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Our author relates an instance of one pens that they obtain their liberty on of these travelling priests being de-easy terus ; a kind of merit is attached tained by a mother to confer baptism on to their gradual and eventual manumisker son; who was fetched from the sion. Of this Mr. K. relates an infields, and proved to be not an infant, stance, but a lad of thirteen. Mr. Koster does not forget the In- ślaves led a niost easy life, and the Great
This estate was not much worked ; the dians: his character of them differs blouse was full of young children. Of little from what is already well known: ihese urchins several came in and out of
The ludian seems to be without energy tire room, they were quite naked, and or exertion ; devoid of great good or great played with each other, and with some evil. Much may at the same time be said large dogs which were lying at full lengtha in their favour; they have been unjustly upon the floor. These ebon cupids were dealt with, they have been trampled upon plainly great favourites, and seemed to and afterwards treated as children; they employ the greater part of the thoughts of have been always subjected to those who the good ladies, the youngest of whom was consider themselves their superiors, and on the wrong side of fifty; and even the this desire to govern them has ever been priest lauglied at their gambols. These carried to the directions of their domestic | excellent women and the good priest pos. arrangements. But 10,-- if they are a race
sess a considerable number of slaves, who of acute beings, capable of energy, of being are their exclusive property. It is their deeply interested upon any subject, they iutention eventually to emancipate all of would do more than they have done. The ther, and that they may be prepared for priesthood is open to them, but they do the change, several of the men have been not take advantage of it. I never saw an
brought up as mechanics of different deIndian mechanic in any of the towns; scriptions; and the women have been there is no instance of a wealthy Indian | taught Deedle-work, embroidery, and all rich mulattos and negroes are by no meaus
branches of culinary knowledge. Thus, rare. I have had many dealings with them by the death of four individuals, who are as guides and carriers, and subsequently low approaching to old age, will be set as labourers, and have no reason to com
free about sixty persons, men, women, and plain, for I was never injured by any of children. As these people have been made them; but neither did I receive any par acquainted with the intentions of their ficular good service, excepting in the in owners respectiug them, it is not surprisstauce of Julio. For guides and carriers ing that the behaviour of many of them they are well adapted, as their usual babits should be overbearing. To some, the deeds lead them to the rambling life which these of manumission have been already passed employments encourage. As labourers, i conditionally, obliging them to serve as found that they had usually a great incli- siaves until the death of the individual to uation to over-reach; but their schemes whom they are subject. These papers canwere badly made, and consequently easily not be revoked, and yet no ingratitude was discovered. I never could depend upou
feared ; but among so considerable a num. them for any length of time, and to ad- ber of persons, sonie instances of it canuot, Vance nouey or cloathing to them is a cer I fear, fail to be experienced. The owners tain loss. if I had any labour which was
said that all their own immediate relations to be performed by a given time, the over
are richi, aud uut at all in need of assistseer would always reckon upon his mulatto ance; and that therefore independent of and negro free people; but did not men- other reasous conuected generally with the tion in the list of persons who were to system of slavery, these their children had work, any of the Indians whom I was then no right to work for any one else. Of the employing, and on my speaking of them, slaves in question, only a few are Africans, he answered “an lucian is ouly to be men the major part being mulattoes and creole tioned for the present day," meaning that wegroes. no reliance is to be placed upou them.
Where employment is wanting, the The Negroes seem to be esteemed a mind not unfrequently turns to religion, superior race; and it frequently hap- and what passes for religion, by way of
amusement. Hence, perhaps, the pro• I heard from good authority, that there are cessions, shews, and other di versions, two instances of Indians having been ordained which attract crowds in countries, un35 secular priests, and that both these individuals died from excessive drinking.
derstood to be but thinly peopled. The
« 1 was
inhabitants have nothing to do, and one | being on eacir side of it; and the leader of sight is as good as another. Their time the chorus sits at the back of the stage with has no value : they cannot lose by in- a guitar, with which he keeps the time, dulging their dispositions to enjoy them and this person is sometimes assisted by a selves, and seeing the world, as it ap- the occasion; and when the performers
second guitar player. A ship is made for pears around them.
stepped on to the platform, the vessel apAs an instance of one of these reli- peared at a distance under full sail, coming gious ! spectacles, we quote part of an towards us upon wheels, which were conentertainment given toward ihe end of cealed. As soon as the ship arrived near November, on occasion of the festival of to the stage it stopped, and the performour Lady of Conception. We are to ance commenced. The men aud boys consider the whole town, as being in who were to sing and to dance, were gala for nine evenings successively : the dressed in white jackets and trowsers; colours hoisted, the bon-fires blazing, they had ribbous tied roundtlreir ancles and
upon the houses illuminated
their heads they wore loug (made of ball the rind of an orange,
paper caps, painted of various colours.
The guitar player commenced with one of each containing a sinall quantity of oil the favourite airs of the country, and the and cutton), large crosses were also chorus followed bim, dancing at the same lighted up in the square : music violins time. The number of voices being conand violoncellos playing, band after band, siderable, and the evening extremely calm, and, in short, all possible gaiety in all the open air was rather advantageons than possible variety of forms.
the contrary. The scene was striking, for praised, says our author, for my supe: of our sceing the persons of the performers
the boufires threw sufficient light to allow rior piety, in giving so splendid a night distinctly; but all beyond was dark, aus in honour of our Lady."
they seemed to be inclosed by a spacious On the following morning every arrange-doine; the crowd of persons who were ment was made for the fandangos. A spa near to the stage was great, and as the cious platform was erected, in the middle fires were stirred and the Game became of the area of the town, and in front of the brighter, more persons were seen beyond vicar's dwelling, raised about three feet on every side; and at intervals the horses from the ground. In the evening four bon- which were standing still farther off, waris fires were lighted, two being on each side ing for their master's. of the stage, and soon afterwards the per Wben the chorus retired, the captain formers made their appearance. The story and other superior officers came forwarii, which forms the basis of this amusement is and a long and serious conversation ensued invariably flie same; the parts however, upon the state of the ship and the weather. are not written, and are to be supplied by These actors were dressed in old uviforms the actors; but these from practice, know of the irregular troops of the country. more or less what they are to say. The They were succeeded by the boatswain sçeue is a ship at sea, which, during part of and the two clowns; the former gave bis the time is sailing regularly and gently orders, to which the two latter madeso many along; but in the latter part of the voyage objections that the officer was provoked to sbe is in distress. The cause of the bad-strike one of them, and much coarse wit pess of the weather remains for a long passed between the three. Soon aftertime uuhnow; but at last the persons wards came the chaplain in his gown, and who are ou board discover that it was his breviary in his hand; and he was as arisen from the devil, who is in the slip, much the butt of the clowns, as they were under the disguise of the mizen-topmast of the rest of the performers. The most man. The personis represented, are scurrilous language was used by them to The Captain,
The Pilot or Mate, him ; he was abused, and was taxed with The Master, The Boatswain, almost every irregularity possible. The The Chaplain,
jokes became at last so very indecent, as The Ruçom, or distributor
to make the vicar order his doors to be of the Rations,
slut. The dancers came
at each Tbe Vesoura, or sweeper
change of sceve, 1f I may so say.' I went the decks,
licme soon aftcr the vicar's doors were The Gageiro da Gata, or mizen-topmast-clo-ed, and did not see the conclusion; but man, nlius the Devil.
the matter ended by thirowing the devil Twelve men' and boys, who are dancers overboard, and reaching the port in safety. and singers, stand on tlic stage, six of them The performers do not expect paymetit,
but rather consider themselves compli- | fowling-piece, and fired, whilst the dog mented in being sent for. They were started up, and darted towards the spot. A tradesmen of several descriptions residing jaguar rushed out, and made off ; it had at Pasmado, and they attend on these occa- been partly concealed under the roek, sions to act the fandangos, if requested so which, with the dazzle of the fire had preto do; but if not, many of them would vented its body from being seen ; it liad most probably go to enjoy any other sport crouched, and was ready for a spring, which the festival might afford. We paid when every thing was quiet, and unpretheir expences, and gave them their food pared. during their stay; they were accompanied Mr. Koster himself was in danger by their families, which were all treated from Jaguars; and supposed, that if he in the same manner, to the number of had not lost any of his men, he had, at about forty persons.
least, lost his horses; but the wild catNow what religion there is in all this, tle proved more tempting, and after the reader is at liberty to guess ; and long search he recovered his cavalry. how far it can be an acceptable service But, not the deserts only, nor wild to our Lady of Conception, supposing beasts of strength and size, are among she thinks proper to take any part in the eyemies of man; at home he is vibeholding it. Such, however, are the sited by a class of insects, which being amusements exhibited to the people more persevering, as well as insidious, under the mask of religion : can it be teaze and molest him. Mr. Koster dewondered at that real gndliness is a scribes at length, the species of ants stranger here? The Friars, and other which destroy and devour the labours of professors of religion, are in the utmost human industry. This pest of the troill-repute, and Mr. K. describes a no- pical climates is unknown among us ; vice entering on a religious profession, but those who have been in India, or as a Franciscan, amid the scoffs and have perused any of the late publicajeers of a whole congregation.
tions, respecting that country, well
know what plagues the ants are. Mr. Koster has not been an inatten
If we should transcribe our author's tentive observer of Natural History. We conjecture, indeed, that some ac
accounts of their exploits, by which not quaintance with this science is abso- only roofs of houses, beams of timber,
and other solid substances were consom, lutely necessary. An Englishman ac
ed, but houses - themselves were undercustomed to the safeties of his own
mined and endangered, it might almost country, would be completely taken by surprize, by au incident like the follow-pass for fabulous, were it not beyond ing, which certainly is not singular in They also destroy growing vegetables ;
all possibility of doubt or hesitation. the deserts of Pernambuco.
, and recourse must be had to a « bonfire" Our friend, the saddler, among other of leaves, in order to expel them. The stories, mentioned having passed over the different species of ants (black and same ground which we had traversed from red) are enemies to each other ;-the St. Luzia, only a short time before us. He black is sought after, and encouraged was in company with another man and a boy, and had also a dog with him; they trees, which are liable to destruction
to build upon orange and other fruit bad put up for the night under shelter of from the large red ant: and they effecone of the rocks, in the vicinity of the lake of which I have spoken. His con- tually defend their appointed posts, iftime panion had taken the horses to some little has been allowed for their numbers to be distance to graze ; the boy and the dog re- equal to the task. They sometimes also mained wi bim; he had made a fire, and attack the citadels of the red ants, and was in the act of preparing some dried the field of battle is covered with the meat to be cooked, when the boy called slain of both parties ; but chiefly of the out “where is the dog ?"—the man an
red. swered where he is, why what is the mat
Treacle is offensive to these creatures, ter ?" the boy said, “what eyes, then, are
Seme those ?" pointing, at the same time, to the and disturbs their operations, corner of the rock; the man looked, and kinds of timber are more acceptable to saw the eyes, for nothing else was to be them thau others. The choice of limber seen; be called to the dog, took up his in building a house is therefore of the
utmost importance to the duration of the The vegetable tribes did not escape building. We have already said that our Author: His Appendix is chiefly fire of smoking leaves (or brimstone) is formed froin a Dissertation on the plants the most effectual remediy known, against of Brazil froin which fibrous substances the increase of these insects : not the inay he obtaived, adapted to various all die ; but that the coloay, generally uses in Society, and to supply the place speaking, becomes stupified, and may of hemp, by Dr. Manoel Arrada da Caeasily be destroyed.
inara, published at Rio Jaueiro in 1810. A curious incident occurred to our This, certainly, is not the least valuable author, while engaged on one of these part of the work; and it raises a wish slaughtering expeditions,
that Dr. Camara's original were better · la laying open the ant-hill which I have known among us. But, what can be above-mentioned, we discovered a couple expected from a work published in a of the cobras de ducis inheças, or two-beaded province so distant, and which only snakes or worms ; each of them was rolled finds its way to Europe in a few copies up in one of the nests. These snakes are
as presents ? Mr. K. bas done a service about eighteen inches in length, and about by the Specimen be translates. the thickness of the little finger of a child of four or Ove years of age. Both extre
We do yot mean to infer, that Mr. K. mities of the snake appear to be exactly si- has not valuable remarks which origimilar to each other; and when the rep-nated from personal reflection and obtile is touched, both of these are raised, and servation. We suspect, that the French form a circle or loop to strike that which have long meditated the acquisition of has molested it. They appear to be per the useful as well as the curious trees fectly blind, for they never alter their which are afforded by various parts of course to avoid any object until they come
the Globe; in contact with it, and then without the Wax-tree, &c. and among others, we pre
as the Tallow-tree, the jng about they crawi away in an opposite direction. The colour is gres inclining to
sume; for we do not speak from our white, and they are said to be venonous.
own knowledge--the Soap-tree. Our This species of snake is often found in aut. Author gives this account of what he hills, and I have likewise killed them in my observed, respecting this tree. house ; they frequent dung.hilis mand places
I had frequently seen the suboeiro or in which vegetable matter has been allo:ved to remain for a length of time unre
soap tree, which is to be chiefly found in
these districts. It is a large shrub, which moved.
puts forth numerous branches io every di. We desire better acquaintance with frection, so that when it is in full Icaf, it has the manuers of this snake; and its spe somewhat the appearance of trees that have cies: Mr. K. describes these
been clipped, (as was formerly practised in inclining to white; others, we believe, gardens,) whieh is iucreased by the leaves ave fouad of a beautiful piuk colour; other. The receptacle of the seed is about
being small and growing very ciose to each and probably there are other varieties. the size of a sinal plum ; when this is put Dissection would shew whether these into water, aud rubbed with some violence, snakes have really two heads; and if it produces the same effect as that which is two heads, two orifices for receiving caused by soap in water, and it has the food, two stomachs to contain and die same property of cleansing. gest it, and what is more wonderful, Still, two sets of bowels, or two means Mr. K. stated the results of any experi
Now, we could have been glad had of access to the same system of bowels; ments made by him, with this convefor distributing the nearishment altridednient vegetable. Does it render linen and prepared, over the whole body's
white? Does it keep lined white, which It has been objected to the figure of bas been already bleached ? Above all, the Centaur, half man balf horse, that does it preserve cotton goods from that his internal structure violated all the dingy hue, which after a wbile they are rules of anatomy; he must have two almost inevitably doomed to assume ? sets of lungs, two hearts, iwo stomachs, In that case, it would prove invaluable &c.; have these donble-headed snakes, to our economical dames, and the man really all these, in consequence of having who introduced it would deserve to be two heads?
mentioned with universal and perpetual from the mind of the sex than cherished hionour.
-as it must be, in order to do it jusOur readers will perceive, that this tice in description. Volume is the genuine fruit of obser It is then to the honour of Miss Holvalion, It does not contain Travels ford, if we consider her as having failed throughout Brazil; but, the writer in the Poem before us, so far as it refairly records what he saw and experi-lates to military aftairs. A few phrases enced. It is a faithful picture of the thrown in on the parts of the casque, or people, the country, its productions, its the action of the beaver, are very distinct advantages, and its disadvantages. There from that intimate familiarity with the are several coloured plates inserted, | Article itself, which would qualify a some of whicos display novel scenes and writer to introduce allusions gracefully, effect. The authie's journies should or to gain credit equally for ease as for have been marked on the map, which accuracy. Should we add, that the sais inperfect without them.
vage barbarity of those manners, which anciently sought refuge from the law in
the recesses of our extensive woods, canMargaret of Anjou. A Poem, in Ten not be conceived of, cannot be felt, by a
Cantos. By Miss Holford. 410. Price modern lady of polite education, we £2 2s. Murray. London. 1816. should but approach the truth, as in the
It is difficult to thwart the intention present instance. Alas ! for the poets' of nature. Whatever is decidedly fised of modern times, who need a robber, or by her appointment, is with difficulty leer-stealer, or moss-trooper, of ancient counteracted, and never gracefully. It ways. The woods and hiding places is difficult to bring the mind into a train are destroyed : the deer are emparked, of thinking on subjects not naturally and protected daily and nightly: the suited to its disposition and genuine bordering lands are lost-undistinguish character. It is still more dificult to able through lapse of time, and were qualify the mind to describe actions it not a few historical ballads extant, by never saw, withi inventions, implements, which the memory of certain exploits manners, to which it is an ulter stran- have been preserved, the exploits themger, and has a natural aversion. It is selves, with the men who performed true we read of Amazons in ancient them, would be as absolutely unknown story; but it is also true, that by exci- as the ages before the floud. The nearsion of the right breast, they were un
est approach of modern days, or rather sexed, they were denaturalized, as the nights, to the worthies alluded to, are fashionable mode of forming privatives the Poachers of our times ; but, what would now express it, they were dis- would Miss Holford say to the imputaqualified from performing offices to tion of keeping company with Poachwhich they were destined by nature, ers? Now, if she cannot adequately deoffices of affection, in order to enable scribe a modern Poacher, whom she them to perform exploits never intended may see and converse with, can we to come under their notice. The Poets wonder if ber features fail of depicting bave been sparing of their heroines, an ancient robber? their Camillas, their Clorindas, and The Knights of this poem profess too they have armed them raiher with the great a share of the magners of gentlelighter weapons of the bow and arrows, men, to convince us that they lived in then with the heavier maces of men at the midst of civil warthe most savage arms. The clank of rattling armour as of all war—the ferocity of their character it formerly echoed whenever a knight is softened. The argument of blood, trod, should have no charms for ladies which during the struggle between fair, and the bloody scenes of battle and the roses, is the most cruel of any murder, and military executiori, de- part of our history, is moderated, softstruction of families, burning of towns, ened, abated ;-not-so; it could not be. with all the horrors of war, especially The barbarity of the period was excese of civil war, should rather be banished sive; and each party, as it alternately VOL. V. No. 28. Lit. Pan. N. S. Jan. 1.