions of the Right Honouralle the Gorernor
An arerage account of the quantities of Indige, General in Council, in the Public Department,
manufactured in the provinces of Bengal and under date the isi of Norembar, 1316.
Balar, during the last ten years ; “ Resolveri, that all nominations of the
85,380 29 6 Honourabie ('ompuur's Chaplains to par
51,214 ticalar statiops under the respective Presi.
1 807 8
108,256 22 13 dencies, do in future originate with the
91,599 25 og Lord Bishop, and that he be requested to
2 conmunicate all such nominations to the 1810.11
78,719 25 12 Governor General in Coun il, or the locai
69,872 5 Governments of the respertive Presidencies
72,976 20 15 in order that the pecessary instructions for
74,505 39 the is 'ue of pay and allowan' es to the re 1814-15 from Sep. spective Chaplains at the stations to which
to Jan. 96,163 af 122,524 0 0 they shall be severally appointed, may be
terwards 20,361 expedited in the usual manner.
HINDOO SUPERSTITIONS. Resoived, that all Clergymen appointed in future to the situation of Chaplain on the
We with difficulty bring ourselves to Establishments of ihe respective Pre en- believe, that antiently, children were burnt cies, do immediately on their arrival in to death, by passing through the fire to hadia, report themselves to the Lord Bishop: Moloch; and the famous sacrifice of the or, in his at sence, to the Archdeacon of the Presidency, at which such clergymeu Carthagenian Children to Saturn, to the
number of three hundred, at one time, Resolved, that all official correspondence we read; but suspend our bebef of it. relating to the duties or concerns of the Nevertheless, those facts differ in nothing clergy, be in fullire carried on with the Lord Sislop, or, in his atsence, with the but the medium of destruction, from others, Archileacous of the respective Presidencies which yearly pass under our own eyes, in and that all such correspondence be in fu our Iudian territories ; and can we find ture recorded separately in the Public Department, under the head of “ Ecclesiastical difficulty in admitting that the parent who Proceedings."
could devote bis child to the water, could EXTRAORDINARY HAIL STORM.
have devoted it to the fire, had that been Extract of a Letter from Hydrabad.
the Deity, to which he had thought himself Early in the month of February, 1816, bound by his vows formerly made? there was a hail siorm aud violent wind at On the 2d March, 1810, at the Varoones Secundrabad – but at the cantonment of the Festival, a large concourse of Hindoes as