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prosperity of the southern provinces, A Map of the State of Louisiana, with but whether without regret, may be part of the Mississippi Territory, from ac- doubted. To anticipate and prevent the tual survey. By W. Darby. Eutered complaints of future ages, against the
pusillaniurity of their forefathers, the ciaccording to act of Congress, the 5th tizens of New York devised their grand day of April, 1816.
canal. To shew that Louisiana is sus4 Geogruphical description of the State ceptible of incalculable prosperity, withof Louisiana: &c.--being au accompa than nature has already provided, is one
out the interference of any canal, other niment 10 the Map of Louisiana. By of the objects of this Map and Volume. • William Darby, Svo. Philadelphia, As a Map, it certainly is the best exAmerica, 1816.
tant of the Province; it appears to be a We lately presented to our readers, faithful delineation of what the author at full length, the proposals of the city surveyed; and as he acted under the of New York to divert by labour and art, sanction of Government, there can be by means of a canal, of no trifling di- no doubt of his having enjoyed facilities mensions, what nature seemed to have superior to those oblainable by any perdetermined to another-a southerly son, whose protection was merely that course. That plan was a counteraction of private authority. to the articles before us. Some years Nearly eleven years have elapsed since have now elapsed since Spain relinquish - this survey was undertaken. The aued Louisiana to France, and France sold thor considers the tide of population as the province to the United States. Not rushing very fast to the banks of the that the United States really wanted land, Mississippi ; and the valley of the Missisund was pressed for room, in the coun- sippi as the receptacle, for ages to come, Iries American population then ge- of emigrants from the eastern slope of cupied; but, because it was desirable that chain mountains, by which the to exclude French colonists from the American territories are divided. He neighbourhood; and because the Spa- conceives that the least discerving must nish seitlers were less likely to be be able to trace (in this valley) the futroublesome, to excite intrigues, or to ture migrations of wealth and power, support them.
and determine, as far as human foreIt was natural
, that the United States sight can penetrate, the destiny of the should accurately survey the purchase United States," made, and beside marking the bounda This representation gives an imporries with sufficient exactness should wish tance to the province of Louisiana, that, for a full acquaintance with the advan- we confess, we had not attached to it. tages derivable from all its parts. This Hitherto it has been imperfectly exwould present a favourable side of the plored, and our acquaintance with it question ; and this again would hold out has been imperfect, of course. We bad * powerfut temptation to settlers to di- considered it as being too much the rerect their yet undetermined steps to a pro- ceptacle of stagnant waters to be agree. vince
of which so much good was report.able; and too much exposed to heat and ed.
its effects, to be salubrious. Mr. Darby The Mississippi is that to Louisiana assures us, that these are unfounded which the Nile is to Egypt; and it was prejudices; and they may be so; but clear that if the trade furnished by its the sight of his niap has not contributed banks, and by those of the numerous to remove them. From that we learn rivers which from high northern lati- that the Great River pot only pursues a tudes, enlarge its waters by their tribu- more tortuous course than we had contary streams, were consigned to the ceived; but that it leaves behind it, in ocean and to Europe, by means of this several places, anple proofs of having magnificent river, that the States to the repeatedly changed its bed.
Those east of its course would sigh in vain for proofs consist in Jakes of water bow a participation; and would hear of the stagnant; which, whether innosentem
poxious, can only be determined by the two hundred feet of elevation, clothed with experience of the vicinity.
pine, oak, and various other trees, often A large portion of the Province is affording most delightful prospects to the the gift of the Great River. That has eye. The eastern range is higher, more
broken and abrupt than the western, and brought down in its long course from
as has been observed abound[s] with pe the north, thousands and millions of par- trifactions, which are met with much more ticles, abraded from the higher grounds, rarely on the westeru bank. Along the which it has slowly deposited. These margin of the water grows the white thorn, deposits, in the course of ages, have hawihorn, and other dwarf trees, forming formed land; and the river has en an elegant natural border. Many small croached on the sea, and, (apparently) prairies (meadows) of eight or ten acres id still continues encroaching. There are
extent, spread themselves over the proa number of islets, waiting, as it were, cultivated, but romantic scene.
jecting banks, and diversify this wild unto join the main land; and there is one
But what renders this lake an object of of the two peninsulas which stretch into peculiar interest is, the proof it affords of the sea, below New Orleans, that is very the continual change effected in those ab little raised above the level of the waves. luviatic regions by the slow, but never
Naturalists, and others, sometimes I ceasing action of water. The medium wish to behold the operations of nature depth is from 15 to 20 feet, and at the low on a great scale : they may be beheld est stage never less than ten or twelve along
the principal body of the water, though in Louisiana; but their progress is so the remains of cypress trees of all sizes 1ow slow, that human life is wasted in con- dead, and most of them with tops broken templation of the scene, and the philo- by the winds, yet remain standing in the sopher finds himself grown grey before deepest part of the lake, The quality of their full developement meets his wishes: resisting the action of the air and water for Nature continues acting after the pati- which the cypress is so remarkable, has ence of man is tired, or bis existence been the cause why so many ruins of that exhausted. The same causes continue
tree remain in Bistineau, to attest the an
cient situation of the country. to produce the same effects, if their powers continue the same; but, if they
This lake has been formed by thọ be diminished, Hie process is dimiti-agency of the waters of the Red River; ished also ; and this can only be known and probably will become meadow land to succeeding generations, by their ex. in time, by the same agency, uninteramination of the records consecrated to ruptedly continued. No tree will exist science by their ingenuous predecessors, with its roots constantly under water:
the Hence the use of history, the value of
cypress perishes when submersed the labours of the learned, the advanthroughout the year. · All other species tages derived from observations made of timber decay, much more rapidly.
Hence the use of cor The progress of desiccation seems to rect maps, shewing boundaries, land be marked by a superabundant popular and water; and marking as bays or tion of that troublesome, and even danshallou's those æstuaries, which future gerous insect, the mosquito. By its ages' will find consolidated, and de- numbers it forbids, the approaches of scribe then accordingly. We cannot man and quadrupeds, and maintains itt have a better opportunity of inserting dominions, in spite of human inventions observations on a subject so interesting and ingenuity. There is something Says our author :
very ingenions in our author's attempt Lake Bistineau presents to the traveller to account for the prevalence of this a singular picture of recent change on the insect in places not yet fit for human face of nature. The map will exhibit the residence. position of this lahe, its communication We insert the passage at length, with Red river, and its relative extent: but The musquito, that animal of which no representation upon a map can convey much has been said, now preseuts in the an adequate idea of its peculiar physiog- swamps and woods adjacent to lakes or nomy.
marshes, its millions. This troublesome The land along both banks of the lake little insect, is so 'constantly fouad quost Bistivead rise (s) into hills from
numerous pear wet places, and where the
now retiring floods have left the earth in a , how many of her most important secrets damp state, that we have often been are yet concealed from our kuowledge ? tempted to believe it a vigilant sentinel Too often has learning and industry been placed by nature at the portals of disease, exhausted on trifles, whilst sobjects, upon to warn man to beware. The musquito is which depend the welfare of millions certainly, of all the works of the creation, bave been neglected. endowed with life and motiou the most eternally active; its voracious appetite
The question is not unworthy the atkeeps it ever on the wing; every pond is lention of naturalists ; and the rather as its native bed; every leaf in the swamps its it introduces an idea of providential bedwelling; and the blood of all animals nevolence, where previously it was not through whose skiu it can pierce its fine discerned. The same principle, DO attenuated proboscis
, its food. The never- doubt, might be extended to thousands ceasing hum of these creatures, awakens of other particulars in nature, could in the mind of the person exposed to their bite, the most disagreeable sensatious; they the benefit concealed beneath a deter
we but enlarge our views correctly to are the insect hydra; destroy them by hundreds, other hundreds succeed. No ring aspect. thing but flight from their abodes, or a That the quantity of water which once cartain that bars their attacks, will defend flowed through this country was greater the traveller from their cruel ferocity. than what passes at present, dir., Darby But, notwithstauding what is said of the has no doubt. “ No reasonable.doubt, musquito, it is much less injurious than has been represented, and certainly pro- says he, can remain after a careful surduces beneficial consequences, by obliging rey of the country, of the diminution the men to avoid low, damp, marshy land in aquatic empire has experienced in Louissummer. Early in the morniug, and in the lana."-" Piacts that are now twenty evening, the musquito is most active, tinies to thirty feet above the highest water, when the miasma of those places is most were evidently once periodically subdangerous. It might be perhaps with promerged." priety considered, a not defective method to estimate the general health of any given the rivers are altogether singular: they
The beds for the lakes by the sides of place, by the quantity of these musquitoes. Authors of credit have contended that the are much lower than the bottom of the abundance of noxious insects, such as lo- channel of the river ;custs and musquitoes, indicate a state of air injurious to the health of warm blooded
From the appellation we would be lcd animals, particularly man, and quadrupeds to believe them the constant repository of That this idea is not unfounded in fact, water, though in reality they are respoirs there are many reasons to conclude. The emptied and filled annually by the ind of
Io the fall montlis. iter the present year, 1811, is remarkable for the nature. great numbers of musquito, for the preva- waters have been drained by the depreslence, with an unusual degree of violence, sion of the rivers, the beds of most or the of bilious complaints, and the existence of lakes become dry, and exhibit a meadowy the yellow fever in New Orleans. When of succulent herbage, with channels for the the months of June and July usher un
waters that continue meandering through common quautities of these creatures, it
them. In the channels of most, there would be prudent to prepare for approach is a flus and reflux as the water in the ing danger in the three ensuing months.
river and lake preponderate in height. It is certainly one of Nature's hidden myste are examples. When the Red river com
The Spanish lake and Natchitoches lakes ries why locusts, flies, musquitoes, and other
mences its annual rise, the waters run animals, of the insect tribes, should so im with a strong current into the lake, which measurably differ i quantity in succeed gradually filling, return(s) the water into ing seasons. No reason has yet been ad. the river with equal velocity, when the de- . duced to account for this fact, a fact far too pression of the river, by the summer beats, Jittle attended to by naturalists. Expe- begin[o] to take place.
This Aux and rience has too clearly established the union redux is continual; the channel, that forms between uncommon production of those the communication between the lakes and animals, and a state of air productive of river, are never dry. Most of the lakes sickness and death to man, to permit scep- have the pine woods on one side of them ticism to doubt the truth. After all our from which issue fine clear creeks of deep researches into the works of nature, water, whose pellucid currents compensate
to the inhabitants the unpalatable waters | tion, to which superadding its recent for. of Red river,
mation, render either the solidity of its The Mississipi brings down with it structure, or the growth of large timber vast trees and masses of timber, which impossible. Some small willows and other
aquatic bushes are frequently seen amongst like a rude neighbour it deposits on the the trees, but are too often destroyed by the premises of another. The Atcbafalaya shifting of the mass to acquire any consi. river opens into the Mississipi, which derable size. Ju the fall season, when the takes the opportunity of throwing in its waters are low, the surface of the raft is timber, and forming what are called perfectly covered by the most beautiful rafts, of twenty miles in length !! fora, whose varied dyes, and the hum of A general error has prevailed that the sate to the traveller for the deep silence
the honey bee, seen in thousands, compenraft or body of timber that choaks this ri- and lonely appearance of nature at this rever, impedes the issue of water from Mis: mote spot. The smooth surface of that sissippi. A moment's examination of the map will serve to remove this impression part of the river, unoccupied by the raft, The distance from the Mississippi to the and the recent growth of willow and cot
many species of papilionaceous flowers, head of the raft is twenty-seven miles, and the current of the Atehafaiaya extremely ture ; even the alligator, otherwise the
ton trees, relieve the sameness of the pic rapid. By the inclination of the plane, most loathsome and disgusting of animated along which the Atehafalaya runs, and the beings, serve to increase the impressive soirresistible impetus given to the stream by lemnity of the scene. the peculiar assemblage of waters at its eflux; this river suffers no diminution by
Another Flora of bolder hues, the raft; but the bank for some distance and richer sweets, beyond our garden's pride above, and contiguous to this enormous Along these lonely regious, where retir'd mass of timber, rendered much more liable From little scenes of art, great Nature dwello to inundation. From the great importance In awful solitude. of the Atchafaiaya as a channel of communication with some of the most valuable The rafts, as marked on the map, were parts of Louisiana, and the singularity of their position in 1808 ; but no doubt will this place, the reader will indulge a discus- be found on any future examination, much sion of some length on the subject. changed. Whether the raft can be reFrom the course of the bend of ihe Missis: ing if practicable, has yet been a deside
moved, and the expense of the undertak sippi, the incalculable quantity of trees that ratum. The following estimate taken from are annually brought down, are thrown admeasurement and observation , on the mostly into the Atehafalaya,whose efflux lies most favourable to their reception. A small of timber, and the expense of its removal.
spot, will give some idea of the quantity island'which, at the outlet, points with some inclination into the Mississippi, aids
Ten miles of raft, multiplied by the width the direction of the trees into the Atcha of the river generally, about 10 chains or falaya, into which, when once engulphed, 220 yards, will give the following result; they are borne down with a rapidity that
-35,848,000 superficial feet = 286,748,000 sets every obstacle at nought. It is now
solid feel=2,240,500 solid cords, allowing about thirty-eight years since the raft first the timber eight feet depth. The distance stopped in the river, and has beeu encreas
between the extremities of the saft is uping ever since. The author of the sketch wards of twenty miles, but the whole dis. measured the banks of the river aloug the tance not being filled up by timber, the whole length of the raft, and some distance aggregate of the raft in length is not far above and below, and who had the oppor- from ten miles, that distance was assumed tuoity of examining its contents three suc
as near the truth. The width of the river cessive years, cau vouch for the following varies, but the medium width is about facts.
220 yards. The mass of timber rises and falls with the navigation of this river, the Atcha
This is one effectual impediment to the water in the river, and at all seasoos maintains an equal elevation above the falaya. What a property, what a resurface. The lates that have been narrated venue, would it be thought in some
respecting this phenomenon, its having parts of the world! Where it is, it is . timber of large size, and in many places not only useless, but detrimental; and
þeing compact enough for horses to pass, whether it will ever be worth the while are entirely void of truth. The raft is in of the United States to remove it, must act subject to continual change of posi- l remain a problem.
The Mississippi itself, as may easily houses are chiefly wood; but brick is be supposed, occupies a principal becoming noore common. place in Mr. Darny's repert. This
By the census of 1810, New Orleans river is neither so wide, so deep, nor so and suburbs contained 17,242 persons. rapid, as has usually been thought. There has been a coustant, and sometimes * From careful triangular ineasurement a rapid increase since the period of taking
the census. at Natchez, the medial width is found to
Au aunual increment of 1,000 be short of half a mile, er 880 yards."
may be safely added, giving for the preThe velocity of the stream has also been tual number exceeds, rather than falls
sent population 23,242 persons. The acextremely exaggerated : Mr. Darby short of this estimate. No city perhaps oni calculates it, in this part, at not more the globe, in an equal number of buman than one mile an honr. As to any beings, presents a greater contrast of nahopes of restraining its waters within tional manners, language, and complexion, their banks, when at their height, our than does New Orleans. The proportion Author confesses that his are but work.between the whites and men of mixed cast There is no convenient receptacle into or black, is vearly equal. As a nation, which they may be drained; there is no the French amongst the whites are yet etilet by which they could be carried the Anglo-American; thirdly, the natives
most numerous and wealthy ; next will be off into the Sea, or otherwise defini- of the British Islands. There are but few tively disposed of. If, by means of Spaniards or Portuguese--some Italians ; sluices, or other contrivances, this im- and scattering individuals of all the civi; mense stream could be controuled, it lized nations of Europe. would add much to the security and Much distortion of opinion has existed, salubrity of the province. Mr. D. pru- and is not yet eradicated in the other parts poses, nevertheless, to form a commu- of the United States, respecting public mo nication between this river and some rals and manners in New Orleans. Di. others, and to discharge a part of its vested of pre-conceived ideas on the subsuperfluous water into them. The ject, an observing man will find little to bauks of the Mississippi are higher other commercial eities; and will find that
condemn in New Orleans, more than in than the surrounding lands; and when noble distinction of all active communities; they are broken, or overflown by the acuteness of conception, urbanity of manwaters, the 'inundation spreads for ners, and polished exterior. There are Many miles, without controul, or any few places where human lile can be en'. possibility of checking it.
joyed with more pleasure, or employed 10 Mr. Darby says very little from more pecuniary profit. which the state of society in Louisiana This was the least Mr. Darby could may be gathered. He fulfils his duty say, on the Metropolis of a province as a Geographer, well; and he turns where he spent many years, and was aside a little to convey information as a
well received. Our present nuinber reNaturalist; but as an Inspector of Ilu- cords a stronger provf, in the establishman Nature, he does not affeet to rank ment of a Bible Society, which may, high. In a thinly-peopled country he happily, be the forerunner of many could meet with few opportunities of other excellent things.. investigating the manners of the Indians, We have hinted our suspicion that or of the back settlers. The country the writer has treated his subject with does not abound in woods,
He has brought up The only town worth describing is no evil report. He has taken occasion, the Metropolis, New Orleans, This when something unpleasant is to be stands on the left bank of the Missis-sajd, to quote the authority of other sippi, in N. lat. 29° 57': in long. W. writers. He has shewn the fair face of of Greenwich 90° 8'. est of Wash- Louisiana. We are not aware that any ington city 13° 9' about one hundred of our emigrating countrymen will be and: five miles above the bar at the tempted by his representation to select mouth of the river. It occupies 1,320 Louisiana (for the book is not to be. obyards along the river, and 700 in widtb, tained in England)-and, therefore, hert from the river towards the swamp. The we might close our report on this artike