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In others when the Dues of Government | ject, and will be best obviated, by estab have been concerned, I trust it will have lishing both on the part of the Chiefs and been observed that moderate exaction and of the Resident, sone rules by which every a tencier consideration for the people have complainant, whenever he presents himselí, never been lost sight of.

shall have bis name and cause entered, and

be appointed for a certain fixed time to · The article of Revenue has been very

appear again. sparingly pressed in any quarter, so that the

That whenever he does appear he may country and all classes of the Inhabitants, receive a distinct answer, and justruction have had a full opportunity of recovering for his further proceeding—and in all from the effects of the late troubles.

stages of the case be fairly and patiently If the establishment and provisioning of heard, and fully informed of the state and new Military stations has led to extensive progress of his cause, aud of the next apcalls for labour, it has not been exacted on pointed time for proceeding in it. the hare ground of public service, bot the With regard to the references to Coinducement of monev allowances has been lombo or io the Resident, when once made added in almost all cast's, without any I have already explained at a former austrict inquiry how much of the duty might dience, that it is an indispensible part of have been demanded by Government as a my public duty and of that of the British right, free of any charge.

Ageint, to return an answer to the party; Connected with this subject I have to first, tahing proper Nieans to be accurately mention a change which is about to take informed of all proceedings in the case, place in the branch Revenue and Public with the decision, and the reasonis on Service. In order to relieve the Hon, the which it is grounded. Resident of some part of the multifarious Mr. D'Oviy wili make arrangements for occupations which engross bis valuable conducting all such cases in a regular protime, it is proposed to trisfer the charge gress, until the final report for my infor of the Revenue aud Public services, to

mation. Simon Sawers, Esq. by the title of Revenue Agent.

Sudden, and informal changes of possesUnder the guidance of Mr. D'Oyly's ex

sion in landed property, and the unauthoperience, and by virtue of special and pe

rized seizure of province, have appeared in

the course of my business here to be a fer. reniptory instructions which will be communicated from Government, the system

ule source of litigatiou and complaint, and of Vr. Sawers's department will be strictly barrassment which attends the disposal

one great cause of the difficulty and engoverned by established rules and usages of disputed titles—as the original relatire and as i undertake to promise for that gen. tleman, that his intercourse with the Chiefs instances reversed, by the Claimant forc

state of the parties in the suit is in most will be conducted with all that respetii, ing himself into aciual possession, and politeness, and circumspection, so vecessary to the maiutenapee of mutual cordi: obliging the other party to prove his title ality, I must express my hope that the instead of defending it. Chiess with whom he may from time to Iu almost all cases of chunge of possestime bave occasion to communicat:', will sion, there is an allegation of personal vioregard him as a gentleman, who at the lence and spoilation of moveable property same time that he holds a respectable rank --These complaints are, no doubt, exag. in His Majesty's Civil service, and a high gerated, and, perhaps, in many instances station in the Government of the Interior, entirely false - Their existence however occupies also an eminent piace in my good suggesis the necessity of much precaution opinion and favour.

and regularity, in carrying even judicial Proceeding to offer some practical re process into execution. marks ou ille course of public business, ! shall principally (though perbaps not en

I shall therefore conclude this long adtirely) deduce them from the subjects which dress with a few remarks of a more general have occupied our deliberatious for the last mature, as 10 those duties as hich attach 10 mouth,

Chiefs of Ppriviuces, and other Chiefs liarAmong these, the resort of complainants ing appointments of anthority over any to Colombo, and the rearence of their classes of the librabitants. cases back for decision here, is one which

Ist. To make themselves thoroughly achas drawn my particular attention,

quainted with the condition and circumstan*To prevent the necessity, and occasion ces or those under their jurisdictiou as the sucia reference, is a most desirable ob- necessary ground work of an administration

just and huinane towards the People, and advantageous to the State.

Travels in Brazil. By Henry Koster, 2dly. To shew every countenance and 4to. Price 21. 2s. Longman and Co. encouragement to moral conduct and or

London. 1816. derly behaviour, and mark all contrary instances with their displeasure.

We opened this volume with consiSdly. To promote indastrious pursuits, derable exprctations; knowing that the encourage manufactures, and give every residence of the Sovereign in this disfacility and protection to commercial deal-tant province has produced important ings and trading intercourse.

changes among its inhabitants, which, In these attentions, the most effectual tacle - great interesi, and well worthy

to the philosophic mind, afford a specmeans will be found of suppressing vice avd preventiog crimes, but wbere such contemplation. In this we were disapprecautious fail

, the coercion and penal pointed; the writer visited a part only ties of criminal justice must be enforcell. of Brazil; and that distant from the and the peace of the country will be esse:n metropolis: nevertheless, he describes tially promoter! by the prompt apprehen the people as they are, at Pernambuco, sion of offenders, and a strict watch over and its neighbourhood, who may, propersons known to be of dangerous charac: bably, be taken as a fair specimen of ter-observing however as to culprits of what the whole province was, a few every description, the necessity of public and regular proceedings, fair and patieut years ago. enquiry, and a strict adherence to esta What can we expect from settlers blished rules.

seated on their farus respectively, at Of Revenue and Public Services I have little or no intercourse', because, each

great distances from each other with already delivered all that I intend to observe—But :is the Chiefs may have remark- family endeavours to supply its owo ed a great anxiety on niy part to have the waits from resources within itself, and country opened by clearing the principal because the wants of its neighbours, roads, it is proper to explain, ihat this being exactly similar to its own, no vaoperation (which I avow to have much at riety is to be looked for, in any useful heart, is one of those which will most of or desirable forin. If the land produces all conduce to secure the general benefits freely, the inhabitant lounges away life, deriveable from the intercourse of different in lažy enjuyment of the sunshine or the provinces with each other, but more par-shade'; he has nothing to rouze his faticularly to make way for the free of trade from the Sea Coast, by which the culties, nothing on wbich his talent or Interior Country has every thing to gain.

strength may exert themselves. Hence

he contracts habits of indolence, he beI cannot entirely quit the subject of Pub-comes inert, and almost incapable of achic Improvements, and that of facilitating the intercourse between We British Go tivity, and all that can be said of him vernment and the Kandyan Chiefs and when he qouts this mortal scene is, he People, without mentioning my inteution has lived, and is dead. Where less ferof establishing at this place, a Seminary tile spois bewilder the occupant, either for teaching the English Language, the lhe sinks into absolute poverty, and is cultivation of which by the younger destitute of all things, or he becomes the branches of Families here, and the atten- driver of herds, scarcely more wild than tion of English Gentlemen to acquire a himself, and he roans with his unruly knowledge of the Cingalese, will furnish those means of acquaintance, which mustdeert, but unproductive. In either case,

property over a domain extensive, invecessarily lend to prorgote mutual esteem the mind, which is the nobler part of aud cordiality.

man, continues barren : the highest It is wih much pleasure I have learnt that the leads of Tamilies, both in and powers of intellect, supposing them to

be bestowed on such individuals, are out of office look forward with satisfaction to the intended pean of cclucation for their completely lost, and rendered nothing

worth. young men and express an anxiety to

Ingenuity has no object on have them thus qualified for public em

which to exert itself, no purpose, or end ploy,

in view, by which to be infuenced or

To

guided. Nor is this the worst : for es- | present case, would be false in regard tablishments, thus isolated, separated to human life, to fact, and to daily exfrom all the world, become the prey of perience. the most unworthy prejadices. They Brazil has, at present, no overgrown scarcely acknowledge the existence of Metropolis ; and the much humbler other men on the earth; and instances are town of Recife, better known among us not wanting-in fact, this volume affords as the port of Pernambuco, is in no imseveral—of their excessive credulity, in mediate danger of suffering the evils inbelieving strangers to be rather animals cident to great cities. The chief value than men.

say truth, a general re- of this voluwe perhaps, is the descripluctance prevails among all mankind, to tion it includes of the changing state of admit the existence of fellow mortals society, in this town and its neighboursuperior to themselves : the whole race hood, produced by--Coinmerce. Forconceive readily, and pronounce deci- merly, Recife exported ten thousand sively on foreigners as their inferiors- bags of Cotton ;- it was thought a proas below them in the most valuable at. digious traffic. Now, it exports between tainments; and those who are them- sixty and seventy thousand-can it be selves the lowest, on the scale of exis- supposed that ihis yearly augmenting tence as men, attribute to others not a spur to diligence,—as well as increasing few of the properties of brules, in order source of wealth-has no influence on to preserve the gradation.

the manners of the people ? 'The first The advantages of intercourse be-symptom of improvement is, the distween country and country consist in no

like of idleness as a profession of lite: inconsiderable degree in counteracting

there is now something to do; why conthese prejudices. Whoever has travelled vert into a monk or friar, an able-bodied into foreign parts kpows, that nature has

man capable of attending to business? not been niggard of her bounties to which he mentions the subject, incident

Says Mr. Koster, on one occasion, on them; that they also enjoy appropriate and often peculiar advantages; advantages,

ally ; **which if duly improved, place the na

Formerly, of every family at least one tives on a fair level with others; if neg. member was a friar, but now this is lected, the fault is not in nature, or in not the custom; children are brought up situation, but in themselves.

to trade, to the arıny, to any thing ra

ther than a monastic life, which is fast The same advantages, slightly varied, losing its reputation. None of the conperhaps, but not essentially, attend the as vents are full, and sonic of them are nearly sociation of mankind in cities and towns. without ivhabitants. A nation of mere shepherds, must be

It will be observed from what I have ignorant and rude ; but rudeness certainly wears off by the collision of senti- meution, that no rule can be laid down for

described, and from what I still have to ments, the interchange of thoughts and the society of the place in question ; fami; opinions, the judgments of the well- lies of equal rank, and of equal wealth and informed, and even the caprices of the importauce, are often of mauners totally fickle and fastidious. Whatever tends different. The fact is, that society is unto excite a desire after excellence, tends dergoing a rapid change; not that the peoat the same time, to promote civiliza- ple imitate European customs, though tion; and generally, whatever tends to these have some effect, but as there is promote civilization, tends by some

more wealth, more luxuries are required ; means or o!her, to urge to excellence.

as there is mose education, higher and It is not possible to deny that great as the mind becomes more enlarged, from

niore polished amusements are sought for; cities, metropolitan towns, so immense intercourse with other nations, and from as some we read of, and some we know reading, many customs are seen in a difof, have their attendant evils, and very ferent light; so that, the same persons ingreat evils they are; but, to argue froin sensibly change, and in a few years ridicule the abuse of a principle, 10 the entire and are disgusted with many of those very suppression of it, is usually considered habits which, if they reflect for a momeni, as false logic; and certainly, in the they will recollect were practised but a

short time before by themselves.............

1

The gentleman, chicily by whose kind. | country, and the benefits which it imparts ness I had been introduced, and enabled to are daily augmentiug. This shoot from partake of the pleasantest society of Per our European continent will ultimately innambuco, was among the first British sub.crease, and a plant will spring up, infi

jects, who availed then selves of the tree nitely more important than the branch La communication between England and Bra- from which it proceeded; and thongh the

zil, and he even already observed a consi season of this maturity is far distant, yet derable change of manners in the higher the rapidity of its advance or tardiness of class of people. The decrease in the price its growth greatly depends upon the fosterof all articles of dress, the facility of ob- ing care or indifferent negligence of its taiping at a low rate, earthenware, cut rulers. Still whatever the conduct of these Jers, and table liven; in fact, the very may be, its extent, its fertility, and other spur given to the mind by this appearance numerous advantages must, in the course of a new people among them; the hope of of time, give to it, that rank which it has a better state of things, that their country a right to claim among the great nations of

was about to become of more importance; the world. to the renewed in many persons, ideas which

It should had long lain dormant; made them wish

appear

that M. Koster arto slow that they had money to expend, rived in the Pernambucan part of this and that they knew how it should be ex- province at a very unfortunate time; and pended.

he visited the interior, so far as opporNor is this change confined to the tunity permitted him, at a period when towns ; it is carried into the country,

the distress of the country for want of more or less, and in proportion to their rain, and consequently for want of food, convenience, or their relation with the

was extreme. Hence we read, of barports, in their improvement in personal ren soils, and forsaken dwellings, where, appearance, in the acquisition of do- probably, a few years before, or a few mestic conveniencies, and in tbeir ge- years after, another traveller would have neral desire after the comforts and de- found verdure and plenty. On the whole, cencies of life.

we must acknowledge, that this part 'of

Brazil does not strongly temptus, to Mr. Koster speaking gonerally of this take up our residence in it. We have country, says

too long been inmates in the “ Green The suppiveness of the ancient system Island”, to wish to change; especially upou which Brazil was ruled, is still too for a country so unfinished, and so apparent throughout; but the removal of slightly inviting. the Sovereign to that country has roused

Mr. K. describes the town and harbour many persons who had been long influenced by habits of indolence, and has increased of Recife, or Pernambuco, and gives à the activity of others who have impatiently plan of it, from which it appears to be awaited a held for its display. The Bra one of the most singular. The port is zilians feel of more importance, their na formed by a double ridge of rocks, and tive soil now gives law to the mother coun- the entrance requires an experienced try; their spirit, long kept under severe pilot to conduct vessels into it. subjection to ancient colonial rules and regulations, bas now had soine opportunities multiplicity of religious observances, the

The nature of the Government, the of loug suffering, and patient of endurauce, manner in which they are observed, it does exist, and that if its possessors are

the Public Institutions, Taxes, Police, not treated as men instead of children, it Military Establishments, &c. engage the will break forth, and rend asunder those Writer's attention in an orderly and inshackles to wisich they have forbearingly structive manner.

Mr. K. had some submitted. I hope, however, most sill advantages in attending Public Officers cerely, that the supreme Government may in high stations, in their tours of duty, sce the necessity of reformation, and that whence he saw much from which to the people will not expect too much, but consider that many liaruships are preferable this he does not report as free from vex

judge on the condition of the people ; 10 a generation of bloodshed, coufusion, and misery.

ation on the part of authority. · He beFreedom of communication with other cane a farmer, and well describes the ci

pations lias already been of service to the management of a farm, and the people

necessarily employed. He has not, how The difficulties under which mental ever, tempted us by a schedule of the improvement lies will be understood small expenses required, and the large from the following observations. We, profits, arising from that profession. who have pretty correct information of Cotton, for exportation is the chief ob- the state of things in the back seitleject of cultivation, now popular, and ments of North America, kuow, that that being fetched away in British ships, could a tolerably regular supply of itiwith considerable avidity, will, no doubt, nerant clerzy be established, it would be continue to be the main article of the to their infinite advantage. At present, planter's attention, as well as a source they hear and know so little about seliof wealth to the merchant who exports, gion, that they might almost envy the and to the government. While this Pernambucan settlers. raw commodity is principally paid for

I heard of a strange custom existing in by the exchange of British Goods, the these parts of the country that are so intercourse is reciprocally profitable ; | thinly inhabited, which arises from this and we cannot object to Pernambucos state of things. Certain priests obtain a and Maranbarns obtaining fair prices in licence from the bishop (of Pernambuco,) Liverpool and London.

and travel through these regions with a

small altar constructed for the purpose; of The increase of this trade may easily a size to be placed upon one side of a be inferred.

pack-saddle, and they have with them all The following is a statement of the ex

their apparatus for saying mass. Thus!

with a horse conveying the necessary paraport of Cotton from Pernambuco, from the year 1808 to 1813. It was furnished to phernalia, and a boy to drive it, who like. me by my friend Mr. I. C. Pagen, who re

wise assists in saying mass, and another sided at Recife during a considerable part and carries his own small portmanteau,

horse on which the priest himself rides, of the tinie.

these men make in the course of the year 1808..................................

- 26,877

between 150 and 2001.-a large income in 1809.... ...........47,512

Brazil, but hardly earned, if the inconve1810.

:50,105 181].............

28,245

niences and privations which they must un-' 1812

-58,824

dergo to obtain it are taken into considera,

tion.-They stop and erect the altar where1813............... ...65,327

ver a sufficient vumber of persons who are But it will be seen that the increase has

willing to pay for the mass is collected. This been considerable from 1812 to 1813, and will sometimes be said for three or four I know that it still continues to increase as shillings, but at other times, if a rich man rapidly, if not more so.

takes a fancy to a priest, or has a fil of Maranhamn seems to have been less extreme devotion upon him, he will favoured; from what cause

give eight or ten mil reis, two or three

we know Bot; but, probably, from the uncertain pounds, and it does happen, that one hun

dred mil reis are received for saying a mass, ty of the crops in the vicinity of that

but this is very rare ;-at times ay ox or port.

an horse, or two or three, are given..-I have just in time received the following These men have their use in the world; if statement of the exportation of Cotton from this custom did not exist, all form of worMaranham, from the year 1809 to 1815 : ship would be completely out of the reach

Vessels. Bags. of the inhabitants of many districts, or at 1809 To Great Britain in 51 55,835 any rate they would not be able to atteod

To other parts 29 21,006 more than once or twice in the course of 1810 To Great Britain 37 40,684 the year, for it must be remembered that To other parts

19 11,793 there is no church withiu twenty or thirty 1811 To Great Britain 36 48,705 leagues of some parts; besides, where there To other parts

19 6,053 | is no law, nor real, rational religion, any 1812 To Great Britaju

$5,767 | thing is better than nothing. They chris. To other parts 29 4,805 | ten and marry, and thus preserve these 1813 To Great Britain 35 50,072 necessary forms of religion, and prevent a

To other parts....... 27 10,101 | total forgetfulness of the established rules 1814 To Great Britain. 22 31,205 of civilized society; a sufficient link is To other parts

34 14,196 | kept up to make any of these people, if 1815 To Great Britain S2 28,539 they removed into more populous districts, To other parts

22,216 conform to received ideas.

29

...

49

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