Page images


patent, dated the 27th of September 1672, , for re-establishment of the Factory :at which time they were io possession of but, a had character is a very bad thing! one small Fort at Cabo Corso (now Cape Coast) that being the only Fort on all this

Of what nature is the accommodation Coast of which the Dutch bad vot dispos- which the l'orts afford to trade?-Very sessed the Company during the (then) late great; they keep open the communication war.

The first tbing which this Company with the interior, they are the depots for found most necessary to be done, was to goods, they protect the British subjects reendeavour by all lawful ways and means siding near them; by these means, the to strengthen themselves as mucb

trade is collected day by day, and a col

pos. sible on the Coast, as other nations, and lectiou of three months is shipped in 24 especially the Dutch, had done before hours, witbout which no ship could profita. them; and for this purpose they enlarged bly trade to tie Gold Coast, as she would Cape Coast Castle, and made it six times otherwise be obliged to stay three months larger, stronger, and more commodious at each point, to collect the same quantity than before. They built one fort at Accra, of goods. I would wish to add also, that another at Discove, a third at Winnebah, these

. Forts give an exclusive trade, to a a fourth at Succondee, a fifth at Commen

considerable extent, to the British subject. da, and rebuilt a sixth at Annamaboc. The British power on the Gold Coast, They likewise purchased Fort Rixburgh, is the power of opinion. The people now Fort Royal, of the Daves, without have been in the habit of respecting the which Cape Coast Castle could not be safe; nation, the authorities, and the establishand they also built another Fort from the ground at Whydah, for the security of the ments; and this habit now stands tiem negro trade at that place. When the

in stead of reason. They have also, ou Forts of Appollonia, Tautum Querry, and certain occasions, found' safety within Pram Pram were acquired, I am not at this the British premises ; and these occa. moment prepared to say. Having spoken sions they still remeraber : for, although of the Royal African Company, it is pro- these forts are sufficiently unmilitary in per I should explain that this was a Com- the

eyes of a European Officer of Engipany which succeeded another Company, neers, yet they are competent to resist established by Queen Elizabeth in the whatever force the native Africans can soth year of her reign, and that the pre- bring against them. sent African company was established by the Act 23 Geo. II, c. 31. when the Forts Annamaboe Fort was attacked by thg and Settlements were trausferred to them. King of Ashantee, at the head of an army

Do you know whether the Governors consisting of 30,000 men. This was in the who have been appointed to the command year 1808 or 1809, on which occasion they of these Forts by the African Company,

were repulsed with the loss of 3,000 killed have beeu all along traders for themselves? by the garrison of the Fort. It is a singu- . I believe they have:

lar thing, that these people, the Ashantees,

who had never seen a white man, nor the During the continuance of the Slave sea, were the most civil and well-bred Trade, did not their occupation in thai people that I have seen in Africa. It is trade, accordipg to the best of your know astonishing to see meu, with such few opledge and belief, furnish the greatest source portunities, so well behaved, of their emolument ?-I think it did; I

We always protect the towns-people re, mean every emolument that was derived siding near the Fort; and in this particufrom trade.

Jar case, about 5,000 of the women and Do the present Governors continue to children got into the Fort for refuge, and trade on their own account?- They do.

were there maintained for several days; all

of whom would bave been massacred, or It appears then, that these Forts were taken as slaves into the country, but for built, as much for security against Eu- the protection afforded them by the Fort, ropean enemies, as against native ag The Forts, then, are a benefit, of no gressors; and further, in the instance despicable nature, to these people; and of Winnebah, the governor of which our readers have seen in some of our was surprized by the natives, and mur- late numbers, the mediation of peace dered, that the place was blown up, and between these our natural allies and abandoned, as punishment for the crime, their invaders, though incomparably The natives have since repeatedly applied more numerous and more powerful,


The Committee have, with great pro- bricklayers, blacksmiths, sawyers, coopers, priety, been attentive to whatever so stone-lewers, &c. with their several apmuch as sounded like Slavery, under prentices; who are employed in keeping British protection and influence. The in repair the several Forts, under the di. description of a class of natives as “ Cas-rection of a surveyor and his deputy. tle Slaves,” gives them occasion to en

The females are for the most part laquire who, and what they are, and why rying stone, lime, mortar, &c.; some are

bouresses, attending the artificers, in carso called ? The result is a curious in- usefully employer as prapra women, or do, stance of the force of words, or the con

mestic servants, in keeping the several tinuation of appellations, which are so, apartments clean and wholesome ; some because they are so : and which con few in the Hospital and Surgery, and tinue so, because they were so. The some of the younger ones as garden girls. question is, " What is the situation of The whole number appears large, but the persons denominated Castle Slaves, rarely two-thirds of them are capable of in the Company's service ?”—The an

attending duty at one time; the others may

be classed under the respective heads of swer is, “ They are FREE SERVANTS ; those laid up with Guinea-worms (frecalled “ Castle Slaves,” because they quently confining them from three to nine are so denominated in the Act of Par- months) or with other disorders; pregnant liament, (passed as far back as 23 Geo. women, or such as are suckling; the old IL] They are artificers ;-have their and infirm ; the superannuated ; and, particular hours of work ;-their parti- lastly, such children as are too young for cular hours to themselves; are exceed-labour. ingly well paid ; and were we to offer Without these artificers it would be tothem their freedom, as they call it, they tally impossibie to keep the Forts in any would not accept it. I take upon myself tolerable repair, uuless, iudeed, artificers to say (says Mr. Swanzey) that they pre which would not only be attended with an

were to be sent annually from England, for their situation to that of being free. enormous expense, but, from the nature of In short, they are free. They are

the climate, with great mortality. These never sold; not do the Company buy artificers, being natives, feel no inconveslaves. We call them Castle Sluves, nieuce from the climate. They are iu gebecause we are accustomed to call themi neral very excellent workmen, having by that name. See now, how an old served a regular apprenticeship; and they designation might mislead a half-inform are also very useful in cases of emergency, ed politician !-" Aye, aye, the English when employed as soldiers, most of them rail against slavery, at home; but being trained to the use of great guns and

small arms. It abroad

may finally be observed,

that the whole expense under the above On another occasion we have the fol-head is incurred in supporting a class of lowing account of these people, their people, not only very useful, but whose duties and occupations,-their import- / fidelity and attachment to their employers ance-their effective strength, and their have been proved ou various occasions, relacive influence among their own

and whose services cannot be dispensed

with, so long as it may be thought for the people.

honour or interest of the British Nation to The above Charge arises principally have establishments on the Gold Coast. It from the Maintenance of Black Trades may be added, that though these people men, Labourers, Labouresses, and others, are deemed Castle Slaves, they consider stationed at Cape ('oast Castle, and the themselves so far superior to the Free Naother Forts on the Gold Coast, under the tives, that, were they offered their liberty, direction of the African Consmittee; they they would not accept it. are nearly 900 in number.

They are The native population around these called Castle Slaves, because they are so

forts is estimated as follows; but we denominated by the Act of Parliament of 290 George II. These people, or rather

are to observe, that their influence their ancestors, were handed over by the penetrates, probably in a radius of a Royal African Company to the Committee hundred miles around them, into the of the Company of Merchants trading to interior, by means of trade, and that Africa, as public property. The males kind of intercourse which is much for are chiefly tradesmen, such as carpenters, Africa, much for a pative of this part of

the world, though nothing to an English What is his age? I believe he is upwards man. Speaking of the population near.

of 80; he is a wative of the country, and Cape Coast Castle, says Mr. Swanzey,

his name is Quaque.

He is of African origin ?-Yes; he was By the Report made by the Commission educated at Oxford. He is a native of the ers who were sent down to survey that part of Africa, the Governor in Chief I country, and was educated at the Univer.

sity of Oxford. stated it to be about 11,000 ; from the same authority at Dixcove, the population

How long has he officiated in that capais about 3,000. In my time, I should take city?-Belween fiity and sixty years, prothe population of Annamaboe and its de- bably; and performed his service incompapendencies, at 20,000, although the Gover- rably well

. When in his vigour, he used nor made no Report to the Commissioners to do his duties exceedingly well. He is respectiog the population of that place. childish. We have a clergyman, who will

totally unfit for it now; he is perfectly The Governor of Succoudee also did not report the population of that place, but I go out on the first opportunity. shonid take it to be about 2,000; at Com

Did Mr. Quaque, in days of yore, make menda, the Report to the Commissioners any progress in the education of the na. made the population 5,000; the population tives ?-Very little. There was a school of Winnebah is estimated at 2,000; the at Cape Coast Castle at that time, which population of British Accra, there being he attended, for the education only of white ibree towns of that name, situated together,

men's children. oue Dutch, one British, and one Danish, For want, then, of providing for the the population of British Accra is estimated continuation of this good work, its at 2,000, by the then Governor to the fruits are lost. Will some of our readCommissioners; the populatiou of Apollo ers excuse us, if we refer this lesson to nia is estimated from the same authority, them? from twenty to lweuty-five thousand; the population of Tautum Querry, I should It is to be observed, that the princitake to be 2,000.

pal people of the Coast, take occasion

to send their sons to England for EduThese people are in different stages cation. This might be much improved, of civilization : are altogether and great advantages could not but enrude, and little short of savage; others sue from it, could it be established into are further advanced, in the arts and a custom. For, in England these youths rationalities of life, by the power rather could be taught a thousand things not of imitation than of instruction. Its to be acquired in Africa. Neither can should appear, however, that attempts colonization by Europeans furnish the have been made years ago to commu same things : it cannot be attempted : picate instruction to the natives. We the natives must act: the natives must cannot doubt, but what it was with be- call their own powers and those of their devolent intentions a native of this part country into e.ercise : they must sow, of Africa was taught the principles of plant, reap, and be taught to depend on Christianity, for the purpose of enabling a demand for the commodities they raise. him to instruct others. It is admitted, This is the best way, perhaps the only on all hands, that the natives of Africa way to obliterate the very remembrance “are exceedingly desirous to receive in- as well as to suppress entirely the pracstruction, provided it is not at their ex- tice, of the Slave Trade. To what pense.” This is trne of schools, or odious lengths that was carried forother institutions for teaching reading, merly, and to what misery even since its writing, and arithmetic. To press the sappression, it has given rise, way be enquiry further, ends in small advane inferred from an incident mentioned by tage ; for, we have reason to conclude, Capt. lrhy. It happened while he was that those who studied the welfare of on the Coast, prevening to his utmost, Afrira in sending them a qualified the ships, and vessels of certain Chris« ecclesiastic, did not follow up the good tian! nations, from collecting cargoes work ; and the benefit, whatever it inight of slaves. be, has evaporated.

It happened at Commenda; a Portuguese The present clergyman is superannuated. brig arrived there in 1812 ; the master


of her had been boatswain of a Portuguese able ; but, much less promising probavessel that had traded there formerly; a bilities have produced events of no slave dealer owed him one slave, and this mean rank in the Commercial and Poliman seized two men out of a canoe that

tical Worlds. was alongside of him, aud insisted upon having this slave which he owed him ; the On the Gold Coast, the great trade is man told him the Slave Trade was entire furnished from Ashautee, a populous and ly abolished on that part of the Coast, that rich country, from 100 to 300 miles northhe had no means of getting one; and as he ward of Cape Coast Castle. These people was obliged to get those two men back are repeatedly interrupted by those residing again, he sent his own wife in lieu of those on the water-side, and their trade is either two men; she was the only person he wholly prevented, or they are obliged to could get.

find a very circuitous ruute, the effect of Was the woman carried away as a

which is, that exertion is not carried to

that extent it otherwise would be, if a slave? _Yes, to the Brazils; Governor White mentioned this particularly to me,

straight forward and regular market was and wished me to recover the woman.

opened for them.

Great numbers of the natives of that This fact needs no comment! it ád-country, some of them very principal peo. mits of no illustration !

ple, were constantly coming down to the

water-side, and on one occasion, an army About six years ago the Sheriff of Mecca of not less than 20,000 came to the neighsent a letter to the king of the foulahs, to bourhood of Aynamaboe, conducted by be circulated through all the Mandingo their King in person, having under him tribes, strictly forbidding their selling of several tributary sovereigns. He was vi. Slaves. He declares it to be contrary to sited in his tent by the Governor in Chief, the laws of Mahomet, and repeats the most and a large retinue of officers and soldiers fearful denunciation of God's wrath in the belonging to the African Company, all of next world, against those who persist in whom spoke in high terms of the good orcarrying on this traffic with the Alihoodi der, discipline, subordination, and good People, i. e. the Europeans.

manners of the King, his principal men,

and their soldiers. Although copies of this letter have been retained in most of the principal Mandingo

What reports did those Ashantee traders towiis, yet as it tended to counteract what make of their own country?--As an exthey cousidered their interest, it has been ceeding fine country, containing large prudently kept secret as much as possible, quantities of gold and elephants; they and this intelligence was only obtained ac- spoke of the capital of Ashantee as a place cidentally within these few weeks by the of great extent: but in general, the reports Governor of Sierra Leone, from a friendly of Africans is so indefinite, it is hardly posand most intelligent Mandingo Chief, who sible to draw any thing like a tolerable also on the Governor's requesting it, went conclusion from thedi, immediately home, took a copy of this let.

Containing large quantities of timber, ter, and brought it to him. He also trans- and immense plains, in which there were lated a great part of it into Eliglish, and as large quantities of elephants, horned cattle, it is proposed to refer it to some oriental deer, and all sorts of animals which are scholar in England, the fraud, if any, will found in other tropical climates; they had be detected. But it is not suspected, either remarkable fine sheep in that country, from the character of this Chief, or from the

some of wbich they brought down, and we circumstances attending the disclosure of had them. this letter, that any deceit bas been committed, and if so, it will furnish a most

When your officers visited the camp of singular coincidence of opivion with the the King of Ashantee, did they observe exertions which about that time procured any signs of reading and writing, among the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

that people ---None among the Ashantees;

but there was oue chief who, with his folThe interior of this country is but lit-lowers, understood Arabic, and had round tle, known. It was natural, therefere, their necks several sentences from the Alwben the Ashantee Army came to the bows and arrows only; they were supposed

coran, and these men were armed with coast, that much inquiry should be

to have come from the mountaius, from pade among that people. Whether it which Mr. Park alleged the Niger had it may lead to intercourse, is question-source.

Did the King of Ashantee express a

Abstract of the present Esta Order in which wish for further communication with Eu


the Fortsstand. ropeans - The King of Ashantee was ex Governors. i Dep. Ware 1. Cape Coast ceedingly desirous to have and to keep 1 Chaplain. house-keeper Castle. open a further communication with the 1 Secretary. 1 Chief Sur. 2.

Annama British; as a proof of it, he solicited an 1 Accountant.


boe. officer of the African Company's, to be 1 Surveyor. 5 Assistauts. 3. Accra. sent up to his country and reside there, in i Register. 7 Factors. 4. Tantum. the character of ambassador, guaranteeing 1 Deputy Se-10 Writers. 5. Appollonia his safety.

cretary. 1 Teacher. 6. Dixcove. Did he state any particular benefits, i D. Account- s Clerka 7. Succondee, which he expected to receive from a ant.

8. Commenda connexion with the British ?-His reasons 1 Dep. Sur.

Succondes were, that he could then directly commu veyor.

was destroyed nicate with the Governor in Chief, without 2 Officers of

by the French the intervention of his owy, or the subjects the Guard.

in 1779: not of other countries, and that it would be

since rebuilt, a guarantee that no interruption should take place to his people, going down to the Coast, for the purposes of trade.

An Account of the real Value of all ImI think, of all the native Sovereigns of ports and Exports from Great Britain, Africa that I have either read or heard of, from and to Africa, from the year 180 he is the man most likely to act with good

to the year 1810 inclusive.
Such is the good opinion of Mr.

Imports, Eccli.
Years. sive of Gold Dust.

Exports. Swanzey. We learn also from bis evi.


d. £. dence, that travellers for mercantile 1805....... 193,034 0 0... 1,156,555 0 purposes, came very freqnently from 1806......226,396 0 0... 1,655,042 0 the Ashantee country, and far inland, 1807...242,747 00 1,022,745 0 to the Forts. Travellers from beyond

Slave Trade abolished, May 1st. that country, dever came : though

1808.......374,306 0 0... 820,194 0

1809.. 383,926 0 0... 976,872 0 slaves, before the abolition of the Slave

O Trade, came, probably, from a thousand 1810.......535,577 O O... 693,911 7 o miles distance from the coast, The Upon the Imports it should be observed, Timbuctoo and Houssa traders, never that many Vessels having been lost or capcame to Cape Coast; but used to fre- tured on their voyage home; the amount quent Lagos.

of their cargoes does come into the above The present cost to the nation, an account of Imports. The amount of car. qually allowed by Parliament to support these Ports, and maintain the British goes so lost must be at least one-fifth or Interests on the Gold Coast, is about one-sixth of the whole Returns. £23,000: the sum is barely sufficient, under the enlarged expenses, to which An Account of the Quantity of Gold Dust the Company is exposed. What effect

imported into the Port of Portsmouth Peace may produce, remains to be ex

from Africa, in Ships of War, from the perienced. The Company solicits 40,0001.

Year 1808 to the Month of November to establish that respectability which ought to belong to it; and to render its

1815, inclusive ;-and the value thereof, influence among the natives more exten

estimated at 41. sterling per ounce. sive, more prevailing, and to both par- | YEARS. QUANTITIES. VALUE. ties--more beneficial.

Ounces. Ackies. at 41. per on His Majesty's Commissioners appointed to examine these Ports, an

1808....... 9,852 nesed also, a series of Questions refer

-15,408 0 ring to various objects, African and 1909....... 2,578 European; the answers contain much

50 curious and instructive matter ;-but

10,494 0 into these with various other interesting 1810....... 6,742

25,068 particulars, we cannot now enter.

« PreviousContinue »