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the following articles were discovered. 1. or elegant in form, the articles found Thirteen gold beads made in the form of a nearer the surface of the barrow may be druni, having two ends to screw off, and deemed, their high antiquity cannot be perforated in two places on the sides for disputed; for although the grape cup exthe purpose of stringing. 2. A thin plate ceeds in beauty and novelty of design, any of the same metal, six inches in length, we have as yet discovered, the other cups and nearly three in width, richly wrought, of unbaked clay, and rude workmanship, and perforated at the four corners. 3. bespeak the uncivilized æra to which the Another ornament in form of a cone, de construction of this sepulchral mound may corated with circles and zigzags, and fitted be justly attributed. closely to a piece of dark wood, like ebony, on which the marks of the pattern still ap
Such accidental and rare acquisitions, pear impressed: the bottom part of this as it may easily be supposed, have been article is also perforated. The above are sufficient to fill the heads of the labourers all of pure thin gold, neatly worked, and employed in similar researches, with nohighly burvished. The large flat plate tions of hidden treasures ; and treasures must have been like the cone, strengthen certainly have been discovered in tombs ; ed by a strip of wood behiud; and the though, not in any which contain rewhole, by their general perforations, are mains of antient Britons. On the cone strongly marked as forming the decorative trary, numbers of these sepulchres have accoutrements of some distinguished British chieftain. Besides the above, were
been diligently explored, with little retwo small articles in gold, resembling lit- sult, or with absolute disappointment. tle boxes, about an inch in diameter, with The plough has levelled hundreds of a top, in the form of a cone, to take off... barrows to uniformity of surface with Besides the above precious articles of gold, the surrounding ground; nor these awe discovered large plates of amber, and lone; for many of the earthern works, above a thousand beads of the same sub
or slighter fortifications, are not disstance, and of different sizes; also a curi- tinguishable, except by an experienced ous little cup, studded over with projecting knobs, which appear to have been first circular, but irregular ; they consist of
eye. The stronger defences are mostly made in the form of glass stoppers to a bottle, and afterwards inserted into the a substantial bank thrown np, with a circular holes of the cup, which had been ditch in front, or sometimes of two banks. previously drilled for receiving them: be- and two ditches. Sir.R. seems rather tween these grape like protuberances are to wonder at the irregularity of their other perforations, which still remain form: the probability is, that they were open.
surrounded by woods; that their course Such was the result of our researches in beside following the curve of the hill, 1803; but, not being completely satisfied, was accommodated to the situation of and still thiuking that the primary inter the trees; and that a noble old oak, or ment had escaped our vigilance, I was anxious that a further trial should be made, a group of majestic oaks, afforded what which took place in July 1807, and was modern Engineers would call a point attended with success; for, on the same d'appui, a strengthening support to the level, and within a few inches of the very bank raised, and especially to the time spot where the golden trinkets and the am- bers which in vast rows finished the ber beads had been found, we discovered upper part. These might often be laid two cups, the one placed within the other. from tree to tree; but, no British fortiThe largest of those was covered with a profusion of zigzag ornaments, but on tak- and they were compacted together with
fication was complete without them ; ing out, was unfortunately broken to pieces; the smaller one, containing about great labour and skill
. a pint, is quite plain, and in good preser.
STOCKTON Works, originally survation-with a necklace of amber beads, a rounded by a ditch and a single rampart small lance head, and a pin of brass. Still of eartb, says our antiquary, answer in a pursuing our excavations to the floor of the great degree to the account transmitted barrow, we there found an oblong cist, to us by the classical authors, of the about eighteen inches deep, which con- ancient towns of the Gauls and Britons, tained a simple interment of burned bones, Cæsar in speaking of the capital of the unaccompanied with either arms or trin British chieftain Cassivellagnus, says kets. This was certainly the primary funeseal deposit; but however rich in materials Oppidum autem Britanni vocant,
quum sylvas impeditas vallo atque of a large oval, formed by five pair of fossá munierunt,' The Britons call trilithons, or two large upright stones, that a town, which is but a thick wood, with a third laid over them, as an impost, fortified with a ditch and rampart :-and
-by being divided into pairs they give the geographer Strabo, speaking on the great lightuess to the work ; breaking its saine subject, says · Forum urbes sunt from east to west; the lowest being 16 feet
uniformity, and rising gradually in height, Remora : lutissimos enim circos, de3 inches, in height; the second i7 feet % jectis obstruunt arboribus, ubi con- inches; the highest 21 feet, 6 inches. About structis tiguriis, et ipsi pariter et four feet, is buried under ground. The armenti Stabulantur.' Their lowns small stones are about seven feet and a are woods, broad and circular (inclo- half high; twenty three inches wide, at sures), where they cut down the trees, the base ; decreasing to twelve inches at build hats, and live in them, together the top. The altar stone is fifteen feet
long. with their herds, Sir R. finds a distinction between Cuuningtou, has induced me to add a
The following letter, received from Mr. those circumvallations which have the fourth plan of Stonehenge. the ditch on the outside, and those which have the ditch on the inside : the ment of the Britons, I bave been surprised
“ On viewing the remains of this monufirst, be concludes are military; the that the following question never occurred other religious. Perhaps, they might to those writers who have considered the be judicial; some of them appear to be subject, viz. Why did the Britons, in nothing too large to be covered with a erecting Stonehenge, make use of two kiuds roof.
of stone, which are totally dissimilar to each
other " Any person versed in mineralogy, STONEHENGE, the " glory of Wilt
will perceive that the stones on the outside shire," and the “wonder of the west,” of the work, those composing the outward was probably both religions and judi- circle and its imposts, as well as the five cial : at least, it is very credible, that large trilithons are all of that species of here were held the general assemblies stone called sursen, which is found ir the of the chiefs of the nation. Our read- neighbourhood; whereas the inner circle ers, by turning to LITERARY Panora- of small upright stones, and those of the NA, Vol. VII.
iuterior oval, are composed of granite, p.
find traces of a part of its history; and further from some part of Devonshire or Cornwall,
horn-stone, &c. most probably brought progress is made in the article under
as I know not where such stones could be report. We therefore, take a pleasure procured at a bearer distance. in contributing a conjecture, by which " ha cousidering the subject, I have beet additional light may be thrown on this led to suppose that Stonehenge was raised obscure and intricate subject,
at different æra : that the original work An epitome of our author's account, consisted of the outward circle and its imwill properly introduce our ideas.
posts of the inner oval of large trilithons;
and that the smaller circle and oval, of inThis remarkable monument is situated ferior stones, were raised at a later period; ou the open down. Jeffery of Monmouth, for they add nothing to the general gransays, that “ Aurclius (by others called Ain- deur of the temple, but rather give a littlebrosius) wishing to commemorate those who had fallen in battle, withi Hengist, if according to Smith, you add the two
ness to the whole; and more particularly, set up these stones by the assistance of small trilithons of granite." Merlin.
Sir R. reports the works, on this subject Sir Richard is delighted with this of Ivigo Jones, Mr. Webb, Aylett Sammes, idea, and very justly; it has been our Dr. Stukeley, Wood, the Architect, Mr. opinion for years : it reduces Stonehenge Cooke, Mr. Smith, and others, not omit- to a conformity with the simplicity of ting the Celtic Researches of Mr. Davies. all known structures of the kind; it reA correct plate renders the present state of this antiquity very intelligible. The sa
moves the intricacy now too visible in cred circle is composed of stones full thir.
its composition ; and it affords an op teen feet high, and nearly seven feet broad. portunity of doing justice to the origin. This circle consisted originally of thirty al builders, thrown deeply into the stoues, of which seventeen are standing night of antiquity; and to the records The CELL OP SANCTUM, represents two thirds of history, which have been treated as VOL. V. No. 36.Lit. Pan. N. S. Nov. I.
fable, by those who had not obtained so loval :-about seventeen feet in height. much as a glimpse of their real import.
On what account this was displaced
can only be conjectured : perhaps it Triplicity was the great basis of the
was polluted (by human blood ?) during Druidical religion, calculations, and con- the Saxon massacre. The twelve stones structions ; it is, in fact, the key to the of the oval, are the number of months whole. The nearest mathematical figure in the year,—(and this number is as that can be forried to represent Stouc-old as the days of Moses ;)--the stones henge, may be obtained in the fol- of the circle being ten times three lowing manner :
(thirty) are equal to the number of Divide a line, representing THREE days in the month : and these nunibers hundred feet, into THREE parts: the multiplied into each other give (360) the will each part represent one hundred days of the ancient year, and of the defeet ; allot the central hundred feet grees in a circle. This last particular to the sacred circle of great stones : is, however, liable to some ambiguity. strike this circle; and divide each of its
When history, supported by unvarying semi-diameters into THREE parts : from tradition, afirms a fact, it is not to be the third part nearest the centre, open lightly reprobated as false. We, therethe compasses to the half distance be- fore, do believe, that Ambrosius placed tween the cevtre and the opposite side the triple series of smaller stones ; and of the circle ; this done on both sides, this, as is recorded, in commemoration of gives the oval; but, the oval was trun a most notorious and distressing event cated at both ends, by turning the tri no less than the inassacree commanded lithon which formed each end 10 face by Hengist. Our readers have seen (loc. the centre. The figure. is now com- cit.) that the number of British chiefs deplete; and the measures are those of puted to meet the Saxons, was “three, and the real structure. Thus the whole sa- ihree score, and three hundred” (303) : cred enclosure is divided into three ses of these only three escaped with life, desparations : the outer one for the peo- perately wounded: the number slain, ple; the second for the demi-consecrat- therefore, was three hundred und sixty. ed attendants; and the inner apartment, Now, the circumference of the outer or most holy place, for the superior circle, or circumvallation, measures three priesthood. Such was the triplicity of hundred and sixty-nine yards; allowconsecration on Mount Sinai—the people ing nine yards for the opening of the were below ; Nadab and Abihu with the avenue, the circumference would receive seventy elders, half way up; but only three hundred and sixty stones ; the Moses (and Joshua ?) on the summit of size of those standing, which measure the Mount. Such was the triplicity of in width less than three feet. Possibly, the temple at Jerusalem ; the courts of then these represent the three hundred the people, and the altar; the temple it- and sixty British chiefs, who, being of self; and the most holy place: such was the laiiy, were stationed in the area the triplicity of the temples of Egypt and proper to the people. But, the Bards, Greece ; the peribolos, or court around also, were assembled at this famous cathe altar; the nuos, or sacred structure; rousal; aud unquestionably their order divided into two apartments, of which sufered, severely ; for we read, that the urlytum, or supposed residence of Hengist, himself, “ slew the chief bari, the deity, was the most sacred. But, as Owen, with many others," say forty ; this oval is at present imperfect, by the which is the number of stones erécied al sence of the trilithon at the entrance, between the sacred circle and the oval. --having only ten stones standing instead Within the oval the number of stones is of twelve, [four times Uhree) it must be sixteen, which appears to be a proportion, remarked that the stone which now lies ate, and very credible number, for that opposite the avenue, vulgarly called the ot the priesis slain; placed in the sancslaughtering svone, is of the same na inm sanctorum, where only priests ture, and of the same dimensions, as the might enter. If these calculations apbuge trilithons still standing in the proximate truth, they shew the com
memorative nature of these smaller , hypothesis has been defeated by being stones ; they explain on what foundation carried too far; and many more, have, Ambrosius has been described as the been impaired by being overloaded, with builder of Stonehenge ; and they cor- superabundant particulars. The histo, rect, while they justify, both tradition rians and antiquarians of our countrd and history.
will know how to appreciate these : any A cominemoration of another kind if they endure examination, the views may be allowed to confirm this: for Am- of History which they open will not be.. brosius certainly founded at Ambrose lost on competent judges. bury, a college of monks in number three
We have trod the solemn mansions of hundred and sixty.* this is supposed the silent dead. We have recalled thou.' to be the correct number, though some sands of years from the lapse of ages. histories say three hundred. This was We have penetrated into the houses of the nearest possible station, and closely the living, the depositories of the dem. adjoining to the hills in which these parted, the sanctuaries of the religious, British chiefs were deposited. It is We have found memorials, not intended :: further deserving of notice, that Am- as such ; but merely personal ornabrosius is said to have been buried ments. We have found no inscriptions within the CIRCLE OF THE HEROES,* meant to record to future ages the virand near the monastry of Ambri, ortues or the dignities of the deposited, Ambrosebury, What this circle of the We have found no idols ; and if these Hernes in this neighbourhood, could “ British islands separated from all the be, if not the circle that commemorated world,” were really free from that the British Heroes does not appear: perversity of the human mind, they might there is no other circle, distinguished | well forego much of which more polite by renown, or tradition, near Amesbury, nations would boast. In later times, except this of Stonehenge ; and the Roman monuments mark the legions .. eircle of the Heroes, is expressly said stationed in our island to controul the by the story, to have consisted of stone conqnered; with deities of various name of immense size, brought from Ireland to excite their veneration : but we do (where was this Ireland ?) by the art of not meet with so much as a portable Merlin : which clearly marks Stone altar, among the reliques of these Ans henge. Nor is this all; for, Uther Pen-cient Britons; if they really had such dragon, who succeeded Ambrosius, was
sucra,—not only are the Druids them also “ buried in the circle of the He-selves perished, but their memorials, roes. ---Some years afterwards, king Con- also. stantine was buried in the circle of the Heroes, at Salisbury, near Uther Pepe
Their memorials, however, are imdragon't Now, Sir Richard's plan of perishable. They still declare the devoStonehenge, clearly marks two barrows
tion, and demonstrate the talents and of considerable size, within the ditch and science of those who erected them, vallum, formerly surrounded by the They have accomplished tasks at which
modern architects would shudder. Who, stənes which commemorated these victims to Saxon deceitfulness ; so that now, would undertake to lift these huge every thing contributes to confirm the would undertake to transport the
imposts on their supporters ? Who
imconjecture that these additions to the original building were placed at the is then, to poise them, to combine
mense weights, to arrange then, to time, and on the occasion, reported by them into one sacred ecificeWhat British History and general tradition. These conjectures afford an easy solu- which he attained his fame, with the
ever were the abilities of Merlin, by tion to the circumstance of chipping character of Unchanter; and though he of these stones being found in these placed the smaller stones. barrows; and, perhaps in others near evidently inferior th those more anejent them.---But, we forbear 3-many as just Artists who reared the wonderful masses Roberts' Chronicles of the Kings of which now fill us with astonishment. . Pasšim. 31 132074 If their skill in other sciences were
equal to what these witnesses declare it was in mechanics, can we wonder, that even to this day, an involuntary venera
The Civil and Military History of tion is paid them : that their powers are
Germany, from the landing of Gustavas, deemed gigantic, and themselves spoken to the Conclusion of the Treaty of Westof as giants ; that their maxims form no phalia. By the late Francis Hare Naysmall part of our popular wisdom; and
lor, Esq. lo 2 volumes. 8vo. il. 10s. that their ceremonies, or practices, still
Murray. maintain themselves among us ? Every year repeats not a few of them ; and The glorious struggle for civil and when we trace various of our institu- religious liberty, which was made in Lions, civil, political, or sacred, we find the beginning of the 17th century, by that, at length, they terminate either in the German Protestants, against the Druidism, or in principles not easily to he ambition and bigotry of the House of distinguished from it. What have we Austria, affurds a spectacle which must not derived from the builders of Ston- at all times be contemplated with inhenge ?
terest, and which, in the present day,
is peculiarly calculated to arrest the atSir Richard is pursuing his researches; tention; for as the same causes geneand must, in course, extend his remarks rally produce the same effects, the on Abury ; where the greater wonders scenes which have been acted upon the surpass these of Stonehenge. When great stage of the world, may be acted they appear, they will afford us an op- upon it again, should tyranny and suportunity of resuming the subject to perstition persist in their endeavours to great advantage. When the whole is shackle the minds of men. History has compleat, it will form one of them ost ho- been termed “Philosophy teaching by nourable testimonials existing to the mu- Examples," and in the history before us, nificence of the patron, and to the dili we may see that no tyranny can entirely gence, and skill of the artists employed, subjugate the natural rights of man, --the draughtsman, Mr, P. Crocker, and that it is only necessary for those the engraver, Mr. Basire, and the who assert them to observe sincerity, printer, Mr. Balmer. On these subjects unanimity, and firmness among each we flatter ourselves that could the ap- other, in order to ensure the ultimate cient Druid masters of art revive, they success of their exertious. Had the would amply returu to modern days, the Protestants been uniformly true in their admiration which we bestow on them. actions, had no thoughts of a sordid and They would describe as efforts of mere selfish nature mingled with the asserpatience, labour, mechanical power, tion of their civil and religious rights ; those by which they have astonished us ; in short, had they shewn to each other while they would applaud as emapalions the toleration and impartiality which they of intellect and mind, of superior saga- were only unanimous in demanding city and inspiration, those in which from Austria and Rome, they would they would read their own history pre- uot have been thirty years in obtaining served
that justice, which they at last bought
at the expense of nearly half the blood To the last moment of recorded time."
and treasure of their country. Had Austria, on the other hand, conde
scended to use common prudence, or The plates represent ornaments, many tone of dictation, they would probably
Rome abated somewhat of her insolent of them of great taste and beauty: and have deferred for another century the Sir Richard observes very justly, on humiliation of acknowledging, that the some of the necklaces, that the brightest rights to which they pretended through British Belle need not be at all ashamed prescription, and would willingly have to wear them, as they were originally | vine origin, could boast no power, when
made their subjects believe were of diintended to be worn--say in full dress.
opposed to the spirit which their abusu