« PreviousContinue »
produced by his constantly moving Po- or by purchase, with the different publiclice boats, on the river.
houses in the Metropolis, is one greatly inHave you found, within these late years that it would be highly desirable that
jurious to the Metropolis ?--I am of opinion past, that the offences committed on the River have bren greater or less than in the neither brewers nor distillers should be proyears preceding : --This last winter, that I prietors of public-houses. But I should expecied would be the worst, has been the them from holding such property, in the
ibiok that any law that tended to disqualify calmest that I have ever known). They have been lessening gradually; indeed i present state of the trade, would be such an may say for the lasi eighteen years they | Parliament would be lot to encourage: at
invasion of private property as the British have been lessening. The River now, com
the same time I think that if a law were pared to what it has been, is as smooth as
passed having only a prospective operation a mill-pond. No persou cau have any conception upoa this subject, but those who licences to any houses which shöll
to prevent Magistrates from granting are witnesses.
the enactment of such law, become the proWe art, also, in this case, to consider perty of such brewers or distillers,’it would the immense property always floating on have a very beneficial effect, and would, I the river, in a thousand different forms; should think, be equally satisfactory to the the no frequent negligence of sailors brewers and to the public. and watchmen, who have it in charge ; There is something included in this, the junumerable vessels lying in various beside the furnishing of better beer to places and masses, entering, departing, the public. lading gnols, unlading goods, &r. &c.
Now, it might have been supposed, on both sides of the river, for several that, un occasion of complaints, public milis. These furnish thousands of op- houses of evil resort, would be punished poriunities : can it he wondered at, that
effectually, as it might be done without depredations should sometimes occur ?
expense : but,—the fact has not proved A great portion of the immoralities so. In other instances the parish, with which infect the metropolis may be other public spirited persons, have put traced to the associations of infamous themselves to the expense of three hunpersons who meet each other at public dred pounds ; 10 no permanent avail. houses for what they call enjoyment. In truth, the cost of prosecuting crimiThis is notorious, on the banks of the nals to justice, is a very great cause of river : it will certainly, not be passed the continuation and spread of injustice. over lightly, in the further enquiries and Tor this defect in our Administrative remeljes wbich may be looked for, Police, the public pays ten thousand fold. trom authority : '
we, therefore, do not Mr. Fielding (son of Henry Fielding, enlarge on it here ; but merely hint at the distinguished writer) who has been the evil consequences to the worals of in the Magistracy of Westminster very 'the people, arising from the favouritism many years, speaking of such expenses, shewn to men of wealth in the briwing says, trade; the poblic believes that this is State to the Committee what you think substantially true ; and the public de are the leading obstructions to the convicmands a redress of this grievance : fortion of criminals agaiust the public peace? time and manner they look to the Com--In the first place, persons object to the mittee.
expense; we all know that the expense is The following is the opinion of John
not so much, provided the prosecution is
not conducted by attorney and counsel; Gifford, Esq. a magistrate, who com but we cannot beat that into the public; plaius of having formerly! presented and if that is done there comes a bill of petitions against improper houses on twenty or thirty pounds. Others do not like the licensing day---repeatedly-ill he it because there is such a waste of time; was tired--without any attention being sometimes they must wait three, four or paid to his remonstrances, on any be- five days at the Old Bailey before their neficial effect whatever following.
trial comes ou, besides the examination at
the Office, all of which are existing cirDo you think that the system of brewers, cumstances, that are daily occurring, and copoecting themselves, either by mortgage therefore a great many people will not pre
secute; and in some cases persons are de umstances. The real morals may be terred from an unwillingness to have their one thing; the apparent morals, another. names brought in.
Mr. Fielding thinks the vices of the town I think their are a great pumber of offen
are increasing,—that “there must be a ders escape nierely because persons will vast increase of immorality, assuredly;" not go to the expense and trouble of pro- yet he acknowledges, speaking of a fine secuting.
Sunday, the prevalence of an exterior Another great cause certainly is, the decency, which should indicate better incumbrance attending the lower oflices 'things. of magistrary. By the British Consti
I have observed, however, that there is tution, a Constable is among the most an increase of deceney, in proportion to the honourable officers of the land; by the attention we have been able to pay to the practice of our days, a Constable is a behaviour of the lower orders of the people person who discharges the office, be in this neighbourhood. The journeymen cause he cannot help it; who has never tradesmen are not so freqnently met with in had any previous preparation for it; their daily working habits; you do not see and who looks for no reward, honorary them with their dirty aprons on, and so
but I am persuaded, from what I have or pecuniary, aiter it.
heard, although it has uot come within my There is a great deal of injury arising own observation, that there is a great from the present system: for if a decent deal more decency amongst the lowest ortradesman, or respectable inhabitant, is ders of the people than there used to be, in called upon to serve the office of parish-con- their respect for churches and places of stable, he is indifferent to the performance worsbip. The doors of places for sectary of its duties, and he considers the office in meetings used to be surrounded by the some respects as an office of disgrace, and lowest blackguards; the conduct of the to avoid it he will give a man two or three lower orders in this particular, is now very guineas to perform the duties: the man to different to what it used to be; it used to be whom he pays the money is careless in the a habit of the lowest blackguards to attend discharge of the duty, for it is not worth is abont the doors of those places, and make while to give up all his time and attention the greatest disturbance and annoy the freto the Pablic for so small a sum.
quenters of them in their religious worship. On the evident increase of shops deal-That practice has not altogetber yet ceased ; ing in ardent spirits, to the destruction but however, we have used every exertion of the health and morals of the public, have suppressed it in a great many instances
within our power to suppress it, and we and greatly to the promotion of crime,
where complaints have been made. by producing a temporary alienation of
This leads to further thoughts : is not miod ; - the augmented attractions the proportion of persons who attend on tolerated in places of public resort ;of the fatal effects following Sunday who think on religious subjecis in some
religions worship, in some place, and parties of pleasure, of which Sayer, a
We Bow-street Oficer, says—“ it is the manueling greater than formeriy? ruin of hundreds of young men : I mean | Colquhoun on the state of morals: it is
apprehend it is. But, let us hear Mr. the biring of boats on a Sunday; there only by comparison that a just estimate are more young men fall victins from that thing, than any one thing I know,"
of advance or retrocession can be formand on various other points, it is necded. That worthy May strate submits less here to enlarge
bis thoughts, as follows, On the suggestions thrown out by va
Do you think thatthe morals of the poor. rious gentlemen called to give evidence, er and middling classes of the inhabitants it would be premature at present to offer proved, within these last ten years:
in this Metropolis have deteriorated, or imany opinion. What we have intention regard to the middling classes, their morals ally selected for this paper are partiene are un exceptionable; those above poverty lars which concern magistrates in all may be considered as stationary, and great towns: they may furnish hints, to neraily good; with regarii to the lowest men of spirit and integrity, generally. ranks of society, I think there has been a Bot; we are not to suppose, that the ment of the revolutionary French war, par
progressive retrograde from the commencepúblic morals' of a city so immense, do ticularly in all the large towns, in the not fluctuate, in compliance with cir- 1 course of the last twenty four years.
I have a general Table stating what the | 16,035. Supposing that those that have crimes were in 1805, and from 1810 pro- been committed and discharged by the gressively to 1815: the results are,
Magistrates amount to 10,000, and those In 1805................5,267 males. committed for minor offences were 12,000, 1,935 females.
you will have a total of upwards of 50,000 Total.......4,602
floating delinquents arising from discharges in the whole country, that is, upou a
from prison after the expiration of their population then of 8,872,980 resident sentences, from acquittals, from liberation in England and Wales.
for want of prosecutors at the gaol deliveMales. Females. Total.
ries, from the temporary commitments and In 1810 3,733. .... 1,413..........5,146 discharges of Magistrates. It is from this In 1811 3,859....... 1,47 8...........
-5,997 general view ovly that the actual number In 1812 4,891 1,685...... •6,574
of criminal delinquents can be estimated; In 1813 5,433...... 1,731.......... 7,164
and even this will not be accurate, since In 1814 4,826.......... 1,564...........6,390
almost innumerable larcenies are committed, In 1815 6,036...... 1,782..........7,818
which never come under the view of Ma.
gistrates or Courts of Justice. Total during the last six years, from
The recevjers of stolen goods I under1810 to 1815
............38,429 stand, amount to about eight thousand: Out of what population ?-A population principally kept by dealers in old iron, &c.
min marine stores, second-hand apparel, of about 10,500,000, making an increase of 2,000,000 from the former return, excluding of every species of stolen property, &c. &c.
piece brokers,&c.—besides private receivers the soldiers and seamen in both instances. In order to form a correct opinion of the general state of the country in these respects,
The following Tables shew the nature you must look not only to the actual amount of the offences charged in the last three of criminals who come under the cogni- years; with the commitments to prison. zance of courts of Justice, but also to the
POULTRY COMPTER, numbers that are discharged, after their
1813. 1814. 1815. punishment expires, without character or Felonies........
454... 444... 472 the means of subsistence; to which is to be | Assaults.... ........ 218... 159... 223 added, those who float in and ont of goals Misdemeanors
998 . 1,101.1,222 in the metropolis and in the country, charged with offences without sufficient proof.
Total.......... 1,670 1,698 1,917 The number imprisoned under summary
GILTSPUR-STREET COMPTER, convictions, and bailable offences, disor
1813. 1814. 1815. derly persons charged with assaults, disor
592... 528... 542 derly prostitutes, assaults, and other petty Assaults.......................
381... 385... 425 delinquents, are extremely pumerous, and
841... 888.1,132 make up part of the criminal catalogue of offenders, although they do not appear in.
Total.......... 1,814 1,751 2,099 the registers of the Courts of Criminal Justice. You can therefore draw no accurate
NEW PRISON, CLERKENWELL. conclusion from the number of ofienders
1819. 1814. 1815. sent for trial, without also adding thereto
1,424.... 1,576... 1,677 the number of other delinquents who pass
Assaults.............. 558... 692...
819 through the gaols periodically from
Misdemeanors 559... 513... year
712 to year. The total amount, male and female, may be ascertained to a point, by
8,208 calling on the gaolers of the different coun Prisoners committed to Tothill FIELDS ties to make returns of prisoners (not sent BRIDEWELL from Jan. 1, 1816, to May 7th. for trial) 'who have been committed and discharged in each year. I calculate in Felonies
227 sound nunbers, that about 5,000 individ- Assaults ...................................... 85 vals, not sent for trial, float in and out of Misdemeanors.............................. 144 the gaols of the metropolis in the course of Vagrants
45 every year; but keeping in vicw those that Lottery Vagrant........
1 are acquitted, you must consider also those Aliens
5 sent for trial but not prosecuted, who Debtors.......
54 amount in this Table exhibited to 14,067, Night Charges in *****************
21 besides those that are imprisoned and discharged within this period, amounting to
under 16 years.
OFFENCES. 1819. 1814. 1815. Of whom are......Boys Felonies ..... .................... 420. 529... 604
i ..........aged 12 years. Assaults 168... 195. 237
4 .................. 13 years. Misdemeanors ... 266... 318... 366
14 years. Vagrauts 195... 136... 166
15 years. Lottery Vagrants
2... 19... 2 Aliens from the Alien
Total ....... 10
under 16 years. Office... ................ 10... 2... Persons committed in 1813
840 Prisoners of Warfrom the
Ditto .................. in 1814
760 Transport Office ..... 32... 35... Ditto ................. in 1815
799 Debtors ..
....................... 142... 117... 143 Night Charges 232... 167... 140
607 of which were, Boys 9 years
2,399 10 years of age
1... 2... 4
For the Year 1816, to May 1st. 11 years of age
189 12 years of age
Misdemeanor's.................................. 49 ... 13 years of age
34 ... 14 years of age
56 1 ... 15 years of age 1.. 1.. 3
Total....... 273 ... 16 years of age
1... 7... 6
5 .......... aged 15 years. 7. 18... 23
4 ................. 14 years.
6 ................. 15 years. GAOL AT NEWINGTON, FOR SURREY. 1813 :
OFFENCES. 1812. 210
1813. 1814. Assaults ......
Felonies................... 1,452 ... 1,311... 1,497 Total.......... 840 Misdemeanors
74... 49... 92 Assaults.......
1 Of whom are.......Boys 2 .......... aged 12 years. Girls of 15, and under
19... 9... 12 1 14 years: Boys of 15, and under
49... 89... 76 4
1,591 1,458 1,678 1814:
An Account of the Number of Persons who Felonies
have been discharged from the Hulks Misdemeanors
since 1st January 1815; also the number Assaults.
of persons received on board the Hulks
since that time, of 21 years of age and Total..........
under; and also the number of persons Of whom are....... Boys
removed from the Hulks for Transportai .......... aged 11 years. tion to New South Wales since 1st Jan. 3
1815, of the age of 21 years and under. 4 14 years.
To June 1. 1815. 1816. 1 ................ 15 years, Free Pardoned
362 163 Pardoned Conditional
3 Tota).......... 9 under 16 years. Sentence expired
19 12 Number of persons of 21 years 1815:
and under, received........... 319 194 Felonies
Number of personis removed Misdemeanors
for Transportation, of 21 Assaults ..............
07 Total.......... 799
Joun Henry CAPPER, Superintendant.
COMMITTED TO NEWGATE.
though in some places, they may be seen The History of Ancient Wiltshire. from one to another, and in one or two
By Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart. Parts instances are grouped together, yet their I, II, III, Imperial folio, with many Plates.comparative fewness assists their magni
tude, in impressing the idea that they Price £12 12s. Murray, London. 1810.
commemorate chiefs, leaders, great men, 1812. &c.
commanders of mighty armies ; or posSir Richard begins his history by sibly, actions in which the mighty' arquoting a passage of Pliny, importing mies, themselves, after deeds of valour, that
we undertake long voyages both fell in the arduous conflict. by sea and laud, to behold those curiosi Not so, the majority of our British ties, which, if placed before our
tumuli. Of smaller dimensions, but of
eyes, we totally neglect. Whether it is, ihat more frequent occurrence, more varied we are so formed by Nature as to be in forin, and marking more distinctly incurious about the nearer, and intent
the long succession of ages, they are only on the more distant objects ; or,
rather domestic than military, they dethat our desire grows languid to such
note rather a settled population than things, as may be enjoyed without diffi- migrating hordes; and they seem, or eulty; or, that we are apt to defer we are mistaken, to have been venerated taking a single view of what we can at by descending generations; who, when any time, see as often as we please."
their turn caine to bid the world! fareWhether either of these causes be the well, claimed society with the kindred real one; or, whether they act in con
dust below, and were literally ard ruly junction, the faci certainly is true, as it
gathered to their fathers." While, respects many of our countrymen; and,
therefore, the mounds seen hy Dr. even we ourselves, perhaps, have too Clarke mark the depositories of heroes, long delayed to notice a work that does honour to the spirit of research wherever the posterity of Noah came. Whe
ther under the form of a Muund in Scandiequally with the munificence of our
navia, Russia, or North America ; a Barrow in country. As reviewers, we may, how England; a Cairn in Wales, Scotland, and ever, be allowed to plead in mitigation
Ireland ; or of those heaps which the modern
Greeks and Tarks call Tape; or lastly, in the of judgment, that among the works
more artificial mode of a Pyramid in Egypt; which have come under report, some they had universally the same origin. They have been of a nature to form a suitable present the simplest and sublimest inonument
any generation could raise over the bodies of preparation for the perusal of this His
their progenitors ; calculated for almost endless tory. Whoever recollects, and has well duration, and speaking a language more imconsidered, the immense tumuli formed
pressive than the studied epitaph upon Parian
marble. When beheld in a distant evening of earth thrown up into barrows, horizon, skirted by the rays of the setting sun, described by Dr. Clarke, who saw many and, as it were, touching the clouds which such in the steppes of Russia, will ac
hover over them, imagination pictures the spi
rits of heroes of remoter periods descending company with great advantage the acti.
to irradiate a warrior's grave. Some of them vity of Sir Richard, and his friend Mr. rose in such regular forms, with so simple Cunnington. It must be acknowledged,
and yet so artificial a shape, in a plain other
wise perfectly fat and level, that no doubt that the foreign mounds surpass in whatsoever could be entertained concerning dimensions the generality of those in our them. Others, still more antient, have at last island; and, together with the vastness
sunk into the earth, aud left a hollow place,
encircled by a kind of fosse, which still marks of the plains on which they are placed, their pristine situation. Again, others, by the possess features more sublime than the passage of the plough annually upon their Wiltshire barrows can boast of.* And
surface, have been considerably diminished. I know no appearance of antiquity more inter
esting than these Tumuli. They are the iden* Throughout the whole of this country are tical Tombs referred to by Herodo! us, in the scen, dispersed over immense plains, mounds of earliest accounts history has recorded of such earth covered with a fine turf; the sepulchres sepulchral mounds. of the antient world, common to every habitable
The sepulcbres of the
Scythian kings are said, by him, to be in the country. If there exist any thing of former remotest parts of Scythia, where the Borys. times, which may afford monuments of ante. thenes is first known to be navigable; and diluvian manners, it is this mode of burial. they are further described as constructed preThey seem to mark the progress of population cisely according to the appearance they now in the first ages after the dispersion; rising exhibit.-Clarke's Travels in Russia, Vol. 1. p. 22.