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and I implore thee, thou who art generous, | After wandering three days in the desert, who never betrayed thy honour, to procure he met another. Bedouin, mounted on a my clothes and baggage to be restored.' nimble dromedary, with three camels hea. The Bedouin stimulated by the address of vily laden following hini; be sung, and the this discourse, instantly replied, “ thou art a beams of joy sparkled in his eye. crafty fellow, but since thou takest me by

“Whence come you? where are you my honour-here, take thy effects which the

going ? and who are you? were the first rascally Arab has just brought me. I

questions of the poor fugitive. I come restore them, go thy way, and take care from the vicinity of Bagdad, and I am no other robs thee.

going to Bassora; I was formerly rich, but A Chief of a tribe related to me the fol. in luck triumphed over fortuve, and I was lowing trait :-An old woman, a widow, plunged in the abyss of misery, when I reand in extreme wretchedness, possessed solved to essay the beveficence of the only 16 ounces of meal for herself and se

Barmecides; I was told they were not only ven children, until the evening of the fol.

generous, but recompensed generosity in lowing day; she made 8 little cakes; while others; all I possessed was a sabre, I prethey were baking, a poor wretch entered, sented it one of the chiefs of that illos. and demanded wherewith to satisfy his trious family, and I accompanied my mohunger; without hesitation she presented dest present with a couplei in his praise: him one of the cakes, and in the evening he rereived it without making any reply, distributed the other seven to her children, he no sooner cast his eyes on me than he concealing from them her act of charity, left me. • Oh vanity of human bopes', and passing 48 hours without food. This cried I to myself, in my sorrow, 'God confact occurred during the stay of the French founds the calculatioos of man, and disarmy in Egypt, and paints the Arab better penses prosperity and misfortune at his than any description.

pleasure!" Before dinner the Barmecide “When a Bedouin is reduced to poverty, sent for me, and seated de at his table, he does uot go begging froni tent'to tent night came, I was led to a tent; surprised but, addressing the chief of bis tribe, de- at the mauner of my reception, I surrenclares his case. The chief instantly con

dered my frame to sleep: a young slave vokes the richest of the tribe, and thus entered with the morning suu, took me addresses them, • One of our brethren is in by the hand, and led me a few paces from want, if you wish him to ilie, let me kill him, the tent, and putting the reins of these rather than hunger ; if not, you know your

three camels in my hand, • Take these, duty. It is enough, every one gives 20

said he, and go in peace : such is my mas. cording to his means; one gives a camel, ter's answer. another a ewe, another a tent, another Astonished, I wished to fly to this gene. corn, &c. &c. so that it frequently bappeus rous mortal and testify my gratitude; the that he who was in the morning ou the servant stopped me, adding, your wish is brink of starving, in the evening is richer vain, my master receives the thanks of no than any of his benefactors."

person ; such is his custom, for he says, to Theiffecting picture of the Barmecides, suffer any one to thank us for a favour, who possessed all these heroic virtues, is receiving the recompense of a good acwithout staining them by any vice, shall tion, from man, instead of waiting for the conclude our extracts; we regret that the blessing of the Deity.' length of the narrative of Almonzer In silence I mounted this dromedary, mourning their fate, prevents us from pre which was also presented me, and departsenting it to our readers, but we shall give ed. When I had travelled a few miles, a more recent anecdote of a people who leading my camels after me, I stopped to were affable aud enlightened, and generous examine their, burtheu : they bear at least as they were rich; the love of the people 100,000 dinars of precious effects, and prepared their ruin, and the hatred of the three times as much in money, besides a Court completed it.

small case; on opening it, I found my “During the time that the Barmecides sabre with this note, My dear son, thy inhabited The Desert, an Arab became so good intention sufficeth me, I would have poor, that after having sold his domestic offered thee more than my servant has utensils, and even his tent, for subsistence, presented thee on my account, but God he set out withont knowing whither to go bas not placed them in my hands; peace or what would become of him, wishing, be with ihee." by his disappearance, to conceal his wretch. Encouraged by the success of this Beedness from those who had witnessed his douin, the other directed his steps to the prosperity. His wife accompanied him.- Barmecides, and in three days he was ten

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times more rich than ever he had been in and the Abbé du Bos opened the career of his life.

the History of the Public and Private These extracts will suffice to give an Law of France. The great Montesquieu, idea of the merit and interest of this little the honest Minister D'Argenson, the work. The twenty-four plates which ac Abbé Mably, M. Mounier, M. Bonald, and company it are from good desigus, and Montlosier followed, and M. Bernardi illustrate the manuers, customs, and cere- brings up the rear. Each of these authors monies of those tribes, which exhibit hubad considered the subject under particular man nature in its most debased and its views, and, in some measure, with a spirit most exalted forms.

of system : for instance, M. D'Argenson was against hereditary nobility, and M.

Mouuier the contrary. M. Bernardi, ex. De l'Origine et des Progres de la Legislation tending liis plan to the abstract consideraFrancaise ; ou Histoire du Droit public et tion of Truth, varies considerably in his privé de la France, dc.

premises and conclusions, from his predecesOn the Origin and Progress of French Le

sors. We all know the amiable character gislation ; or, History of the public and given by Tacitus of the ancient Germaus, private law of France, from the founda: but we have not all reflected on the politition of the Monarchy to the present cal motives of the Historian. He not only time. By M. Bernardi, of the Institute, wished to offer a model to corrupted Rome, I vol. 8vo. Paris, 1816.

but also to Aatter the Germans, whose M. Bernardi is one of the few writers of friendship and goodwill were necessary, in the present age, who, in treating a subject, a superior degree, to the fortune of Rome. searches authorities, not to establish this Let us now see the character given by M. or that particular system, but to discover, Bernardi of his ancestors the Franks. and when discovered, to publish truth; “ Their laws were simply conventions firm in his purpose, be fears not to agreed upon among themselves, to put a combat error and misrepresentation, sort of bridle on the violence of their paswherever he finds it, even in the Prince of sions, and prevent them from effecting the Historians, Tacitus himself. This is a pre- dissolution of their Society, which would cious quality in an Historian ;-in all have been inevitable, had they been suffered ages its exercise has been deemed an al with impunity. The principal bases of most insuperable difficulty, and therefore their laws were concerning crimes, and feu have really attempted to surmount it, these the most common among brutal though all profess to do so. Matthew Pa- nations : - as murder, robbery, wounds, ris, who wrote in the thirteenth century, and, in general, all acts of ferocity, and may be cited as one of the few among the violence. They gavethemselves up to the ancients, and Plowden among the mo. greatest excesses; they fought and killed derns, yet the former of these complains in each other, even in churches, at table, and terms more true than elegant, Duru cst all other meetings. Their laws were, proenim conditio Historiographorum quia si perly speaking, only a tarif of wounds, with rera dicant, homines provocant ; si Julsu an enumeration of all the parts of the scriptis commendunt, Dominus qui verilicus human body, even those they might have ab adulutoribus sequestrat, non acceptut.- dispensed themselves from naming, and of And Hume, who is any thing but impar every manner in which each would be in. tial, affects 10 excuse himself by the avowal | jured. Insults of language were also that “no man has arose who has been taxed with the same exactness, and we able to pay an entire regard to truth, and may see whieh were considered the most has dared to expose her, without covering offensive." or disguise, to the eyes of the prejudiced This, certainly, is no flattering porpublic." Far from agreeing with the trait, but it is a just one, of the barbanorthern Historian, whose doctrine is nei- barous hordes who married their sisters, ther more vor less thau au apology for their neices, and even their father's widow. fraud and falsehood, and thuse too of the The first Christian Kings, it is true, forworst descriptiou, as being destined to bade these incestuous unions, but in vain ; perpetuate deception to the remotest ages, even Charleniague himself found it a task we render a pure and willing homage to beyond his powers; what indeed was to those whose jutlexiblesouls cling to the altar be effected as to morals, on a people, who of Truth, and if they fall, expire at its valued life less than the gratification of the base.

meanest pleasures, on whon the example M. Bernardi treats a subject which has of punishment could produce no effect. already been frequently attempted, with He called in the aid of the church, which, different degrees of merit. Boulainvilliers by degrees iustilling into the minds of

those who never dreamt of an hereafter, 1 pected, than their ambition made them im. the terrors of eterual perdition, paved piously declare, that God had expressly the way for an improvement of morals. given them power over all Sovereigns. What a melancholy picture does M. Ber- This was the argument made use of by one nardi trace of these times!“ We see by of them to an Emperor of Germany, “If the capitularies that frequently the King's St. Peter were here, and ordered you to Messengers were resisted with open force, depose your crown at his feet, would you that the judges either protected culprits, dare to disobey?... what then Saint Peter or received bribes, that the people were could command, I, who am his regular oppressed in a thousand ways by the successor, can command ; and if obedience Courts. Justice was banished from the be due to him, the like is due to me." judgment seat; on the one hand, were be Perhaps the most difficult matter to treat held nothing but torrents of blood ; on the was that part of the subject, commencing other, nothing but fraud and deceit. There with the reign of Louis XVI. to the end of was no safety for commerce. They were the reign of Napoleon, confined as it is, obliged to make the centeniers (Captains to a moderate sized octavo volume; this of hundreds) swear that they would not part is little more than a nomeuclature, rob. Robbery and brigandage were un and if we are at all inclined to find fault punished ; and it was a common expression with our author, who deserves so well of under Charles, the Bold, to say, It was no the public, it is that he has not made a disuse to complain to the King, from whom tinct volume of the last half century, no justice or consolation was to be hoped." which contains more subjects of discus

Iu tliese times the influence of religion sion, yet juvolved in doubts, and has prowas the only safe-guard of liberty aud op duced more wonderful events, than history pressed humanity. It was to the interpo has had to record. sition of the Church that we owe the suspension of the private wars and family feuds, undertaken in the first instance to

IMPROVEMENT OF RAPE OIL ; punish those whom no laws could reach,

Intended to render it equal to Spermaceti Oil, but which soon became so fatal to the

for Illumination. people, that, murder, robbery, fire, and We knew a Gentleman who employed sword, spread universal desolation ; we bis leisure time, for many years, in various may judge of the disorder of those dreadful experiments on the purification of Oils. We times by the fact that they were obliged 10 do not kuow, that he had any opportunity of grant impunity to the murderer of him employing sea-water; though we know he who had broken the Trere de Dieu.

used water impreguated with salt. Besides We would, however, here remark, that this, his oils were constanti; exposed to the the truce of God, as the Pope's Edict was sun and air, by which they acquired in called, which forbade the avenging of pri bladders) a fluidity and transparency great. yate quarrels between such and such feasts, ly to their advantage. The following is and on such and such days in the week, part of a communication to the Secretary was rather political than religious. It of the Cork lostitution. was at the time when Peter The Hermit I begav by wasbing the oil with spring preached the crusade to the Holy Land. water; which is effected by agitating the Crusaders were wanted, and the Pope oil violently with a sixth part of the water. adroitly turned tħe turbulent spirit of pri- This separates the particles of the oil, and vate revenge to a pious iudignation against commixes those of the water intimately with the infidel possessors of the Holy Sepul- them. After this operatiou, it looks like chre. Mankind at that period were in a the yolks of eggs beat up. Iu less than state of barbarism; the flame of learning forty-eight hours they separate completely, was every where extinct, silve in the clois- the oil swimming at top, the water with ters, where it burnt with a feeble and un- all feculent and extraneous particles subcertain light, but feeble and uncertain as it siding at the bottom. I improved very was, it was kept alive by the Priests, and, much on this, by substituting sea-water in it may be said, by the Priests only, for cen the place of fresh water. I tried whether turies, till a brighter æra arose under, fresh water impregnated with salt, may Francis l. Would that the thirst of tem- not do as well as sea water; but found the poral power had not destroyed all the light not so bright, and of a reddish rast. christiau virtues of the church, and even The oil which I have washed is rape oil, cancelled the obligations learning owes to for which I am charged 4s. Sd. a gallon. I hier! l'ossessed of learning, the Popes were have now made use of it constantly for two the natural arbiters for deciding the con nionths: it gives no bad smell, and when testeri rights of Sovereigns, but no sooner burning close to the sperinaceti oil is not did the Popes find their interposition res to be distinguished.

inferior oysters was kept up to 16s. or 188. NATIONAL FISHERIES. per bushel, while those of a superior deWe have several times called the atten. scription were sold as high as 25s. He

hoped, among other benefits which the tion of the public to proposals in favour of new Institution would produce, that it the British Fisheries; and after the com- would remove this shameful monopoly. munications we have received from the The general principle of the Institution highest authorities, we have wondered that

was intended to do great service to the

poor fishermen, now out of employ-and, little, or nothing, more was heard about by giving a proper scope to their industry, the plans and exertions proposed. Con to remedy that extensive and increasing vinced, as we are, that much benefit may evil, smuggling—the penalty of which alaccrue to the nation from spirited, and ju. He could assure the meeting, that he

ways fell on the poor fellows engaged in it. dicious exertions on this subject, we have would adopt every means in his power to beheld with extreme regret, a variety of further the objects of the Institution-not sehemes fade away, and issue in disappoint. only by his own personal exertions, but by ment. We hope better things of the pre-hold, who held situatious in the market.

the efforts of those Gentlemen of the housesent; which, we trust, has originated in the

The Lord Mayor then made his bow right quarter, and will be conducted' with and retired. associated benevolence and skill. In the On the motion of the Lord Gambier, meanwhile, the information contained in the Chair was taken by Mr. Alderman

Atkins. this article is interesting from its nature,

The worthy Alderman said, the object , from the particulars it includes, and the of the present meeting was, to second the extent of its views. It is at once instruc- intentions of those Gentlemen, who had tive, and benevolent; and it deserves the formed themselves into a laudable Society, attention and patronage of the interior that coast. From the altered circumstances

at Deal, for relief of the poor fishermen on towns of our country, and their public spi- of the times, those men were undoubtedly rited men of understanding and influence. prevented from earuing that subsistence to A MEETING

which they had been accustomed ; and it was necessary that an endeavour should be

made to seek out new objects of employe SUPPORTERS

ment for them. If the efforts of this İnstilof THE

tution should be the means of altering the * Downs Society of Fishermen's Friends.' system now prevaleut in sea-port towus-was held October 1, at the City of London where smuggling was encouraged by a set Tavern, Bishopsgate-street, for the pur- of crafty Jews--wbere persons were enticpose of enabling the Society to carry their ed, by every artifice, to break the laws-objects into complete execution.

it would be no common advantage to the About two o'clock, the Lord Mayor en community as well as to the revenue. tered the room, and took the Chair. He Very recently a mau of his own name, by expressed his regret, that official business engaging in those pursuits, became obwould prevent him from remaining more

noxious to the laws. He was led from one than a few moments in the situation to villainy to another. By seeking to obtain which he had been called-still, however, riches in a summary way, he narrowly he attended, in order to give his counte escaped an ignominious death. He thought nance to a measure that appeared likely the highest praise was due to those Genile. to be beneficial to mankind-and, in his

men who set the Institution on foot at Deal, public capacity of Chief Magistrate, as

He certainly wished that the business well as in his private one, as a citizen of should be left in the hands of those GentleLoudon, he would render the plau every

men who had so ably commenced this assistance in his power. He had read a great work-and he was convinced that statement of a sort of combination, on the every individual would feel extremely part of certain oyster-merchants, relative happy to contribute all the assistance in to the oyster-bed off Dover. Those Gen. his power in support of their praiseworthy tlemen endeavoured to prevent any of the

endeavours. fish taken from that bed to be brought

The Secretary then proceeded to read to market, they declared that they would extracts from “ihe Report of the Commit. not employ any persous engaged in that tee of the Downs Society of Fishermen's fishery-and, by that means, the price of



“ It is with peculiar satisfaction that the their surplus for distant sale in this coun: Committee are, at length, enabled to make try, or for exportation to foreign parts. their Report on the preliminary experi

“The lateness of the seasou not allowing meut which was, last year, undertaken, by the Society to attempt any effectual arthe direction of this Society, for the pur rangement last year, they determined, as a pose of ascertaining how far the wonderful preliminary experiment, to raise a fund, abundance of fish with which Divine Pro- in shares of five pounds, for the porpose of vider ce has blessed our shores, might afford curing one hundred barrels of white heremployment for relieving the distress of the wings for the West Indies, which was under. maritime, and other labouring classes in stood to require the greatest skill and care this neighbouhood; and they now beg in the process of curing and packing; but Jeave to make a distinct declaration of the none of the inhabitants being acquainted motives and objects of this Association, as with this process, it was found vecessary well as of the success which has so far at to procure justruction, at a considerable tended their undertaking, and the means expense, from persons who had been emby which the ulterior views of the Society ployed in the Dutch, Scotch, and Cornish might be accomplished.

Fisheries; and these persons, wiih a numMany circumstances have conspired to ber of women and children from the parish bring the most severe distress on that nu work house, who were placed under their merons class of our population, which, dur- instruction, cured as many herrings as the ing the war, found employment in hovelling, Committee were able to obtain from the and attending on shipping, as well as in boats, which, at that late period of the seathe occasional fishing, which the local son, were about to be laid up; and although demand required-and this distress is daily no more than 69 barrels could be procured, manifested not only by the number of this quantity was found sufficient to afford those who are compelled to prefer their complete instruction to those who were emlegal claim to relief from the Poor Rates, ployed in it, as well as to the whole towo but also from a corresponding decrease in who witnessed their proceedings. the value of the property from which those “ The Committee have now to report, rates are drawn--so that the rates have rapid that the herrings having, by these means, ly risen 100 per cent. and, without some been cured in the most perfect manner, and effectual remedy, are likely to increase to a having been minutely examined by the most alarming amount.

Fishery Inspector, were highly approved, “ With this deplorable prospect before and received the first bouuty paid, under the them, many of the principal inhabitants of present Act, ou this part of the coast. Deal, and the neighbouring parishes of “ The Society having directed that sixtyWalmer and Ringwould, associated them. two barrels of these herrings should be sent, selves in November last, under the deno- in small samples, to the West Indies, in mination expressed in the title of the Re. order to ascertain their qnality and fitness port, for the purpose of taking into consi for that climate, this quantity was accordderatiou such means as should appear most ingly sold to the following West India proexpedient for affording relief to any of the prietors and merchants, viz. George Scott, boatmen who might desire to avail them- Esq. William Vaughan, Esq. Andrew Bel. selves of their assistance.

cher, Esq. and Messrs Manning and An“ In the consideration of this subject, it derson, who kindly undertook to send them clearly appeared that the fisheries, which to such correspondents as would pay partihave hitherto been carried on from these cular attention to their quality, and make a parishes, have borue no proportion either faithful report on them. to the inexhaustible abundance with which “ T'ime has not yet permitted the whole our shores are providentially supplied, or of these reports to come to hand, but those to the demand for the consumption of their which have been received, contain such acproduce in the Metropolis and inland counts from Jamaica, Antigua, and Barba. townis, or in the colonial and foreign does, as afford the most gratifying proof markets.

that, as far as regards the operative part of “ This disproportion between the de- curing and packing the Downs herrings (a mand and production appeared to the So- point of the highest preliminary importciety to arise, chiefly, from the want of ance), the Society's experiment has been funds among the boatmen (who are gene crowned with the most complete success." rally in peedy circumstances) to make their In describing the advantages wbich the outfits on a suitable scale-the want of a Cinque Ports afford in carrying on the regulated intercourse with the Metropolis, fisheries, your Committee beg leave to obfor the sale of their fresh fish-and the serve, that the periodical shoals of her. want of instruction and means for curing rings, in their progress from the North

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