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ing of Parliament ; namely, the 10th of aware of the ultimate intentions of many February: and it appears by the papers of their leaders; and the Committee would referred to the Committee, that meetings by no means ascribe to all these societies in various parts of the country, conforma- the same practices and designs which they bly to a plan settled by the leading per have found to be but too prevalent amongst sons in London at an early period, were a large number of them ; but they find intended to be held on the same day. that, particularly among the manufacturing
It appears mauifest, that the persons en and labouring classes, societies of this degaged in various parts both of England nomination have been most widely extendand Scotland, in forwarding the plans of ed, and appear to have become some of the revolution, have constantly waited for the chief instruments of disseminating docexample of the metropolis. Intelligence trives, and of preparing for the execution of the event of the meeting there on the 2d of plans, the most dangerous to the public of December was anxiously expected; and security and peace. as the first report of the beginning of the Others of these societies are called Union disturbance excited in a high degree the Clubs, professing the same object of Parspirits of the disaffected, so its speedy sup-liamentary reform, but under these words pression produced the expression of strong understanding universal suffrage and anfeelings of disappointment. Had it even nual Parliaments-projects which evidentpartially succeeded, there seems much realy involve not any qualified or partial son to believe that it would have been the change, but a total subversiou of the Brisignal for a more general rising in other tish constitution. parts of the kingdom. Since that time it It appears that there is a London Union appears to be the prevailing impression Society, and branch Unious corresponding amongst the leading malcontents in the with it, and affiliated to it. Others of these country, that it is expedient for them to societies have adopted the name of Spenwait till the whole kingdom shall (accord cean Philanthropists ; and it was by meming to their expression) be more complete. bers of a club of this description that the ly organized, and more ripe for action. plans of the conspirators in London were
What is meant by completely organizing discussed and prepared for execution. the country is but too evident from the pa The priuciples of these last associations pers before the Committee. It appears seem to be spreading rapidly among the clearly that the object is, by means of so other societies which have been formed, cieties or clubs, established, or to be esta and are daily forming, under that and other blished, in all parts of Great Britain under denominations in the country. Among pretence of Parliamentary reform, to in the persons adopting these principles it is fect the minds of all classes of the commu. common to disclaim Parliamentary reform nity, and particularly of those whose situ as unworthy of their attention. Their obation most exposes them to such impres-jects are avowed in a handbill dispersed sions, with a spirit of discontent and dis. by the society of that description in Lonaffection, of insubordination, and contempt don, and in numerous other publications. of all law, religion, and morality; and to These objects are, “ A parochial partner. hold out to them the plunder and division “ ship in land, on the principle that the of all property, as the main object of their “ Jandholders are not proprietors in chief; efforts, and the restoration of their natural “ that they are but the stewards of the rights; and no endeavours are omitted to “public ; that the land is the people's prepare them to take up arms on the first “ farm; that landed monopoly is contrary signal for accomplishing these designs. “ to the spirit of Christianity, and destruc
It is on these grounds that your Com “tive of the independence and morality of mittee bave been led to look with particu " mankind." lar anxiety to the formation, principles, The societies under these different and conduct of those societies or clubs by names are so numerous, and so various, that which the ends of the disaffected have been it has been difficult to obtain a complete hitherto so much forwarded, and are ex view of all of them, or to comprehend pected by them to be finally accomplished. them under any general description. Many of these societies pass uuder the de. The couutry societies are principally to nomination of Hampden Clubs. Under be found iu and in the neighbourhood of his title societies of very various descrip- Leicester, Loughborough, Nottingham, ions appear to have been formed, all pro- Mansfield, Derby, Chesterfield, Shefheid, essing their object to be Parliamentary re Blackburne, Manchester, Birmingham, and orm. This name and their professions Norwich, and in Glasgow and its vicinity; may have induced many persons to become but they extend and are spreading, in some members of such societies who may not be parts of the couutry, to almost every vil.
lage. In addition to all the arts of seduc- same purposes ; and the meetings are fretion, resort is also had to a system of inti- quently ierminated, particularly in Lonmidation, and threats are held out to those don, by profane and seditious songs and who refuse to join. Their combinations parodies of parts of the liturgy, in which are artfully contrived to secure secrecy in the responses are chaunted by the whole their proceedings, and to give to the leading company. By such means, and by the members undisputed authority over the profession of open infidelity in which some rest. Oaths of secrecy have been fre- of the members indulge in their speeches, quently administered, some of which are the minds of those wbo attend their meetof the most atrocious and dreadful import. ings are tainted and depraved; they are
They do not, however, trust to this se taught contempt for all decency, all law, curity alone to prevent discovery; their all religion and morality, and are thus proceedings are seldom reduced to writing; prepared for the most atrocious scenes of they pass and are communicated by word of outrage and violence. mouth. The more numerous meetings de Amongst the most effectual means of legate all authority to a managing com- furthering these dangerous designs, the mittee; and by that committee, and by Committee think it their duty particularly meetings of delegates from the committees to call the attention of the house to the un. of different societies, every thing of im- remitting activity which has been employportance is transacted.
ed throughout the kingdom in circulating, The committees themselves are also cau to an unprecedented extent, at the lowest tious of reducing any of their proceedings prices or gratuitously, publications of the to writing, communicating with each other most seditious and inflammatory nature, only by delegates and missionaries. marked with a peculiar character of irre
It appears that, in some parts of the ligion and blasphemy, aud tending not only country, arms have been lately procured to overturn the existing form of Governby individual members of these societies in ment and order of society, but to root out considerable quantities, which can only those principles upon which alone any gohave been done with a view to the use of vernment or any society can be supported. force. Subscriptions are also generally re The Committee cannot bnt consider the quired, which although the amount paid late attack upon his Royal Highness the by each individual may be very small, may Prince Regent, on his way from opening produce, from the large wumbers of the the present Session of Parliament, as an adcontributors, no inconsiderable fuud. ditional and melancholy proof of the efi
The destructive objects which the lead- cacy of this system, to destroy all reverence ing members of these societies have in view for authority, and all sense of duty, and to are demonstrated by their publicatious and expose to insult, indiguity, and hazard the by their proceedings, all equally calculated person of the inimediate representative of to inflame the minds of the members, and the Sovereign, even in the exercise of one in general of the poorer classes of the of the most important parts of his royal community. At the ordinary meetings of functions. the societies, which are often continued to It appears to be an essential part of the a late hour, their time is principally em system to take advantage of the opportuni. ployed in listening to speeches tending to ties afforded by public meetings, convoked the destruction of social order, recommend either by the leaders of these societies, or ing a general equalization of property, and by others, in the metropolis, and in popuat the same time endeavouring to corrupt | lous places and districts, to address the the morals of the bearers, and to destroy multitude in terms of unprecedented license all reverence for religion. The landholder and violence, amounting even in some in: has been represented as a monster which stances to an open declaration that, in case must be hunted down, and the fundholder of non-compliance with their petitions, the as a still greater evil; an:l both bave been Sovereign will have forfeited his claim to described as rapacious creatures, who take their allegiance. These proceedings are from the people 15d. out of every quarteru subsequently printed and circulated, and loaf. They have been told that Parlia- thus become a fresh vehicle for sedition and mentary reform is no more than a half treason. measure, changing only one set of thieves By the frequency of these meetings, and for another, and that they must go to the by the new practice of continuing them Jand, as nothing short of that would avail (under various pretexts) by frequent adthem. Another principal employment of journments, the minds of his Majesty's their time is to listen to publications of the well-disposed and peaceable subjects are same description as the speeches, contain: beld in a state of perpetual agitation and ing the same doctrines, and leading to the alarm. The appointment of such public
meetings in a variety of different places on | A Remedy for the late Bad Harvest. the same day appears to be considered as the most effectual means of accomplishing
Price 6d. Richardson, London. 1817. the designs of the disaffected, and must
Whoever has contemplated the course evidently, in a high degree, embarrass and of events, as they affect the human race, impede the exertions of all civil powers, must have observed the alternations of applicable to the suppression of distur- prosperity and adversity which succeed bances, distract the attention of Govern- each other with almost as much regulament, and oblige them so to subdivide and harass the military force which it may be rity as the seasons of the year, or as necessary to call in for the assistance of the day and night. On the causes of these, civil power, as to render it inadequate to opinions may sometimes differ; but gethe maintenance of public tranquility.
nerally the cause may be traced to the Such a state of things cannot be suffered conduct of mankind themselves, to the to continue without hazarding the most im- agency of man in respect of his fellow minent and dreadful evils; and although the men, whether operating in savage life Committee do not presume to anticipate or social. Food and raiment, are held
the decision of Parliament as to the parti- in civilized society to be indispensables, = cular measures to be adopted in the present for the support of life; and such they
emergeney, they feel it to be their duty to really are ; but, where from the mildness express their decided opinion, that further provisions are necessary for the preserva
of the climate, clothing inay be disprosed tion of the public peace, and for the pro. with, we do not find the rude inhabitauts tection of interests in which the happiness distinguished by mercy towards those of every class of the community is deeply whom they account their enemies.and equally involved.
They do not go to war with them for
food to supply their own necessities, neFurther Observations on the State of vertheless ibey deprive them of every the Nation, the Means of Employment of
means of sustenance, which the fortune
of war subjects to their power, totally Labour, the Sinking Fund and its Appli- regardless of the distress to which their cation, Pauperism, Protection requisite devastations may reduce them. They to the Landed and Agricultural Interests. even envy their foes the bounties of uaBy R. Preston, Esq. M. P. 8vo. pp. 44. ture; and the spontaneous fruits of the Price 2s. Longman and Co. London. earth, which they would leave to the 1816.
beasts of the field, they destroy, when Hints to Radical Reformers, and Ma- their angry-their ferocious passions.
revenge-implacable revenge, inflames terials for True. 8vo. pp. 164. Hatch In what does this differ from the exard, Loudou. 1817.
treme sufferings produced by war among On the Present State of Public Affairs. That these have more and greater re
nations calling themselves civilized ? 8vo. pp. 102. Murray, London. 1817.
sources than savages, is true ; but naThe Character of Pussing Events. tional enmity urges the belligerents to
reduce these resources to absolute nul8vo. pp. 45. Hatchard, London. 1817.
lity; and when this is accomplished, The Poor Laws Englund's Ruin. then, says the politician, will be the time
Svo. Price 6d. Sherwood and Co. to think of accommodation, and to turn
to our own advantage every favour of
Fortune. Powerful nations take a long On the Supply of Employment and time to be totally ruived: and when
Subsistence, for the Labouring Classes, ruin does come,-supposing the fact, with Remarks on the Operation of the the antagonists are usually equally inSalt Duties. By Sir Thomas Bernard. volved in it. Such is the state of Eu
A nation which has 8vo. pp. 72. Murray, London. 1817. rope at this time.
kept its resources entire, is not to be Cursory Hints on the Application of found. All have descended from that
Public Subscriptions, in providing Em- elevation on which they formerly stood, ployment and Relief for the Labour ing from which they cootemplated the hapClasses. Murray
piness of their subjecte ; all have drunk
of the bitter cup of ealamity, and of na-ed to the humanity of the guardians of tional suffering, and several have drain- St. Luke's. Even Mr. Preston's pamed it to the dregs. There may be there phlet, which is the most alarming of certainly are, gradations among them. Those before us, on the subjects it comComparisons may be drawn, more or prizes, holds forth hope : though after less favorable to some; but, every one a struggle with difficulties of no small has its own distress ; and every one, power and perplexity. That gentleman. at this moment feels the consequences of chiefly refers to the state of the Agrithose events which are too recent to need cultural Interest, which all must acexplanation, and too calamitous to ad- knowledge was, for a while, unreasonamit of concealment.
bly depressed ; but it did not follow, In fact, the greatest consolation that that such depression should be perpecan be offered to our own country, at tual. And this, we think, is his error : present is,-not that she does not suf-he allows his present feelings to beguile fer,-but, that her sufferings are light, his judgment when auticipating probable in comparison with those of soine others. futurities; and be listens less to the And to this, is added by the judicious, cheering predictions of hope, though the soothing hope that after a shorter founded on rational causes, than to the time of pain and uneasiness, than inost exclamations of fear, which are always others require, a return of gradual pros- excessive, and not seldom unreasonable. perity may be looked for, and the na. The second, third, and fourth articles tion with its population, may regain that consider public affairs more politically. proportion of enjoyment, which consists They notice the extent of taxation as with the fluctuations of important it counteracts the labours of the indusevents.
trious, and diminishes the capital of the In the mean while the labours of the manufacturer; as it gives occasion to intelligent are nobly directed in endea- misrepresentation ; as it affords pretexts vours to relieve the afflictions which sur- for insidious spirits to work upon the round them. The benevolence of our public mind, to the detriment of the countrymen triumphs amidst the difficul- British interests, and to the discredit of ties which call it into exercise ; and to the national government. The succeedthe eye of real philanthropy, perhaps, ing tracts propose remedies for parts of the nation never bore a character of the distresses of the poor ; or regulagreater grandeur, than while frankly tions for couducting the remedies proacknowledging the prevalence of anxiety, posed by others. with too much of actual anguish, and These are but a specimen of the pumeeting these and all their concomitant merous pamphlets to which the state of evils, with a firm, a steady, and a last- public affairs has given birth. We are ing disposition, and exertion, to diminish glad to see the general tenor of these and to moderate their severity. attempts ; for although the writers may
Every endeavour for this purpose is be supposed each to recommend his own laudable ; and we are happy to see the view of events, perhaps, his own nospress made the vehicle for conveying the trum for their amelioration, yet the sentiments of the considerate to the freedom of discussion, with the different public. Even the more gloomy view of aspects under which affairs are beheld, circumstances taken by writers, has its cannot but be beneficial on the whole. advantages; partly, because it receives Even the contradictions of writers are not correction from various quarters, and useless : Truth gains by them; they partly, because when a happier state of cause further enquiries to be made; things shall prevail, such works will they appeal to facis, and to better knowcontribute to render them still more ledge; and when the real state of things satisfactory, by comparison, or rather is cleared, they contribute to facilitate by contrast.
the means, or possibly to point out the The temper of the times forbids des proper measures to be taken, for reme prudency. The man who should men- dying the disorders under which it is tion despair, except in the way of pro- acknowledged the state unhappily latesting against it, would be recommend bours.
When we describe these pamphlets | hand, and the fuadholder, the placeman, as a specimen, we would not be under and the pensioner, and your large military stood to intend the smallest disrespect establishment on the other band, are draw. to those gentlemen whose works do not ing to themselves the fruits of the labor of
the active industrious part of the commuappear in our pages. Accident, no
nity: moreover they are consuming the doubt; has contributed to the association capital of the Bee Hive. This diminuof these ; and could we find room for all, tion of capital will, at no distant period, be all should be noticed. It must be ac- severely felt; not merely by a change of knowledged, to the praise of our writers the stock of cattle and of corn from one on politics, that their works usually dis- hand to another, (a result of no great implay good sense, and may afford hints, portance with a view to the future welfare though their schemes, taken as a whole of the country;) but by an actual and
alarming diminution in the number of may be inapplicable.
cattle, and of the quantity of corn, and of We shall first submit, by way of re- physical power, from the absence of macording, Mr. Preston's description of nure, and expenditure in labor; and from the difficulties which oppress the nation. the pauperism and idleness of a large por
tion of the industry of the country; and They are assumed to arise from
the consequent inabilit to reproduce Ist. The Inability to bear Taxation to
an equal quantity of human sustenance. the amount required by Government. 2dly. The pressure of the Poor Rates,
In the three last years, the depreciation and the increase of Pauperism; without of farm produce has not been less than 90 adding the tythes, since they are more
millions a year, or 21. an acre on 45,000,000 immediately under parliamentary cogni
of acres. The abstraction of this sum
from the cultivators and from the pro3dly. The want of work by those who prietors of the soil, and in the end from are able to labor, and who are now with
the laborers, has brought them into the oot employment; and for those who, as
state of ruin, in which they are now inthe winter advances, will be discharged volved. The absence of this amount in from their present employments, without the circulation of money is the result of adý prospect of new cogagements.
prices, and has produced a stagnation in
our manufactures, and brought ruin on This writer states the expenditure of almost every class of the community. the nation at £70,000,000, a sum exceeding the rental of all the land and all choly enough! Ruin! nothing but ruin!
Surely, this representation is melanthe houses, &c. in the kingdom.” He Yet 'Mr. Preston himself will not indulge says that each person pays 41. annually
despair: he speaks of draining retentive. to support this taxation
labourer, who earns 181, 5s. 80. a year, labour one hundred thousand men annn
soils, and employing in that species of pays at least 101. of his earnings, in indirect taxes. He estimates the present would give similar employment.” “The
ally. “ Irrigation on an extensive scale Poor Rates at upwards of ten millions, introduction of hoeing into those parts annually. He affirms that, while the present system of warehousing shall that beneficial improvement, would add
of the country which have not adopted continue, there will be no regular mar
to the extent of the demand for labour.” ket or demand for British corn. lle
“ The extention of Potatoe culture would says,
create a large demand for spring and It is not sufficient that Great Britain autumnal labour; “A large portion bas the same physical resources as for- of useful labour might also be applied merly, or even greater. You must give in making bricks for buildings and action, energy, and power to these resources. The misfortune which is expe
drainings, and pantiles for covering rienced is that you have changed ibe buildings. The plan adopted at Exeter sources and diverted the tide of wealth. of giving employment in a pottery and You are requiring the industrious to labor not only for the capitalist, bnt for those
* In one year a capital of 15001. paid 5001. who are deprived of employment, and to for probate duty, and for succession duty to a great exiept for discharged and maimed the Government. A respectable solicitor soldiers and sailors, most meritorious ob. stated this fact at the moment of writing this jects of relief!! The poor on the one observation.
; and every