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brick-kiln, to all who can labonr, and By the bye, we take advantage of this apply for parochial relief, has, it is said, suggestion to enquire what may be the diminished the Poor-rate to the extent amount of the sum annually raised for of a thousand pounds a-year.” Mr. P. the support of the roads throughout the indulges himself in proposing a very kingdom This sum certainly reacbes pretty plan for the formation of ham- the hands of the labouring poor ; and lets and cottages, “placed in a quincunx in many places, to our knowledge, it form," but he wants five millions as a employs labourers well advanced in years. loan from Government to carry his It is constant work ; and must be, of scheme into execution !! He has other course, one preventative of pauperism. propositions, also,

Sir Thomas Bernard's pamphlet is Every parish, instead of contributing to distinguished by a bold attack on a prothe subsistence of able and healthy persons ductive but excessive tas--the duties on in idleness, should bring them into a state salt. We have long ago heard from unof active labor and useful industry. These questionable authority that the salt persons should be sent to aid in the for- daties were much too high, not for the mation of a national road, or in some other work of utility.

good of the public, only, considered as The road itself should originate with the purchasers of the article, but in Parliament, and a part of the sinking fund many other respects in which the commay with propriety, justice, and advantage, modity would be useful, could it be obbe appropriated to this purpose. Let 1-4th tained on moderate terms. One instance part of it, or 3,000,0001. a year be ab- of such prevention of public benefit, is stracted for this great work. With this related by the worthy writer, which we som you may accomplish every object which has been recommended. You may

give in his own words. put the whole country into a state of ac

A recent circumstance-has occurred in tivity, and with the peculiar advantage of regard to “ the Association for the Relief employing men in different parts of the of the manufacturing and labouring poor," country. The money thus expended will where statesmen and lawyers where the be restored to the individuals through acting parties, and every assistance given whose hands it ought to pass. It will by Government; and yet all their measures create a demand for consumption in those baffled by the interference of a petty exparts of the country which are in most need cise officer.—As this is a case which came of a market and of a circulation in money. within my personal observation, I will The disproportion between the circulation briefly state the circumstances. In order is one of the evils of the moment. It will to provide relief for the poor under the give activity to the plough, to the mines, to rural employments, and to the mecba mated at 95,5951. averaging rather more than nics who are connected with roral labor.

61. a house. There were 1,500 uninhabited

houses in the parish. The annual value of the The fund-holders are obliged to him; 3,893 houses contributing to the rate was and if he can obtain their consent to 114,6651., the annual average of which is this diversion of the sinking fund, he about 291. 108. per house. Of these houses may assure himself of our's. We beo of their proportion of the rate, some a third,

which do contribute, some pay half the amount lieve this Senator to be a very worthy and a few only a fourth. According to the man; but, he looks at nothing besides evidence of Mr. Lloyd, the vestry clerk of the Agriculture and the Landed interest.* parish of Birmingham, given at the county

sessions held last week, it appeared that there * Mr. P. might have cast a compassionate comprising 20,000 persons, relieved weekly

were no less than 5,000 out-cases, or families, look on the state of some of our manufacturing that there were 800 paupers in the bouse, and towns ; we annex a Report of the condition of 300 in the Asylum ; that their weekly pay, one of them, some months ago, so far as con

ments uow amounted to 8001.; that the parish cerns the Poor Rate.

was at the present moment 6,0001. in debt; BIRMINGHAM.- From a survey made, in and that it was becoming involved deeper and July last, of the town of Birmiugham, it has deeper every week. The amount collected been found to contain 18,082 houses and pre. upon each rate, levied for the use of the poor, mises assessed to the Poor-rates, aud the an produced upon an average from 1,4001. to mual value is estimated at 210,1701.; but only 1,5001.-it should produce 1,7001. They had 3,180 of the houses contribute to the rate. had twenty levies since last Easter; and he The number of non-coutribating houses was expected that a rate would be required weekly 14,189, the annual value of which was esti- till next Easter.

pressure of scarcity, the sum of £17,000 was Salt is worth about fifteen or sixteen raised by private subscription in the Me- shillings per ton, as delivered by the tropolis. Among other meastires adopted, manufacturer, at his stores. On this a contract was entered into with the North Government lays a duty of £30 per Sea fishermen, to purchase of them at the rate of 18l. per ton, all the corned cod, ton, or abont forty times the value of which they could not otherwise dispose of the commodity itself

. To ensure the and in the year 1815, six hundred tons of reception of this immense profit on the corned cod, and three hundred tons of fresh labour and capital of the manufacturer, cod, were supplied and distributed for the not only a retinue of officers is provided, maintenance of our own poor, and of the but also a system of laws distinguished French prisoners then in England. In by their severity; the great disadvantages 1814, the pressure of the scareity still con- of which are pointed out by this writer, tinuing, the Committee resolved to endea. He instances what might be the benefits vour to double the supply: they therefore derived from using salt as a manure, for invested the sum of £2264 11s, in the purchase of salt, prepared tanks for curing the the improvement of waste lands—for the fish, and hired double the number of ves- advantage of cattle, bay, &c.—for the sels that were employed in the preceding fisheries— for various other articles of year. When the fishermen were ready to manufacture, as mineral alkali, sal-amproceed on their voyages, doubts were sug. moniac, maguesia, Glauber salts, &c.gested, and notices given by the excise These, or inferior substitutes, we are now officer of the district, as to their allowance obliged to seek from foreign parts ; beof salt. An alarm instantly spread among cause, though the unlimited power of the fishermen ; and though upon the Committee's application to the Treasury, an or.

furnishing them is within the ready der was obtained for the Excise to make the reach of our manufacturers, yet the full allowance of salt duty free, yet the terror heavy duties, or the still heavier laws, of pains, penalties, and Exchequer processes, preclude the attempt. Foreigners take prevailed among the fishermen, and most advantage of our discoveries, and send of them abandoned their coutract for the over to us manufactured articles, which

In consequence the quantity of we purchase from them at a bigh price, 900 tous, or rather (what might have been instead of obtaining them ourselves obtained but for officious interfereuce) the almost gratis, from what we now waste, expected supply of EIGHTEEN HUNDRED

as refuse. Tons of palatable and nutritious food for the relief of a suffering population, was re

The argument of Sir Thomas is, that duced to 150 tons, being only a twelfth if these manufactures were set free by part of what might otherwise have been alterations in the salt duties, they would obtained ; the Association was subjected to give occupation to vast bodies of laboura beavy loss, and countless loads of fish ers, farmers, and husbandmen, sailors were lost to the country.

and fishermen, &c. while the exportable “ The terror of pains, penalties, and commodities which would be produced, Exchequer processes, prevailed among at a moderate rate of export duty would the fishermen;"--and not without cause; yield a much greater revenue to the for, supposing that they had transgres- public treasury, than the salt duties sed some statute, known only to officers collected in their present form. whose professional duty required ac There are many trades and manufacquaintance with it, what could make tures on the Continent, such as those of them amends for loss of time and ex-bleachers, calico printers, &c. which carpences of process, even admitting that not be carried on without large supplies of the penalties were not enforced against MURIATIC Acid, and also of OXYMURIthem? What uneducated sailor, cottager, atic Acid. And as foreigners, in making or fisherman, could warrant himself that these chemicals, have had the unrestrained he was not at the mercy of some spiteful

use of English salt, duty free, they obtain and unprincipled informer,—that he had tions, at a much lower rate than our own

these articles, so necessary to their opera, not omitted some form of entry, notice, manufacturers; who are subject to the sebond, permit, or &c. to the forfeiture of vere restrictions of the 38th of Geo. III. in his vessel or boat, and the total ruin of the use of salt, and are prevented from ap. his family?

plying the residuum to any profitable pur


pose. If the salt used in England, were perfecting that vnion, which, we trust, duty free, and a small duty laid on export- | future generations will describe as their ed salt, muriatic acid and bleaching salts, happiness. We must, however, give would become with us articles of manufac this gentleman credit for good intention ; ture to send abroad; and, on exportation, and we cannot but wish a reform were would bear a moderate duty, equivalent to the export duty on the quantity of salt effected in many departments of life and from which these articles are made. manners, on which he descants. He

treats on tythes-on education-on fashThe regulations respecting the salt du- ion-on the influence of female manners ties are, on account of the excessive amount -on ale-houses-pawn-brokers, &c.of the tax, necrssarily very strict and se. We grant that many things he has fixed vere. The salt proprietor is in no case, al- on need reformation; whether his pnblowed admission into his own warehouses, lication will effectually promote that deexcept in presence of the excise officer, who keeps the key, and never trusts it out sirable end, must be left to the decision of hand on any account whatever. When of time and experience. A more simple ever the proprietor wants admittance to statement, a more one-at-a-time prothem, he is obliged to give previous notice posal, would have stood a better chance to the exciseman, and request him to attend. of being effectual. We wish for univer. So, on the pumping into the pan, hoiling, sal reform; but we despair of seeing it drawing, warehousing, and loading, pre- advance in every direction at once. vious notice must be given ; and thereby time is lost, expense incurred, and the prosent State of Public Affairs” opened in

The pamphlet, entitled “On the preprietor often materially injured. Taxes laid on during war are not al- information, and just reasoning, in the

a mauner which led us to expect -much ways so thoroughly considered as to continuation : says the writer, their distant consequences, as they should be. The pressure of the mo These party-patriots, who ferret out, and ment induces the Minister to prefer snch fasten upon the distresses of the time with articles as appear to yield the greatest so keen a tooth, do by no means lament profit with the smallest cost, or incon- them, violent as they are in their comnisvenience, at the time. It

eration : they are perfectly well satisfied

that things should be as they are, as affordhoped, that a state of peace, as afford- ing a powerful means of fermenting the ing more leisure, and producing many spirit of hostility against those upon whose changes, may also afford opportunity for removal from power they are so eagerly better arrangement of the public bur- beut. Wealth, and rank, and station, are thens. They will be less felt when bet- of themselves strong excitements to hatred ter arranged; even though their amount in low and contracted minds; more espemay not be diminished. It is well cially when the mass of persons of this known, that a vessel's rate of sailing is cast are made to believe, that they are greatly affected by the manner in which this ; that the whole equipment is at their

the main contributors to the support of all her cargo is disposed on board; and the charge, and furnished by their labour. same may be said of the vessel of the

Let these possessors of power and place, State;—the comparison is just.

-such is the sentiment which slides into On the other works included in this fied, and annoyed as they may, they have

their feelings- let them be attacked, viliarticle, little need be said. That in

an ample fund of compensation in the titled “ Hints to Radical Reformers," } public and personal gratifications that are would have accomplished more if it had heaped upon them. They have enough of attempted less.

The author informs us the sunshine to repay them for the peltings that he is an Irishman; and many of his of the storm. This is, indeed, a very remarks apply particularly to the state mistaken view of the case. Those who of Ireland." He speaks of his country as

see nothing but the exterior of office; we can by no means allow. The two of its rank, take a very erroneous survey. separate from Britain ; a mode of speech those who bring nothing within the short

of their optics but the appendages islands nok form one kingdom; and That authority of which they are so this writer knows that every Session of jealous, to be truly estimated, must be seen Parliament something is done towards in the fatigues of its exertion, in the wear

may be

and tear of mind, in the sweat--not indeed The common people of this country are of the brow--but of the brain, in its taught to look up to their respective paanxious days and sleepless nights. Where rishes as bound to support them, and to is the reward of all this to be sought? In maintain their children, if they have no the insignia of distinction and the splendour means of livelihood. The natural tendency of authority? far from it. These soon of this is, to make them improvident, grow familiar to the possessor, and become thankless, and dissatisfied. In fact, the as nothing in the scale of real enjoyment; more we consider the subject, the more all the happiness which place and power forcibly shall we be convinced that can give soon fades and dies away of itself; the levying a compulsory rate on any numthe cause of this is in the luman mind. ber of individuals in that parish, is in itself But the toil, the solicitude, the difficulty, a stretch of authority to which custom has the vexation, the disappointments; all these made us familiar, and against which the sarvive, and, what is worse, survive, for benevolent tendencies of our pature do not the most part, to be perpetually encoun- prompt us to contend; but when the rate tered and never overcome.

is augmented, as in many parishes it is, to Take the most opulent man you can find an amount most oppressive 10 those on -his personal consumption-the portion whom it is levied, the nature of the exacof his property expended on himself—is as tion, and of the authority under which it nothing. His own share of its enjoyment is enforced, becomes more palpable. The is limited indeed. Take, for instance, a subject contributes to the support of the Janded proprietor – there are not many government, because he owes the security such—of twenty thousand a year, and cal of his property to the peace wbich it preculate what is expended on his own support, serves, and the protection it ensures. On and you will find, that all which ministers the same ground he is called upon to pay to his own subsistence, may be purchased his fair contingent towards the public exfor three hundred pounds a year; perhaps, penditure, whether incurred in the defence for less. The rest of his income, if he lives of the state, or by other causes connected up to it, after deducting the pay and main, with its splendour, its strength, or its setenance of his household, is exhausted in curity ; but that the arm of power should the payment of the wages of labour to the interfere to take whatever portion it may tradesman, the artizan, the manufacturer, deem expedient of the industrious man's the artist, all of whom the necessities of earnings, to provide for those who earn his situation compel him to employ, and nothing, is a violation both of the law of towards whose maintenance-such is the property and the principles of justice. All order of things-he pays his ample contri- thai can rightfully be done, is to put the bution. After all, the great difference be necessitons in the way of providing for tween a small or a great fortune consists in themselves; to furnish them, if they bave this, that the one you spend upon yourself, the ability to labour, with the means of the other you spend upon other people. making their labour profitable. If autho

This is true ; and it reconciles the rity can usefully interfere, it can ouly be in philosophical investigator of passing this course; all beyond it is inequitable, events to the facts of the times as they

in politic, and pernicious. rise before him. There is this further lower classes should be brought to cousider

It is of the utmost importance that the distinction : that wealth be expended in this subject, as in truth and sound reason virtuous, or at least, innocent enjoy it ough to be considered ; and that they ments; for when, on the contrary, wealth should not be misled, as too long they have is the pander to vice : there is no curse been, to conceive themselves as having a ' more cruel to which a country can be natural right, when overtaken by poverty, subjected. This writer wanders from to be supported out of the earnings of what would have been bis better path,

others. by taking too much notice of Lord Coch

In pursuing his argument, the author rane and Mr. Cobbett ; his work will observes, that “less than a hundred not convert a single one of their adhe-thousand pounds satisfies all the siuerents; and no others need conversion. cures in England, and in England alone

With regard to the Poor Rates, there SEVEN MILLIONS annually are levird seems to be an increasing disposition to for the support of the poor?" He states view them in a light different from what the deductions from the supposed prois now established law. We set this be-fits of several offices ; and shews ihat fore our readers in the author's words: the nominal amount of their incomes

imposes no burden on the public trea- ' in the scale of the creation, lower than sury, being derived from other sources.

brutes—To this principle then, iuherent The truth of the following observations in the breast of all, is to be attributed by is obvious :

far the greater part of the present distress

of the Country-to this is to be traced the The number is always great of those, scenes of riot universally apparent when who having started for the gold cup of po- the earvings of the individual somewhat pularity, are not very choice in their ma exceed the demand for his present subsistnæuvres for jostling others out of the ence. To this is to be attributed the per. course; in this coulest, of all others, the petual scenes of excess and drunkenness race is not always to the swift. A prodi- of the lower orders, to be found in no gious reduction of patronage must at all Country except in England. From these times unavoidably arise from the termina causes the corrupt state of the morals of tion of war. Not only is all that influence the people naturally proceed. No interlost which arises from the giving ships and ference of the Legislature, no anrious exerregiments, stations and appointments, but tions of the well intentioned, can counteract a considerable degree of odium and unpo. these evils while these principles remain prepularity is incurred by his Majesty's minis- dominant-Thus a very great proportion of ters, from the hardships to which vast the sums collected for the support of the numbers are subjected by this very reduc- Poor may be traced, immediately or ultition ; not only are so many avenues to po- mately, to Ale Houses and Gin Shops ; to pular favour shut up, and other great means these receptacles all occasionally or more of countenance and promotion curtailed frequently resort ; almost every Englishand cut away, but the general mass of dis- mau, of the lower order, bas expended tress and discontent is augmented; and by large sums in these public resorts; bere is the general system of economy pursued swallowed up all that is not required for through all the different departments of immediate support ; aud much of what is the state, they multiply their enemies, and necessary for the maintaibance of a family, lessen their adherents.

Beer is frequently substituted for bread, The country Overseer, who traces and Spirituous Liquors are indulged in at

The country Overseer, who traces the expense of the starving children-Thus: England's ruin to the Poor Laws, agrees from the Poor rates arise, in a great meawith the foregoing writer, in describing sure, the immense fortunes acquired by as extremely baneful, the principles they Brewers and Distillers; and the thriving have been the means of spreading. He condition of almost every Publican-Why says,

are the bard earnings of the provident and

the industrious to be torn from hem for These alarming and increasing evils evi, the maintenance of the idle, the profligate, dently originate in the principles ingrafted and the drunkard? If the Laws of Eng. by the Poor Laws, in the minds of the lower land enforce it, the Laws of Nature fororders of society; every individual is fully bid it. and firmly convioced, that the Parish is obliged to provide for him and his family We notice this passage the more parin every case of emergeucy. Are they ticularly, because it appears from an arhungry? the Parish must feed them; do ticle in the present number, that Enge they want clothing? the Parish niust pro- land does not furnish that singular vide it; are they destitute of a home? the instance of poverty from indulged inParish 'must provide house room, bedding, toxication, which this writer supposes. fuel, &c. &c.

Hence every provident feeling is banish-| America, a young and rising state, sufed, all thoughts of provision for the future fers the same evil to an equal degree. are entirely set aside; the labourer, the The fact deserves attention; for, if idlelow mechanic or manufacturer, the soldier ness and intoxication prevail, wherever or sailor, who provides somewhat for the the poor are maintained by provision of future, is indeed a phenomenon. --The law, at the expence of the industrious idea of future provision from the Parish is and sober ;-and, if where such statutes predoininant, and a sufficient answer to

are unknown, the poor do not thus prey any prudent feeling that may at any time

on their fellow-citizens, then it follows, arise in the breast — mauy animals are known to provide for the future; the effect beyond denial, that, however well inof the English Poor Laws on the lower tended, such enactments are injurious class of society however, is to preclude all to the body politic. They confer the idea of future provision, to reduce them, power of legal plunder on a few, whom

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