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roused in an injured people. It is mor- est supporters of the Evangelical union tifying to observe how soon, in all ages, against the Catholic league, finding his the prejudices of party have arisen to end approaching at a miserable village obscure the search after truth-how in Dalmatia, attires himself in one of soon impediments have been raised in his ricbest uniforms, yirds on a favonthe most laudable pursuits, by that prin- rite sword, and, supported by two of his ciple of pride or obstinacy, inherent in officers, calmly awails. the final stroke the nature of man, which perpetually of death, whilst exhorting those around leads him to overlook the grand whole him to persevere in their pursuit of of a design, in order to dwell upon some glory, their inveterate hostility towards petty pait, wherein he conceives his Austria. Of this man anecdotes are told own in lividual actions or opinions can that would refect lustre npon the apnals be made to appear of more importance of Greece or Rome; but the most splen
It would be natural to imagine, that did era of the whole performance, is that the common bond subsisting between the stein appear on the field together, firs
wherein Gustavus Adolphus and Wallen-t followers of Luther and of Calvin, in the Cannon danger which threatened them, circumstances impelled them to become
as open enemies, then as friends, so far as and which it required all their united ef
so, but soon-the native rectitude of forts to avert, would have proved suffici. Gustavus ill assorting with the brilliant ently powerful to have silenced, at least chicaneries of Wallenstein-returning to during the intermediate time of exertion, their original animosity, both brave, all other considerations of pre-eminence both men of splendid talents, both dying in theological rank, all ridicnlous at- the victims of that superiority which tempts to impose upon each other the made them the mark of treachery, both very saine shackles of conscience that they were together resisting from the on the historic page, with this only dif
leaving their names impripted for ever bands of Austria and Rome--yet so it ference, that the virtues of Gustavus was, that the world was called upon to witness two vast parties, agreed only in Wallenstein were those of expediency.
were those of his heart-the virtues of finding fault with the dotage of the mother church, without being able to settle endeavoured in all things to follow the
Gustavus seldom did wrong, because he the systein of belief that they would wish to erect in her place. Yet the
simple rule of right; Wallenstein, on characters and events that crowd this of little worth when it lay upon the sur
the contrary, suspected truth itself to be important period of modern history, are face, so much more highly did he prize often of a description calculated as pow- all that he gained by intrigue and cunerfully to excite the imagination, as to ning. In Gustavus Adolphus, the profurnish food for reflection. We see
testants found a brave and stedfast chamcrowns offered by victorious despots to individuals, whose talents were all their fence from the unbiassed dictates of his
pion, whose arm was raised in their declaim to distinction, and refused by conscience-himself a friend to the docthem in the proud consciousness, that trines of Luther, yet he made no invimore real glory would accrue to them dious distinctions between his followers, by freeing a nation, than in availing and those of Calvin ; he took the sword theinselves of its distresses to
in hand to maintain the most sacred of mipion over it. We find the spirit of
all rights, liberty of conscirnce, and he chivalry renewed in the enthusiastic fancy of a Prince of Brunswick, who, invariably set an example of the toleradevoted to the wife of the Elector Pa- tion for which he fought. Wallenstein, Jatine, resolves to reinstate her husband
attached to no party, could be relied on in his rights, and rushes forth to battle by none, for he made all in turn the with the motto * for God and her,” on
tools of his ambition, Edurated by his his shield, and supported by Bethlem
father as a protestapt, converted by a
Jesuit to the Church of Rome, still he Gabor, who unites in himself sufficient attractions for the hero of a crusade ro- the tenets of the Evangelical Union, or
retained more faith in the stars, than in bance. Mansfeldt, another of the bray
, , ,
the Catholic league; he regulated his throughout Germany. The protestants actions by astrological calculations, and were reduced almost to despair, and by the same enthusiasm which rendered must infallibly have submitted to the rehim the dupe of the most visionary and linquishment of all the privileges, in deunsatisfactory of all sciences, performed sending which they had already lost actions which astonished the world, and their bravest generals, and exhausted a which need only be reflected upon in great part of their resources, but fortuthe present day, to abate our wonder at nately, human pride and arrogance gethe daring exploits of him who lately nerally carry in their own excess a reheld all Europe in awe, who from an medy for the evils they would otherwise obscure adventurer, seemed to aim at occasion. The insolence of Austria, becoming dictator of the world, but I awakened fears in the catholics, as well whose rapid rise, considering the pecu- as the protestants, whose subjugation liarly favouring circumstances under they plainly foresaw would be followed which he was placed, is by no means by their own. They were disgusted unprecedented even in modern history. likewise with the arrogance and rapacity Wallenstein began his military career,
of Wallenstein, who made his appears by forming a regiment of cavalry for atice at the diet assembled by the Emthe service of Ferdinand II. before his peror, in a style of magnificence supe accession to the imperial throne, which rior even to that of the imperial coin, he afterwards filled with as much bigotry, manders themselves, and attended by a pride, and oppression, as ever the an
train of six hundred gentlemen, whose nals of Austria can instance in any other costly attire at once contrasted forcibly of her monarchs, or aš Spain herself with the general misery of the people, can shew in his name-sake. Wallen- and drew forth imprecations on the stein's next step was to submit to the ruinous war by which such splendour was Court of Vienna, a project to raise and afforded to its abettors. Wallenstein's equip an army at his own expense, and stars had promised him success in all to maintain it without any charge to the his undertakings, but had neglected to imperial treasury, provided he was per- inform him of the consequences which mitted to augment it to fifty thousand Inight accrue froin an ostentatious and men, was entrusted with the absolute ill-timed display of it, by which the discommand, and allowed to dispose of all pleasure of the German Princes was the commissions, independently of every roused so strongly, that they refused to control.
treat with the Emperor, until WallenThis romantic plan was acceded to, and stein should be disinissed from his coun
The whole account attended with such success, that at the sels and his armies. end vf a few weeks, Wallenstein quitted leaving the intrigues of priests and the
of this period is bigbly interesting, but the Austrian territory at the head of an army of twenty thousand men, which jeak usy of princes for the perusal of our was augmented to thirty thousand by tract from it, for the present, the fol
readers in the work itself, we shall exthe time he entered Saxony. In this þody destined for the destruction of the lowing account of the behaviour of Walprotestants, even princes of the pro
lenstein in his disgrace, which will serve testant persuasion were to be found, ei- as a specimen of onr author's manner. ther prompted by motives of private “ With a mixed sensation of indignation pique, lured by ambition of military re- and sorrow, the imperial army learned the
by the extraordinary degradation of their triumphant commav. to deck all bis followers in light bor- splendid talents, equally attracted their rowed from their patrons lustre.
love and admiration. · The succissis of a man so enterprising, their conmissions, and solicited perruission
Many officers of distinction threw up heartless, and ambitious as Wallenstein, to share his fortunes. Those whose merits under the protection of a monarch so or attachment had raised them higbest in blindly attached to his favourites as Fer- bis favour, received the honourable disdinand, were calculated to strike terror tinction of a household employment; while
to others, whose zeal was less conspicuous, and it is remarked by some contemporary or on whose fidelity he could not rely with writers, as an instance of uncommon reequal confidence, pensious were assigned finement, that clean napkins were fursufficient to procure all the comforts of life, vished at every repast; it would be diffiand to attach them for ever to his juterest : cult to produce a more striking proof of for though he had resigned his employ- the seini-barbarity of the times. The richments with the magnanimity of a sige, it oess of his liveries, the splendour of his was not with the intention of burying his retinue, and the magnificence of his furtalents in obscurity, but in order to pre- niture, are represented as almost surpasspare for his return to power with more ex-ing belief; yet, in an age and country tensive and more permanent authority. where unsoiled linen was regarded as a Disdaining to gratify the malice of his op luxury, we may readily con’eive that every ponents, by the most trifling indication of thing approaching to common comfort mental depression, he lived at Prague in a must have excited the greatest admiration. style of magnificence, more suitable to the When be removed from Prague to Gelsen sovereign of a wealthy people than to the or Sagan, a hundred waggous trausported degraded people of Austria. Six spacious his plate and wardrobe, and sixty, cargates conducted to a palace, erected in the riages conveyed his attendants, while the midst of the capital of Bohemia, on a com cavalcade was closed by fifty grooms, manding spot, where a bundred houses had each leading a noble courser, richly capabeen cleared a way to make room for the risoned.” stately edifice. Profusion and taste were
Vol. 1. pp. 374 - 977. equally displayed in the Corinthian co
Our author rejects several stories of lumns which adorned the portico, and in Wallenstein's inagnificence which as rethe painted cielings and costly tapestries lated by soine writers would rather waft which decorated the long suite of apart the iniagination into fairy-laud, than ments, and which presented to the inquisitive eye of the philosopher the singular
throw light upon the comparative maga phenomenon of a retired officer surpassing vilicence of ages.
The stables belongmonarchs in affluence. His honsehold, ing to a certain marine residence sink established after the expensive model of a into insignificance when opposed to the Joyal court, comprehended all those idle racks and mangers of polished steel, and appendages of ponip and ostentation, who the stalls divided by marble columns, are accustomed to waste an useless exist- which, as we are gravely told by some ence in the flimsy ceremonies of etiquette, German historians Gentlemen of illustrious families accepted Wallenstein for his horses, to paint the
were assigned by with pride the key of chamberlaio ; many even are said to have resigned the offices portraits of which, the finest artists in which they held about the person of Fer- Italy were called upon to exert their dinand, for the more flattering distinction talents. But not to dwell on descripof being permitted to wait in the anticham. tions of grandeur, which may awakin ber of Wallenstein. Sixty pages, instruct a very inconvenient degree of ambition ed by the ablest masters in all the sciences to vie with it in those who may imagine and accomplishments which enrich the they have the power to do so, and subunderstanding, or give grace and agility tracting all that is improbable in what to the body, attended him when he appeared in public. A guard of fifty soldiers,' we are told of this extraordinary man, in costly uniform, was stationed in an out-, enough of the surprising, remains 10 ward ball, to preserve their master against rivet our attention somewhat longer to the plots of his enemies, or the too great a portrait which displays such striking importunity of his friends. Four cham-characteristics as that of Wallenstein. berlains were placed at the door of his
“ Six barons, and as many knights, atapartment, whose business it was minutelytended daily to receive and communicate to investigate the name, the quality, and his orders, while a part of soldiers conthe business of every one who demanded stantly patrolled the adjacent streets, to access, that none might intrude through prevent his meditations from being inmotives of curiosity on the leisure of a man,
terrupted by the bustle of commerce, or whose moments were to), precious to be the shouts of festivity. No carriages were .consumed in colloquial intercourse, or
permitted to approach the palace; no complimentary salutations. Ilis table, con sounds of active industry were heard, but sisting regularly of a hundred covers, was sad and solenu silence prevailed, as in the daily spread with the most delicate viends : gloony precincts of a Caribusian monas
tery. An enemy to frivolity of every kind, defender of the Lutheran faith. It is he never wasted a minute in those trifling painful to reflect that one of the most amusements, which frequently constitute perfect characters that ever appeared on the most serious occupation of courtiers. ihe grand stage of human existence, Grave and reserved in his deportment, as if he regarded taciturnity to be the crite. should have been hurried from it after riop of wisdom, he was far more liberal of escaping every open danger, by the
Yet there is but too his money than of his conversation; and hand of treachery. even when he deigned to impart his ideas, much reason to fear that this was the he did it reluctantly, and with repulsive case with Gustavus; for however poli. condescension. Disliking mirth, and eventical fury may set afloat opinions which innocent recreation, be was scarcely ever when they have answered the immeknown to relax the severity of his features; diate object of party spirit, vanish into and the coldness of his constitution ena. nothing when the test of dispassionate bled him to resist the seductions of the enquiry is applied to them, yet when seuses with stoic apathy. Though engaged ina correspondence with persons of emi
one generation succeeds another, and nence iu every Puropean nation, die seldom suspiciun still maintains her ground, had recourse to the assistance of a secre- surely it may be believed that she is tary, so little confidence did he repose in strengthened in it by truth herself. As the discretion or the fidelity of others." to fix upon the perpetrator of so foul “ In this stately obscurity Wallenstein
deed is to clear thousands from, awaited with a steady, though not with a the possible imputation of a crime they tranquil mind, the happy hour when for- would shudder to look upon, we contuve, more just to his perfections, might ceive Mr. Naylor bas done well in render him once more an object of terror taking pains to prove that Gustavus to the enemies of his country and his own. Adolphus fell by the hand of his kinsTbe victories of Gustavus announced that
mau Francis Albert, Duke of Saxe Lumoment to be rapidly approaching, and
nenburg. he looked forward to it with all the ardour of a miod infamed alike by ambition and
The destruction of Magdeburgh, unrevenge."
der the orders of Tilly, the renowned The false glitter of Wallenstein's Austrian General, is described by our
Author in terms of becoming indignacharacter, bis tumultuous life, and tra
The cruelties and enormities gical end, betrayed by those he had best served, assassinated by those he practised by the victors, under the im
mediate sanction of their commander, had most trusted, peculiarly fit him for dramatic exhibition ; accordingly we the soldiers bad undergone in the siege
who remarked, that after the fatigues find him continually upon the German Stage, and Schiller has made him the
of the place, they were entitled to some hero of one of his finest tragedies.
indulgence, form a disgraceful contrast
to the moderation and humanity of the The simple dignity, the inviolable troops of Gustavus, at the capture of fidelity of Gustavus Adolphus, form a Leipsic, which happened shortly after, fine contrast to the character and con the account of wbich will be read with duct of Wallenstein. In the closet or
the more interest, familiarised as we the field, at his devotions or in his have lately been with the name of that councils, we still conteinplate the king part of Germany, as the scene of many of Sweden with delight, and every of those grand events which have lately where see the homage of the heart paid restored independence to Europe. The to his virtues : even his enemies could intrigues of France after the death of not withhold from them the tribute of Gustavus, the ungrateful conduct of the praise, and those for whose civil and German Powers towards Sweden, the moral freedom he drained his coffers Auctuating and unsteady conduct of and risked his life, regarded him with
even the most zealous among the Proan enthusiastic veneration, which, deck- testant party, are all well delineated by ing its object in celestial brightness, Mr. Naylor, whose remarks, at all times viewed him as divinely commissioned to judicious, acquire additional strength become the champion of liberty and the from the nervous brevity with which
they are delivered : bis authorities are visits of itinerant friars, commissioned carefully given, and are of the most to scrutinize the opinions of the in. satisfactory natore. He is well versed habitants with inquisitorial severity : in the best German historians, and pre- and if they found them polluted with sents us with many curious facts from the smallest stain, the offeoce was the Swedish Intelligencer, a scarce and expiated by capital punishment. A valuable work, for which he acknow- military force sufficient to impress the ledges his obligations to Marquis Velo most courageous with awe, attended this lesley.
bloody tribunal, whose natural ferocity We cannot refrain from laying before receiving an additional stimulus from our readers the following picture, as
the savage zeal of their coadjutors, ex
posed the wretched peasantry to every drawn by Catholic writers themselves, of the misery to which a people may
calamity that fauaticism or licentiousspeedily be reduced by bigotry and in- in their houses with deliberate cruelty,
ness could inflict. Some were murdered tolerance,
after beholding the violation of their “ Bohemia was treated with still wives and daughters; others pursued ingreater severity, for as he (Ferdinand) to the woods aud mountains, like beasts no loager dreaded the spirit of a people of prey, were compelled to receive the broken down by oppression, he gave mystic symbol of charity and faith uile unbounded scope to his natural yiolence, der a form abhorrent to their souls, a. revenging with relentless cruelty, the mid the insults and mockery of their insult formerly offered to his authority persecutors. : To sum up his vengeance under pretence of vindicating the honor in one sweeping act of proscription, a of the Almighty. Thongh three fonrths period was axed at the expiration of of the inhabitants were sincerely at- which, all persons who refused to return tached to the Lutheran tenets, he pub- within the pale of the church, were lished an edict forbidding the public banished for ever from Bohemia. By profession of any form of worship ex- this decree no less remarkable for its cept that of the Vatican; ejecting the impolicy than its injustice, thirty thouprotestants froin the schools and re- sand families were driven into exile; plaring them by mendicant friars, in- and as in this number many were indiscriminately chosen for this important cluded conspicuous for the acquireoffice, not on account of their learning ments of knowledge, the talents of in. but of their religious opinions. No per-dustry, and the gifts of fortune, a sons except those of orthodox tenets wound was inflicted on that devoted were permitted to exercise any trade or country from wbich it never recovered.” manufactory; heavy fines were imposed
Vol. I. p. 286. on all who presumed, even in domestic retirement, to address their Creator in When it is remembered that bigotry the language of the heart; marriages and ignorance always go hand in hand, were declared invalid unless they had that tyrants have upon principle unibeen solemnised according to the pom- formly endeavoured to keep in darkness pous ceremonial of Rome; even the the minds they would enslave, surely we wills of protestants were no longer bind- have abundant reason to be grateful for ing in the tribunals of Austria. With living in an age when instruction is held a barbarity characteristic of bigotry a out to the meanest individual, and we lone, he deprived sickness and age of trust the perusal of Mr. Naylor's interthose very houses which charity had esting and instructive work, willstrengthererted for their solace, unless ad- en in our readers their attachment to the mission was purchased by apostavy. cause of civil and religious liberty, and From the towns and cilies the burghers unite them to the promulgation of that were expelled unless they renounced the knowledge, and the practise of that moworship of their fathers. Even the re- rality which are the strongest bulwarks motes hamlets were not exempt from of justice apl virtue, aod the surest safepersecution, but were exposed to the guards of national prosperity.