Page images

are not, however, the less entitled to re the Treasury, which will be increased ceptico.

by the profits of this volume. The route homewards abounds in vi. The public mind looks with great cissitudes. A different course from that anxiety to the expeditions now adby which the prisoners arrived, equally vancing in Africa : a more favouraled them across desarts ; at the dis- ble point of time for the appearance tance of thirteen days from Tombuctoo, of this narrative could not orcur. It is Tudenny, distinguished by four wells increases our acquaintance with the of excellent water, and large ponds or country and the people, though not so beds of salt, from which the country much as might have been hoped for round about to a great distance is sup- from a better prepared mind. We pay plied. A desert of twenty-nine days little attention to Adams's errors in Natasucceeded ; hunger, thirst, exhausted ral Bistory, or in Geography, which inust strength, and death. At length a wa- strike every reader ; they are those of tering place, and a village of tents, af an illiterate sailor. An elephant with forded relief; and here Adams and his four tusks; -an animal with a prach companions were employed in taking on its bark, in which it deposiis its care of goats and sheep, during eley'n prey, are evidently inistakes occasioned months. Here despair of liberty led by ignorance of language. Many confyAdams to revolt, and flight: he reached sions equally gross have the same cause. another village, obtained another mas Adams has taken many Negro words for ter, and, a mistress, too; but, the in- | Arabic, and vice versa. He has imtercourse was detected ; and the culprit perfectly guessed the situation of places, was again sold, to a purchaser whose and the direction of routes ; nevertheresidence being at Wadinoon, to the less, we accept the narrative, generally, northward, brings him so much nearer as genuine, and instructive. It is at home. Here he found three of his fel- least equal to those obtained from the low sailors in the Charles, was ill treat- Moorish merchants, which were all we ed, put in irons, and doomed to death, had, previously; and it assists to modebut at length was ransoméd by the British rate that exaggerated estimate which Vice Consul, and brought into his ser some bad formed of the vast magnitude vice, whence he gradually proceeded by of that object after which, as well the way of Mogadore and Cadiz, to London. French nation, as ourselves, had been

long anxious. The reception of Adains by the Vice

It would not surprise us, should fuConsul, Mr. Dupuis, at Mogadore, affords

ture discoveries divest the personages an opportunity of compari ag the story whom Adams bas described as royal, of he then told, with the accounts he gave when examined in London ; and, indeed, this famous city of Tombul too was not

some of their dignity ; nor to find, that was an occasion of his being discovered the Metropolis of the Sovereignty, nor in London, in a distressed condition, by the real center of trade. Thut probaba gentleman who had seen him at Cadiz in the service of an English Merchant,

ly, is on the great river ; and remains there, where his history, as having been yet to be discovered.

The description given by Adams of at Tombuctoo, was reported, and ex

the milder character of the negroes, cited considerable interest. To Mr. and the more ferocious disposition of the Dupuis we are also indebted for many Moors, we believe to be strictly just. valuable notes, and various information; The proof of the latter rests on a thouwhich, on the whole, confirm the testi- sand facts well authenticated : another mony of this wandering sailor, while is furnished by Mr. Consul Dupuis. they assign a proper level to his powers of observation, and his general qualifica-captives are invariably worse treated than

It is to be remarked that the Christian tions. After having received assistance, the idolatrous or Pagan slaves wliom the and told his story, he quitted London Arabs, either by theft or purchase, bring for America, as soon as possible; leav- from the interior of Africa, and that reliing behind him a large portion of a gions bigotry is the chief cause of this disbounty assigned him by the Lords of tinction. The zealous disciples of Mo.

[ocr errors]

hammed consider the Negrocs merely as him for the value of a slave. Reluctant ignorant uncouverted beings, upon whom, to lose their sacrifice, the Arabs now atby the act of enslaving them they are con- tempted to raise money by subscription ferring a benefit, by placing them within to purchase the boy; and contributions reach of instruction in the “ true belief ;" were begged about the town to burn the and the Negroes having no hopes of ran Christian. But in the end, as they made som, and being often enslaved when chil. slow progress towards obtaining by these dren, are in general, soon converted to the means a sufficient sum to purchase the boy, Mohammedan faith. The Christians, on they relinquished their project; the owne the contrary, are looked upon as hardened er, however, was shortly afterwards obliged infidels, and as deliberate despisers of the to remove bis slave to another part of the Prophet's call; and as they in general sted country, to secure him from private asfastly reject the Mohammedan creed, and sasination. at least never embrace it whilst they have But, not religious zeal alone prompts hopes of rapsom, the Mooslim, consistently with the spirit of many passages in the Africa take offence but too easily, and

them to such cruelty: these Moors of Koran,views them with the bitterest hatred, when once offended, are with difficulty cruelty which a merciless bigotry can sug. pacified. They harbour revenge, too, cruelty which a merciless bigotry can sug- with the most obstinate perseverance, gest.

It is not to be understood, however, that and take a delight in perpetrating it. A the Christian slaves, though generally ill. history of such a transaction is given in treated and inhumanly worked by their the Appendix, No. II. to this volume; Arab owners, are persecuted by them os which our readers will consider as tensibly on account of their religion.-fixed trait in the character of these They, on the contrary, often encourage the impassioned sons of Africa. Christians to resist the importunities of those who wish to convert them: for, by The following anecdote, to the catasembracing Islamism the Christiau slave ob-trophe of which I was an eye-witness, will tains his freedom; and however ardent exemplify in some degree these traits of may be the zeal of the Arab to make pro- their character. A Shilluh having mur. splytes, it seldom blinds bim to the calcu- dered one of his countrymen in a quarrel, lations of self-interest.

fled to the Arabs from the vengeance of the

relations of his antagonist; but not thinkA curious instance of the struggle thus ing himself secure even there, he joined a excited betweeu Mohammedan zeal and party of piigrims and went to Mecca.worldly interest, was related to me to have from this expiatory journey he returned at occurred at Wed-Noon, in the case of a

the end of eight or nine years to Barbary ; boy belonging to an English vessel which and proceeding to his native district, lie had been wrecked on the neighbour- there sought (under the sanctified name of ing coast a short time previous to the El Haje, the Pilgrim,--a title of reverence « Charles."

amongst the Mohammedans) to effect a This boy had been persuaded to embrace reconciliation with the frieuds of the deceasthe Mohammedan faith; but after a little ed. They, however, upon hearing oi bis while, repenting of what he had done, he return, attempted to seize bim; but owing publicly declared that he had renounced to the fleetness of his horse he escaped and the doctrines of the Koran, and was again tied to Mogadore, having been severely a Christian. To punish so atrocious an wounded by a musket ball in his flight.--outrage, the Arabs of Wed-Noon resolved His pursuers followed him thither, but the to burn him ; aud they would no doubt Governor of Mogadore hearing the cir. have punctually performed the ceremony, cumstances of the case, strongly interested but for the interference of the man from himself in behalf of the fugitive, and enwhose service the boy had emancipated deavoured, but in vain, to effect a recoubimself by bis first conversion. This man ciliation. The man was imprisoned; and contended, that by abjuring the Moham- his persecutors then hastened to Morocco medau faith, the boy had returned into his to seek justice of the Emperor. That former condition of slavery, and was again prince, it is said, endeavoured to save the his property; and in spite of the most op- prisoner ; and to add weight to his recomprobrious epithets which were heaped upon neudation, offered a pecuniary compensabim (including even the term “infidel," the tion in lieu of the offender's life; which the horror and abomination of all true Moo- parties, although persons of meau condition, selmin) the man insisted that if they would rejected. They returned triumphant to Moburn the boy, they should first reimburse gadore, with the Emperor's order for the de

livery of the prisoner into their hands: and thinks proper to boast of as superior or having taken him out of prison, they im- exquisite. Nonsense is pousense, and mediately conveyed him without the walls frivolity is frivolity, whether sanctioned of the town, where one of the party, ing his musket before the face of their vie by French critics, who laugh at Ger

man solidity, or by Germans, who detim, placed the muzzle to his breast and

teet the deceptions of French supercishot him through the body ; but as the man did not immediately fail,' he drew bisliousness, and scoul at the frightful fashdagger and by repeated stabbing put an

jons, to which the folly of the moment end to his existence. The calm intrepidit:bliges them to conform. with which this uufortunate Shilluh stood Frederic of Prussia patronized whatto meet his fate, could not be witnessed ever was French: his fatterers, to obwithout the highest admiration; and, how tain his favour, praised whatever he paever much we must detest the blood-thirsti-tronized. The consequences we have ness of his executioners, we must still ac: knowledge that there is something closely the errors of Frederic. A better spirit

seen, and dearly bas Prussia paid for allied to nobleness of sentiment in the in. flexible perseverance with which they pur

has arisen in Germany, and now, indesued the murderer of their friend to pu- pendent of former bias, that country exnishment, without being diverted from ercises the right of thinking for itself. their purpose by the strong inducements of On this independence we congratulate self-interest.

it. This will, no vlaulit, pervade the

whole of the national feelings, and inA Course of Lectures on Dramatic stead of a mongre set of notions, nei

Art und Literature, by Augustus Wil-ther French nor German, but a bad liam Schlegel: translated from the ori. mixture of both ; ideas and sentiments ginal German. By John Black. 2 Vols. and take the lead in affairs of moment,

truly Gerinan will display themselves, Svo. Price 24s. Baldwin and Co. Lon- for such is national opinion; in affairs, doa. 1815.

too, not equally important, though cerThat Germany has lately produced tainly, not without a respectable degree eminent men in the various walks of Li- of

consequence. terature, is a well known fact, although That is of consequence which the from public circumstances, we, in this public think sq; and whether it be the island, have had but slight acquaintance duty of preserving inviolate the energies with their labours. Intercourse being of a National Constitution, or maintainagain established, we have the pleasing ing in due dignity the honour of a Naprospect of receiving both profit and tional Theatre, if it affect the public pleasure by continental communications mind, no well-informed statesman will learned and ingenious ; while, to judge deem it beneath his notice. The relaxfrom what Catalogues and Journals have ations and amusements of the citizens in reached us, we derive satisfaction from civilized states, have always been obthe returns made hy our country; and jects of attention to the Governors of from the honourable post assigned to those states; and though, it may be the labours of British literati, in the supposed, that the officers entrusted with esteem of intelligent foreigners.

the duty of inspecting them, have selThere certainly was a defect in Ger- dom been critically acquainted with the man feelings, as there was in those of rules of Aristotle, or the maxims of the our own nation, among the leading cha- Greeks, yet, they ought to have been racters of the last generation, or rather familiar with the effect of certain specperhaps, of the generation before the tacles on the minds, the passions, and jast, in following too partially the modes the prejudices too, of their countrymen ; and sentiments which prevailed in and alive to the practical application of France. We are not illiberal enongh the principle, which enjoins all possible 10 pronounce a thing worthless, because care that the Commonwealth sustains it originates with

rival, or an enemy; no injury. neither are we so incapable of judging To have broken the shacklus of vice for ourselves, as to accept without exa- is no small act of virtue: to have dared mipation whatever a rival, or an enemy, to restore freedom from French domina

tion, though to the trapsitory kings and to whom the Historian (if he existed,) queens of the theatre only, is honour was inaccessible. A national event beable to the author of the lectures before came the dignity of tragedy; a village us. We cannot, indeed, adopt every word incident, or rumour, was the favourite be says; and must beg leave to dissent of comedy. The ordinary characters of even from parts of his panegyric on ordinary life, figured in the barn, or Shakespeare ; yet we honour his inde- found their representatives in the strolpendence, and we respect the diligrice ling company; but kings and heroes manifested in his restarches. He intro- and deities, demanded greater preparadnces his instructions by reference to tions, more artificial splendour, and the antients, and among them, princi- more striking configuration in every pally 10 the Greeks; for the Romans part. he keeps mostly in the back ground. Neither were these events always com Now, it is true, that we have not much plete in a single incident: they consisted acquaintance with the theatre of other of parts, consequences, naturally folpations; yet, we own, that we did ex- lowing from some leading event. The pect some notice of those very curious poet could not for would not) always dramas which modern learning has bring the whole of these into one piece. brought to our acquaintance from India; He found in different parts of the same -dramas, which, from their antiquity, story sufficient employment før bis as well as their native beauties, demand Mase, and he preferred affecting the the consideration of critics and connoi- minds of spectators by simplicity, raseurs.

ther than oppressing them by superDramatic exhibitions certainly exist abundance. He therefore divided his ja China; they were not unknown to the theme. South Sea Islanders, discovered by And we acknowledge an obligation to Couke; and some allusion to those M. Schlegel, for having set the fact of sceues, though savage, would have add a trilogy, or three pieces performed on td a variety to the themes treated on the same day, in a somewhat stronger by the Lecturer. To come nearer to light than usual: we are hereby enabled his purpose, Egypt unquestionably had to discern to what degree certain trageDramas, though their nature is not fully dies besides being historical, were reliknown to us; they were probably, religious; especially those which took for gious; as in the first instanre, no doubt, their basis the woes of the house of were those of Greece. Moreover, we Atreus. do not think, that these religious ob These woes originated iu the impiety servances were originally intrusted to a and perjury of King Tantalus, whose race strolling Thespis in his Cart. It was was distinguished for violence and murnot religious rites, in any sense, that der; but, especially froir: the cruelty of were performed by actors whose cheeks, | Atreus, who caused two children of his for want of more comely red, were stain- brother to be served up to their father ed with lees of wine. If so, the dis- at an entertainment. Agamemnon, his tinction between the rise and the his-son, obtained his wife Clytemnestra, by tory of Tragedy and Comedy is clear: slaying her husband. Menelaus, anoTragedy was historic, religious and in-ther son, married irlen, wliose seduca! structive : Comedy was popular, per- tion by Paris, caused the ruin of Troy; sopal, and perfidious ; it was character for, to avenge the insult Greece colswolled into Caricatura.

lected her forces; which being windNothing could be more natural, than bound, cost the hapless Iphigenia, the desire to become acquainted with daughter of Agamemnon, her life, as a the history of the country ; and nothing sacrifice to Diana ; under pretence of could more strongly coincide with the avenging Iphigenia, Clytemurstra, with disposition of a wise legislature. An- her paramour Egisthus, murdered Agacient events were, therefore, set before memnon, on his return from Troy ; to a people who could not read; and His- avenge Agamemnon, Orestes murdered tory was taught by the poet, to those his mother, Clylempestra; and to pum Yos.V. No. 25. Lit. Pan. N. $. Oct. 1.

nish Orestes, the Furies haunted bim to i et sceleratus eodem. This deed, although insanity and restlessness. Here, how- perpetrated from the most powerful mioever, punishment stops; for Clytem-lives, is repugnaut however to natural and vestra certainly deserved death, though is true, entitled to exercise justice even on

moral order. Orestes as a Prince was, it her son should not have been the person ihe members of his own family: but he to inflict it: Orestes is brought to trial;

was under the necessity of stealing in disand, the votes being equal, he is ac- guise into the dwelling of the tyrannical quitted.

Ustirper of Iris throne, and of going to work This history furnished topics for the like an assassin. The memory of his father ingenuity of several Poets; and the pieces pleads his excuse; but although Clytemthey composed are to be considered as nestra has deserved death, the blood of unfolding that chain of events, (all his mother still rises up in judgment against conducted by interference of the gods) l in the form of contention among the Gods,

him. This is represented in thie Eumenides by wbich one primary crime led to

some of whom approve of the deed of Oresmany more; each generation, as fresh

trs, while others persecute him, till at last agents rose, deserved personal punisli- the divine wisdom, under ile figure of Miment for personal guilt, still combining nerva, reconciles the opposite claims, estathe recollection of the original trans-blishes a peace, and puts an end to the gression; till the balance of crime and long series of crimes and punishments of punishment became equal.

which desolated the royal liouse of Atreus.

A considerable interval takes place be's Among the remaining pieces of ÆschyJus, we have what is highly deserving of 'ween the period of the first and secondi our attention, a complete trilogy.

pieces, during which Orestes grows up to The

manhood. The second and third are conantiquarian account of trilogies is this, that nected together immediately in the order in the more early times the poet did not

of time. contend for the prize with a single piece, murder of his mother to Delphi, where we

Orestes takes Right after the but with three, which however were riot and him at the commencement of the Eu. always comerted together by their con menides. tenis, and that a fourth satirical drama was also attached to them. All these were suc

In each of the two pieces, there is a visicessively represented in one day. The

ble reference to the one which follows. In idea which we must forin of the trilogy in Agamemnon, Cassandra and the chorus relation to the tragic art is this: a tragedy prophesy, at the close, to the arrogant Clycannot be indefinitely lengthened and con

tempestra and her paramour Ægisthus, tbe tuued, like the lioneric epic pour for ex.

punishment which awaits them at the ample, to which whole rhapsodies have bands of Orestes. In the Choephoræ, been appended; for this is too independent the deell, finds no longer any repose; the

Orestes, immediately after the execution of aud complete within itself. Notwithstanding this circunstance, however, several furies of his mother begin to persecute bim, tragedics may de conected together boy and he amounces iiis resolution of taking means of a common destiny running

refuge in Delphi. throughout all their actions in one great

The connexion is therefore evident "ycie. Hence the fixing on the number throughout, and we may consider the three acuits of a satistictory explanation. three pieces, which were connected togeIt is the thesis, the antithesis, and the cou- ther even in the representation, as so many lesion. The advantage of this conjunc- acis of one great and entire drama. I trou was that, in the consideration of the mention this as a preliminary justification connected failes, a more ampie degree of of Shakspeare and other modern poets, in gratification was derived thai could possi-comecting together in one representation bly be obtained from a single action. The a larger circle of human destinies, as we olijoets of the three tragedies might be can produce to the critics who object to deparated by a wide interval of time, or this the supposed example of the ancientu 10 low close upon one another. The three pieces of the trilogy of Esed unities of time and place, so zea

And now, what becomes of the boasta chyjus are Agamemnon, the Chophoræ or Electra, and ihe Eumenidos or l'uries, The lously enforced by the French critics? object of the first is the murder of Aga-1 If these three pieces, forming vde IP:10by Clytemnestra, on his return subject, are no other than the acts of a from 'Troy. lu ihe second, Orestes avenges modern drania, in what does the kis tuilci by killing his mother: facto pius managewent of them differ from Rich

« PreviousContinue »