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1812 ....... 1,090

An Account of the Expenditure of Public 4,360 0 0

Money granted by Parliament to the 1813 6,279 13

African Committee, for tbe support and 5,090 5,607

maintenance of the British Forts and

67,908 10 0 Settlements on the Gold Coast, for One 1814........ 1,186 11

whole Year, taken from the latest Ac3,519

4 6,380

counts received from Cape Coast Castle, 11 2,803 7

viz. from the 1st day of January to the 680 8

31st day of December 1814, under the 5,491 14

following Heads.

80,249 15 0 1815....... 7,789 6


Company's Pay.


3 & 4. White Mens' Salaries 14,789 100 50,700 0 0 5. Black Meu's Pay 1,176 190

6. Pay of Castle Slaves... 1,692 8 5 £255,088 5

7. Free Canoemen and Note. It should be observed, that Pas

Labourers 'hire....... 1,899 11 9

8. Forts Repairs and Imsengers from Africa generally bring their


3,584 16 7 owu Gold, to save the Agent's Commission

9. Customary Allowance at Portsmouth, which would not therefore

to Free Natives 1,590 2 6 appear in this Account.

10. Extraordinary Pre

sents to the same... 847 13 9 ELEPHANT's Teeth, imported into Ports

11. Sick, Wounded, and mouth from Africa, in ships of war.


458 195 Cwts. qrs, lbs. 12. Salutes

840 16 0 Abstract Year 1807

254 1
13. Canoes

686 15 10 1808 ... 82 26 14. Public Linen

71 5 0 1809 279 3 6 Total Expenditure in Africa 1810 204 1 14

1814 .................... 26,938 18 % 1812 317 2 14 1813 995 19

1814 1,355
1815 1,209 25

Expense of Cape Coast Cas-
4,698 26
tle, for one year

15,073 3 1 At £20 per Cwt.

Same of Avnamaboe Fort ... 3,261 16 10 20

Same of James Fort, Accra 2,033 $ 10 £93,960

Same of Tautum Querry Fort 1,210 08
Same of Appolonia Fort....... 1,103 9 10

Same of Dixcove Fort 1,582 10 2 Imports from Africa into Liverpool, per Same of Succondee Settlethirteen vessels, in 1815.


1,045 18 10

Same of Commenda Fort 1,950 Tons, Palm Oil 117,000 0

1,628 15 0 38 Ditto Ivory......... 19,916 0 0 DoGuinea l'epper

4,000 0

Expense for one year 0

£26,938 18 3 Do Guinea Grains or Grains of Pa.



Company's Pay. 1,540 Ditto Barwood 36,960 0 0

£. 130 Ditto Camwood... 4,550 0 At Cape Coast Castle.......... 9,264 10 0 12 Ditto Ebony

600 0
Annamaboe Fort

1,893 10. O 3} Ditto Bees Wax 875 0

James Fort, Accra

924 0 0 5 Ditto Gum Copal, 1,960 0 0 Tantum Querry Fort....... 507 0 0 40 Do. Gum Senegal 4,480 0

Appolonia Fort ......

411 10 0 21,321 Hides 18,655 17 6 Discove Fort........

643 O 60 Lbs. Seaniorse

63 0

Succondee Settlement 485 10 0 4,000 Oz. Gold Dust 20,700

Commenda Fort.............. 720 10 0


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thousands of years.---No matter: other AMERICAN CANAL NAVIGATION. outlets would suit us better. Prodigi

ous rivers draining thousands of miles Foresight is a quality which some

of country, have been appointed by Philosophers have supposed to be be

nature to run Southward :---True ; but stowed no less on certain classes of ani- the long foresight of the city of New

We want them to run Westward. It is mals than on man himself

, fond as he York, which perceives that if it could may be of bis self bestowed title, Lord of the Creation.” The Bee and center in itselt

, the trade that passes the Ant among insects, certainly com- mine of wealth to its present commerce.

through the Canadas, it would add a bine much wisdom, and forecast, with It is this long foresight which discerns their industry: the Beaver among animals is distinguished by sagacity: and from an incalcuable distance, that a great in Birds this instinct is notorious. But, city (say New Orleans) at the mouth of after all, long foresight, is the pecu- | trade brought down by the stream of

the Mississippi, is destined to enjoy the liar companion of Reason and Intellect that immense river, together with that As far as to-inorrow---as sons of the year---to the utmost, as far furnished by the numerous rivers whose as the life of the individual extends, waters flow into the main discharge from

the Northern mountains to the Southanimals display wonderful, and, we may add, delightful foresight:---whereas man

ern gulf. Jooks forward to generation after gene

The Canadas are, as yet, foreign to ration, to century after century, and America; Mr. Madison's war failed of provides to-day, for events to take conquering them : but the Canadag place when ages have rolled over the though capable of defence against open heads of his successors, and memory has force, are not proof against jusidious riirrecoverably dropped all recollection of valship. Much of their trade, from the primary projectors.

wbich they derive their value, may be A few of the inventions of man, by diverted into other tracks; though we bearing the name of their inventor, pre- hope there is no great danger of that serve it from oblivion. Copernicus and possibility being realized. The persons Newton, Mercator and Hadley, are im- (Indians) who furnish that trade, have mortal names: Sir Hugh Myddleton, the character of being fickle. The cirwill be distinguished, so long as the cumstances attendant on the trade, itNew River contributes to the salubrity self, are certainly trying: they invite of London ; and “ the Duke of Bridge- no milksop : they smile not on the effewater's Canal,” will transmit his grace's minate : they are known to be, in part, name to posterity, with merited admi-composed of hardships; and throughout ration.

to be a series of privations. Well, if The labours of Sir Hugh Myddleton the city of New York can give a new and the Duke of. Bridgewater, were direction to this arduous enterprize, if it each in their time and place triumphs can induce the Indians themselves, to of art: the latter were triumphs of ‘art take these bazards and troublts, while over nature. The refusals of nature, itself reaps the reward,—who can blame were not suffered to remain refusals; the city of New York ?

Who can and the opposition of nature was con blame it for rendering the value of the verted from opposition to assistance.--- Canadas as trifling as possible to their Nevertheless, these glories of British Parent State,-a country distant thouSkill shriok to nothing when compared sands of miles, across a vast, and danwith the gigantic projects to which gerous ocean. these few lines serve as an introduc But, supposing even that this design tion.

should íail, the attraction of that trade Nature has placed in the interior of which would otherwise go down the America vast seas, and has provided Mississippi, to the waters of the Hudthem with outlets through which their son, is a glorious conception.

It canwalers have been discharged during not be said to ruin the city of New Or

leans, for the city of New Orleans, is a science, calculation, reasoning, abound : mere shadow, as yet. And besides, the when intellect is not repressed by the situation of that city is in the wrong necessities of providing for the passing place; it cannot, it ought not, to be- day as it rolls over, but the means of come an American metropolis. It is too study, the objects of study, the facilities far south. The northern provinces would afforded by study, are well known and deride its presumption. The river is all abundant, are in 'repute, and even poshoals. The situation is unhealthy : pular; when the worst educated person bogs and marshes, a burning sun, a Sif educated at all-stands on higher humid soil : it will be the grave of thou- ground than the most illustrious Chief sands :-whereas,– New York !Levery of a savage nation. America has a thing that is agreeable – New York : good right to avail berself of these ad

But we must not omit to notice the vantages, and any other: to make the spirit of these applicants as adventurers most of her own territory, waters, and proprietors. Scarcely has peace mountains, mines, and local situations. shed her balmy blessings around, when The great error of America is not (has this not-trifling undertaking ineets the not been the disposition to improve to attention of the Legislature. The

the utmost her present and actual pos

pasties to it are not deterred by the ex- sessions ; but,-a grasping, insatiate pense; that they propose to meet man

desire after more-more. " Thou shalt fully by voluntary subscription. They not covet thy neighbour's goods," says allow it to cost twenty thousand dollars the Commandment; but America loses per mile, or six millions of dollars in sight of the Commandment; or like a the whole : they even double this; and famous edition known to the curious, look twelve millions of dollars calmly in omits the word “not.” The politithe face, with all the immobility of cians of Europe are completely of opicountenance of a British Chairman,

nion, that this temper will prove the

promoting subscriptions for a new project.

ruin of America. Whether they, in They calculate the time, “it will be the their long foresight contemplate, as inework perhaps of ten or fifteen years." vitable, events to which the governing The expression includes more than meets powers of the new world are blind, is the ear: the term is not limited by this

more than we can say. America will “perhaps." They adopt political rea- bring about these events, herself; and sonis also: they expect to raise the value when they have actually taken place, of land : they regret the expense on ar

the men of that generation will, with ticles sent to the Lakes during the late true John Bull wisdom, turn and look at war, by transportation. They state each other, with uplifted hands and duthe comparative cost, at which foreign

bious expression of countenanceers can deliver their merchandise

“ Bless us !—who would have thought our borders." They do more: this it?" water communication is to bind the east We give this Memorial entire. Bem ern and the western states in a

side being a proposal of magnitude, the mon, ever acting, and powerful interest.” work contains geographical particulars There is something in all this, so

of the localities, proper to be recorded. characteristic of the descendants of John The original is accompanied by maps, Bull,-such a family likeness, that if apparently some of the most correct, we would be offended at it, we cannot; that have been produced by American the conception of the whole plan dis- Geography. Whether these accompany plays an acquaintance with much that every copy, we know not; as they are has been done, and shews a readiness loose, and separate from that with which and promptitude in “ progressing" in

we have been favoured. undertakings of magnitude.

Can we possibly close this address America is no specimen of an original without reminding those, to whom the State, emerging from barbarity to civi. British interests are committed, along lization. It is a confederation of states, the course of that navigation, formed to formed at a period when learning, arts, their hands by nature, to which this




expensive and laborious canal proposes country, has always been considered the to be a rival ? They have no long canal first duty and the most noble employment to cat: Nature has cut the channel of of government. If it be important that

the inhabitants of the same country should deportation for them. They have no intriguing allurements to study and prac- terests, and a reciprocation of benefits ;

be bound together by a community of intice to attract new dealers : honesty is that agriculture should find a sale for its their policy, their best policy. If a productions; manufactures a vent for their small assistance here or there, to re- fabrics; and commerce a market for its more impediments, or to favonr the commodities; it is your incumbent duty, trader, may be useful, when labouring to open, facilitate, and improve internal to obviate these, they will recollect the navigation. The pre-eminent advantages much greater difficulties of their rivals, of canals have been established by the un

They unite They will think what it becomes them erriug test of experience.

cheapuess, celerity, certainty, and safety, to do : and will do that with spirit to

in the transportation of commodities. It day, which, if left till to-morrow, may is calculated that the expense of transportbe too late ; or perhaps, it may then ing on a canal, amounts to one cent a ton prove unprofitable, merely because the per mile, or one dollar a ton for one huntime was not seized with avidity, atdred miles; while the usual cost by land which it might have been executed with conveyance, is one dollar and sixty cents a certainty of uncommon advantage and per hundred weight, or thirty-two dollars profit.

a ton for the same distance. The celerity and certainty of this mode of transporta

tion are evident. A loaded boat can be MEMORIAL

towed by one or two horses at the rate of

tbirty miles a day. Hence, the seller or THE CITIZENS OF NEW-YORK,


buyer can calculate with sufficient preci-' sion on bis sales or purchases, the period of their arrival, the amount of their avails,

and the extent of their value. A vessel on A CANAL NAVIGATION

a canal is independent of winds, tides, Between the Great Western Lakes, and the and currents, and is not exposed to the Tide-Waters of the Hudson.

delays attending conveyances by land : and To the Legislature of the State of New York,

with regard to safety, there can be no The Memorial of the subscribers in fa. competition. The injuries to which comvour of a Canal Navigation between the land, and the dangers to which they are

modities are exposed when transported by great western Jakes and the tide-waters of liable when conveyed by natural waters

, the Hudson, niost respectfully represents are rarely experienced os canals. In the

That they approach the Legislature latter way, comparatively speaking, no with a solicitude proportioned to the importance of this great undertaking, and and no insurance is required. Hence it

waste is incurred, no risk is encountered, with a confidence founded on the enlight-follows, that canals operate upon the geened public spirit of the constituted autho-neral interests of society, in the same way rities. If, in presentivy the various cousi that machines for saving labour do in maderations which have induced them to pufactures; they enable the farmer, the make this appeal, they should occupy more

mechanic, and the merchant, to convey time tban is usual on common şions, they must stand justified by the im- their commodities to market

, and to receive portance of the object. Connected as it is by roads. As to all the purposes of bene

a return at least thirty times cheaper than with the essential interests of our couutry, ficial conmunication, they diminish the and calculated in its commencement to re- distance between places, and therefore enflect honour on the state, and in its completion, to exalt it to an elevation of un

courage the cultivation of the most exten

sive and remote parts of the country. They paralleled prosperity ; your memorialists

create new sources of internal trade, and are fully persuaded, that centuries may augment the old channels, for the more pass away before a subject is again pre; cheap the transportation, the more expandsented so worthy of all your attention, auded will be its operation, and the greater so deserving of all your patronage and the mass of the prociuets of the country support.

for sale, the greater will be the commerThe improvement of the means of inter-cial exchange of returning nierchandise, çourse between different parts of the same and the greater the encouragemeut to



manufacturers, by the increased economy aggregate extent, some of the most cele. and comfort of living, together with the brated seas of the old world. Atlantic cheapness and a bundance of raw mate- | America, on account of the priority of its rials; and Canals are consequently advan- settlement, its vicinity to the ocean, and tageous to towns. and villages, by destroy its favourable position for corömerce, has ing the monopoly of the adjacent country, many advantages. The western country, and advantageous to the whole country; however, has a decided superiority in the for though some rival commodities may be fertility of its soil, the benignity of its cliintroduced into the old markets, yet many mate, and the extent of its territory. To new markets will be opened by increasing connect these great sections by inland napopulation, enlarging old and erecting new vigation, to unite our Mediterranean seas towns, augmenting individual and aggre- with the ocean, is evidently an object of date wealth, and extending foreign com- the first importance to the geyeral pros

perity. Nature has effected this in some

measure; the St. Lawrence emanates from The prosperity of ancient Egypt, and the lakes, and discharges itself into the C'hina, may in a great degree be attributed to their inland navigation. With little streams which flow into tbe Mississippi,

ocean in a foreign territory. Some of the foreign commerce, the former of those originate near the great Lakes, and pass countries, by these means attained, and the round the chain of mountains. Some of lat ter possesses, a population and opulence the waters of this state which pass into in proportion to their extent, unequalled in Lake Ontario approach the Mohawk; but any other. And England and Holland, the most commercial nations of modern affords a tide navigation for vessels of 80

our Hudson has decided advantages. It times, deprived of their canals, would lose tons to Albany and Troy, 160 miles above the most prolific sources of their prosperity New York, and this peculiarity distinand greatness. Inland wavigation is in fact to the same community what exterior guishes it from all the other bays and ri.

vers in the United States, viz. navigation is to the great family of man

The tide in no other ascends higher than kind. As the ocean connects the nations the Granite Ridge, or within thirty miles of the earth, by the ties of commerce, and of the Blue Ridge, or eastern chain of 'the benefits of conmunication, so do lakes,

mountains. In the Hudson it breaks rivers

, and canals operate upon the inha. through the Blue Ridge, and ascends above bitants of the same country : and it has the eastern termination of the Catskill, or been well observed, that “were we to make the supposition of two states, the great western chaiu; and there are no in

terposing mountains to prevent a commuone having all its cities, towns, and vil. nication between it and the great western lages upon navigable rivers and capals,

lakes. and having an easy communication with

The importance of the Hudson river to each other; the other possessing the com

the old settled parts of the state, may be mon conveyance of land carriage, and sup- observed in the immense wealth which is posing both states to be equal as to soil; daily borne on its waters, in the flourish, climate, and industry ; commodities and ing villages and cities on its banks, and manufactures in the former state might be in the opulence and prosperity of all furnished thirty per cent cheaper than in the country connected with it, either reIthe latter ; or in other words, the first state motely or immediately. · It may also be would be a third richer, and more affluent readily conceived, if we only suppose that than the other."

by some awful physical calamity, some The general arguments in favour of in- overwhelming convulsion of Nature, this land navigation, apply with peculiar force great river was exhausted of its waters: to the United States, and most empbati- where then would be the abundance of our cally to this state. A geographical view markets, the prosperity of our farmers, of the country, will at once demonstrate the wealth of our merchants? Our vilthe unexampled prosperity that will arise lages would become deserted ; our floufrom our cultivating the advantages which rishing cities would be converted into Nature has dispensed with so liberal a masses of mouldering ruins, and this state hand. A great chain of mountain passes would be precipitated into poverty and through the United States, and divides insignificance. If a river or natural canal, them into eastern and western America. navigable about 170 miles, has been prolu various places, rivers break through ductive of such signal benefits, wbat blesthose mountains, and are finally discharged sings might not be expected, if it were exinto the ocean. To the west, there is a tended 300 miles through the most fertile vollection of inland lahes exceeding ių its country in the universe, and united with

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