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lasted till half-past three. His dexterity in managing his canoe was admirable, and he PARLIAMENTARY MIISTORY. evidently shewed bis ability to overcome his opponents in poiut of speed, by the ad- CHAP. VI. Linen Trade State of Ireland. vantages be often gave them, and which

April 24.--The House of Commons met, he as often redeemed. He was very ex pursuant to adjournment. pert in diving, which he did several times,

April 25.-Furcign Linens. and also in throwing his darts. Wheu at a considerable distance from the bea

April 25 – Mr. Finlay made a variety of con, he threw one of his darts, and struck remarks on the subject of the trade in fothe bulb of the beacon with the greatest

reign lineos

He was satisfied that the certainty. He was so fastened into his present laws operated against the interests scat, that he could not fall out, as a draw of the linen trade. When no duty was iming, like the mouth of a purse, girds him posed on foreign linen, British and Irish

livens were exported. We miglit carry about the loins, so that in an instant he was been to dive under the water, head dowüthe foreign linens to foreign couotries our and keel uppermost; again in the twink- Scotland and Ireland were of his opinion.

selves. The most iutelligent persons in ling of an eye, he raised himself erect out of the water, and scudded along as if no

He desired inquiry into the question, that he thing had happened, A raft of wood im- might show how far the linen interests were peded his progress down the harbour after concerned, and therefore moved for a comstarting, when, to the astonishment of the mittee to consider the laws relative, &c.

Mr. V. Fitzgerald thought the motion spectators, he crossed the raft with his canoe, and again launched into the wa

pregnant with mischief, and calculated to ter. His canoe is a very great curiosity, would not be induced to give up a law

exrite great alarm in Ireland. The house weighing in all 161b. He rows it by one oar, or paddle, and he is so very dexterous

which had proved beneficial for years, and in managing it, that he out sails any boat

so mainly useful to Ireland. Í'bey had with six oars.

The harbour was crowded just received petitions from the line trade with boats, filled with elegantly dressed against certain duties, in which he believed females. Previous to the exhibition the founded ; but it was incumbent on bim to

the fears of the manufacturers were unpublic had an opportunity of inspecting the resist a motion which tended to put down cauoe and the following curiosities, at a

the manufacture. It was not so easy for ware-room at the Wet Dock, viz. two seaunicorns' horos, the skulls of a sea horse foreigners, in sending out their linen, tú find and bear, the ear of a whale, and the imitated the foreign manufactures, and

assorted cargoes.

We had successfully preserved skin of a black eagle. The Es thereby secured the Spanish market.quimaux was dressed in the fashion of his The importance of the Irish linen trade country, from the waist downwards, in

was evident, since he could state its increase undressed seal-skins ; his jacket of the same, only the undressed side inwards. He during three years of the transit duty. The is a good-looking healthy young man, and imports to this country in 1812, 1813, and apparently very docile.

1814 were in proportion of 35,000,000,

fle understands a little English, and when he overcomes

37,000,000, aud 40,500,000 yards. The the method of talking common to his coun

exports of Irish lineu from Great Britain

18:2, 1819, aud 1814, were at the rate of try (a species of whispering) , there is little doubt but that he may soon become those years, of British linens, there were

5,800,000, 5,700,000, and 9,500,000. Io a proficient in our langnage. We astonished to hear expressions made use of exported, for 1812, 1813, and 1814,

1,400,000, 1,800,000, and 1,700,000. to him on Thursday, by some of the crew

This had never been regarded as a question of the ship which brought him here, ex

of revenue, but it was now a question beactly the same as we have beard in conversations between the natives of the interior and Ireland, and those who wished to

tween the manufactures of Great Britain of Africa. Happily the whole passed off without any serious accident, though se

monopolize the carrying trade.

Mr. Marryat said, the right hon. gentleveral people fell into the harbour, but

man took an erroneous view of the subwere got out safely, completely ducked. ject. It was Mr. Pitt's idea to make this (Edinburgh Puper.)

country the emporium of general commerce

-an idea now departed from. The two We should not be surprized, if this great articles of our foreign commerce were description were preparatory to the Esqui- foreign linens and French wines; be hoped maux's journey to London !

an inquiry would lead to a geueral investi

gation into every article of commerce, now duty, which had therefore been favourable that we were at peace. If we did not sup to the manufacturer. It was at present our ply cheaply, trade ran into other channels.

policy not to play tricks with our internal The exports were lately 17,000,000 per an industry. num, the greater part paid by British ma Mr. Peel observed, that the linen manunufactures. By these means the shipping facture was the only manufacture of Ireinteresi avd the British navy were sup- land, and Ulster chiefly subsisted by it. ported. He had observed the proportion of The linen manufacture was a substitute for British and foreign ships employedinforeign the woollen. At a time when the Irisb trade, from opportunitiesafforded him as an woollen trade was increasing, King Wilunderwriter, and found the British vessels liam said he would destroy the Irish woolreduced from 410 to 351' and 251: and Jen trade, but he would protect and enafterwards falling lower. Tbese were in courage the linen manufacture. There was, the Spanish American trade. He also therefore, for the latter, a promise and a leared, that in two months, recently at pledge. The Irish linen exports were not the Havannah, where almost all the vessels less than a third of their whole exports. entering had been British, there came in the first clamonr for this change came 163 vessels, and not one of them a British from the foreign merchants, Prussians and vessel laden from a British port: but from others, who thou:ht they could find greater the Baltic, the Mediterranean, &c. They facilities for getting assorted cargoes here could not have carried out Irish linens, thari at Dantzic. These who presided whieb they would, had they come from over the linen trade in Ireland thought the our own ports. A correspondent of his, interests of the trade demanded a continufrom the Havannah, wanted a cargo of ance of the transit duty. This question 20,000., of which 1,0001. were to be fo- was not to be settled by looking to Silesia reign wipes, &c.; but finding he could do or the West Indies, &c. The best mode better on the continent, be seut the whole was to give employment to the people of manufacturers interests would be best pro- The Hon. Mr. Robinson said, it had moted by agreeiog to a motion of inquiry. been represented to him that the repeal The advantages of our foreign trade were would be beneficial to the merchant and to obvious. If we brought goods from the the linen trade, and he had believed it. Hanse towns, we had to re-export them, Had he thought it injurious to Ireland, he so that three or four voyages might take should not have entertained that opinion ; place. Government did not sufficiently yet he was aware that it excited fears in appreciate indirect commerce, which, ireland. He thought it a measure which though it did not pay direct taxes, was the should receive the general concurrence of life-blood wbich circulated to the remotest the parties interested: but the linen board fibre of the body politic.

objected to it. He gave all the commer

cial parties to uuderstand, that he could Lord Castlereagh thought this, as a ge not move in the business, unless other inReral question, very tempting; but, ba

terests were conciliated. For the political lancing all considerations of convenience reasons, therefore, he had assigned, withand inconvenience, he believed the house

out having changed his private opinion, he would refuse the applicatiou for a change felt it to be his duty to vote against the of the system by a new law. The reason

motion for a committee. ing of the hon. member did not always Alderman Atkins and Mr. Forbes were carry conviction to his mind. Some of the in favour of inquiry. cases be bad instauced appeared to be ouly Sir Jobn Newport lamented, that the the ordinary results to be expected on a motion bad been brought forward at this returu of peace, particularly under the re- period, when the minds of the Irish people cent circumstances. He was not sorry to were in a state of so much agitation. The hear that other ships than British entered object of the proposed inquiry was, in his foreign ports in peace, as the late state of opinion, injurious 10 the Irish manufacture, commerce was à diseased one, in which and incousistent with the articles of the the trade of foreigo powers was chilled and Union. The house then divided. For the almost anuihilated. He agreed that the motion, 83.-Against it 108. Majority 75. gains of the indirect commerce were not to

April 26 -State of Ireland. be despised, but they were inferior cousi. derations to the interests of our own mu Sir J. Newport said, it might naturally Bufactures and articles of home growth. be asked how, after so many hundred The amount of Irish linen sent to this years' connection with this country, Ireland country had been larger since the transit now remained iu the same slate which was

G 2

complained of centuries ago ? The first Ireland in supporting the interests of inquiry into the state of Irelaud was on Britain had expended 67 millions, or the accession of James the First, by Sir 4 millions annually; whereas, before Johu Davis, who took great pains to show the union, her expenditure did not exthat mutual interests were completely misced a million and a half. Her taxation understood. In his quaint language he was thus trebled, and her entire exertious said, that if you could not govern the Irish, had greatly exceeded her strength. The nor conquer them by the sword, they debt was iucreased from 34 to 150 millions ; would always be pricks in your eyes, and and the revenue, which, but for these thorus in your sides. lu those days, if an exertions, would have now been 10 millions, Irishnan was murdered by an English - was but 5,800,0001. He was at the same man, the punishment was five marks: if | time happy to admit, that since the act an Coglishman was murdered by an Irish- of únion the commercial jealousy of this - man, the punishment was death. When country had certainly been relaxel, and James the First anderlook colonization in that in this respect Ireland had been conIreland, though the measure was good in sidered as much a parcel of the empire as some respects, yet it proceeded too much York or Devonshire. But why, he would ou the principle of garrisoving the county, ask, whilst their illegality was acknowrather than of forming a connexion. ledged, were the orange societies suffered

Subsequently to this the unhappy dis- to exist ? With regard to the office of putes broke out in England, and Ireland high sheriff, he should only say, that what fell unfortunately a victim to political in was in this country a burthensome office, trigues. The royal assent persuaded the was in Ireland an object of contest, and Irish into the forming of a royal army was the means of alienatiog or attaching against the purliament. The arts of the powerful individuals to the support of goPapists, and the intrigues of the nuncio, verument. One remedy had been much were particularly detrimental, and produc- talked of-he meant the power of educaed the most lamentable resultsand even tion. He hoped he carried his ideas of that the ruin of the country. At last Crom-power as far as any man who heard him ; well's conquering sword put down all op. but he most be permitted to say, that in position. A temporary tranquillity ensued comparison with the mass of this country, in Eugland through the miscouduct of the the Irish were not an uneducated people. restored Stuarts; but it was far different in a district, comprchending about one in Ireland, After this James II. took half of the county of Cork, there were uprcfuge in Ireland, and the misguided people wards of 300 unendowed schools, educating sacrificed thcir Euglish connexions to their not less than 22,000 children. Education mistaken loyalty, and were doomed to would not cure the political evils of Ireland, apoiher struggle. With the revolution, unless accompanied with a radical reform; Great Britain commenced an age of free and as the system under which Ireland dom and glory ; but was that the case was governed had been vicious for ages, with Ireland ? Then commenced the pe- it was the duty of parliament to look into ual code. It was a Protestant Parliament the causes of all defects in that system. which took unjust and violent measures He should move, therefore, an humble with regard to the adjustment of tithes, address to the Prince Regent, praying for by which the prosperity of the nation was such documents as might Icad to a thorough sacrificed to the interests and prejudices of investigation into the causes that have prothe few. The temper with which it legis. duced these evils, &c. lated was indeed made abundantly manifest. The English minister of that day Mr. Peel proceeded to state, as nearly did not fail to perceive, that a parliament, as he could, the present situation of Irethus severed and disunited from their coun- land. "The provinces of the north were try, could vot 'oe very strong. He tried all tranquil; disturbed, perhaps, by the to get the supplies voted for 21 years, and proceedings against illicit distillation, but it failed only by one vote. The parlia- not political. The west of Ireland was in a meni, during the reign of George II., state of tranquility; so was the south, and sat for 33 years : and the effect was to so were the eastern provinces ; that is, paralyse the industry, and arrest the pro- they were generally tranquil, and no ex gress, of Ireland in the career of national traordinary

of police prosperity for that period. Amidst all its adopted. The counties in which disturbdenierits, however, it had the virtue of ances existed, and measures of severity economy: for it paid off the whole debt were had recourse to, were Tipperary, of the country, and left a surplus in the King's County, Westmeath, and Limerick : year 1753, of 200,000).

the Magistrates of King's county, had pe



titioned for a repeal of the act which an- | Fermanagh, the principal magistrate stated thorised measures of severity, allegiug that he should be glad to receive him, but there was no further occasion for thein: begged to know the price of his head, that the state of West Meath and Limerick in case of his murder, the sum might be was improved, though the insurrectiou act levied on the district. was in force. In some counties the greatest Mr. Peel professed his readiness to exert violences existed between families and the utmost powers of Government in supfactions, arising from old or hereditary re pressing offensive differences, between sentments, and not from any cause politi- citizens of the same nation; but there cal or religious: he bimself reinembered were animosities which cluded the powers two factions at Kilkenny, the Shaughnes- of Government. sites and tbe Callagbanites, who without The state of the press in Ireland, was any object which he could discover, perse most licentious: no character was spared ; cuted each other with the utmost rancour. no falsity was too barefáced to le propaIn the counties in which insurrection pregated; it left no notive for virtue, as it vailed, he could never astertain any pre- included all in its fell sweep: it levelled cise object of discontent, but a spirit of praise and censure, being indiscriminate. opposition against all law and order: no He thought that the elective franchise attack on Protestants, no spirit of dislike had been abused, and onght to be reformed. against the Catholics; but the records of Voters' swore to property they never posthe courts presented such scenes of fero- sessed. He would conclude by expressing city, such perjury as the anpals of no age admiration of thie generous character of could equal.

the Irish, and of the courage, disinterestedThere was one trial--that of the murder-ness, and fidelity which they always disers of an upwright and lamented magistrate played, and by declaring that his attache' (Mr. Baker)-- of wbich, if any one would ment to that people would long continue take the trouble to peruse the record, it after all official connexion between bim would show the true character of the coun- and their county had ceased. try—the fidelity of the people in a bad Mr. Plunket spoke particularly to the cause; the eagerness and pertinacity with disorders which required such a number of wbich they revenge an imaginary offence, troops: he thought no remedies short of and the facility with which they commit radical reformalion, would , rove salutary, the crime of murder. Many parties were Mr. Fitzgerald spoke at some length: stationed on the road for the purpose of Mr. Grattan also entered into the discus. intercepting him; and the act, when per- sion; but was not inclined to think aftairs petrated, was conveyed from house to desperate. Lord Castlereagh thought the house by siguals Parties were placed

sane, and congratulated the House on the on the roofs of houses, and on ricks, and

good temper displayed in the debate. & general cheer was given when Mr. The House divided Baker fell. Although a reward of £13,000 For the Amendment

187 was offered by government and the gen For the Original Motion 103 flemen of the county, no satisfactory evidence could be procured, though the POLITICAL PERISCOPE. names of the murderers were well known all over the country ; such was the fidelity

Panorama Office, Sep. 28, 1916. of these misguided people in a bad cause. We remember the time when at a situ. g Sir John Davis traced these disorders from to deterroine the contents of a POLITICAL the earliest periods (and to the earliest pe- PERISCOPE, every country on the earth riods we must recur to learn their origin), would press forward its intelligence, and and attributed them to the im policy of the desire to occupy the first place in the disoriginal conquest of the country, which cussion. Often has the arriv:1 of a mail in was not achieved at once, and at the head a morning, deranged the whole sistem of a large army, but, as it were, by instal agreed to by the board, on the overnight; ments, The consequences were, as might and the labours prolonged to past midbave been expected, an incessant state of night, have been set aside by the “pariy rebellion, excited in the hope of throwing Post,” at eight, or defentri by rumours from off a yoke so gradually imposed. Spenser Lloyd's, about eleven o'clock, or woon. attributed the bad habits of the Trish to the It is not so now. A few Aving reports iaspolicy of excluding them from the bene- just serve to heep alive the curiosity of the fits of English law. °Sir J. Davis mentions true Politician; but those who ask at the that by the laws of the ancient Irish, mur

War-Office, or the Admiralty, for fresh inder wis considered a venial offence, and formation will be referred to the newswas coinpounded by a fine. When a she- papers of the morning, with a nothing riff was formerly sent to the county of I later, I believe: at least, not here."

The Home-Office-why, indeed, we hearts, or the bands, which pulled down have had a little stir about the silver, in the whole edifice of the state, and threw which every man who had money in his that into the gulph, to fill up the deficit. pocket was concerned ;-but it ended in Now in England, all the world knows assuring us, that payment in legal coin is that the nation is poor :the deficit is propostponed from November to February; claimed to be so and so: inmediately all and that, in the mean time, tokens and think of savING; and a good thing it is to dollars, by courtesy passing for legal, will think of: diminish your expences! Very continue to be taken, at their present value. readily: every rational man answers, di. Iu this respect, then, we are just where we minish the national expences! And this supwere: but must now look forward to after ports public credit; for the expences will Christmas.

be diminished, and the income will be inThe Public Funds are slowly declining: creased, till these, having found their lethis will enable the National Commission-vel, the Finances become whole and sound ers to purchase a greater proportion of them again. A little Patience then, a little Hope, at the same cost. While some of our a little Faith, and a little Charity-excelfriends are woudering why they should lent virtues as well among Christians decline in Peace time ; others, are equally as Heatheus—and the deficit will be ranked surprized at the venturesome spirit by among the bug-u-boos of the dark ages; at which they have been raised so bigh. It which men of sense in the present enlightis not every man who knows how to calcu. ened age laugh most heartily. late the value of a hundred pounds in the Mr. Pitt found a deficit after the Ameri. Storks; and this the worthy wights of the can war of nearly four millions; at the end lottery know full well: for, they have of 1784, nine months after the peace, it reckoned Consols, and money ai equal was £3,108,000. Now if Mr. Pitt contrived value; and gravely inform the Public that to overcome this deficit, with the means of a prize of forly thousand pounds,—which meeting it then crisling, why should we demust fall to somebody's share-is forly spair of meeting a similar deficit, with the thousand pounds : but three per Cents, at means now erisling? Are the true, major, 61, or 62, are not the same as golden sources of our wealth, our industry, our guiueas, which were their last temptation capital, our credit, our character, for into adventurers.

tegrity and honesty, reully impaired? Are It is worth while, however, to compare we kvaves or fools, acknowledged and rethe Public Funds of Britain, with those of corded as such all the world over? Let any other Country. Take France as the facts speak, whether this nation amidst all subject of comparison. The English three its sufferings, is not rather the envy than per Cents, are so much above 60 for 100, the contempt of the world. that legal interest, 5 per Cent. caunot be True it is that we are the hatred of some obtained, by investing money in them; nations, rather than their contempt, Tant while the French funds, five per Ceuts, are mieur: let them anticipate our miscarriages so much below 60, (say 57į, for 100, that with pleasure; there will never be any money invested in them obtains an interest want of them; let them record our sucof eight or nine per Cent. In the mean cesses with pain. It is truly amusing to while the Bank Actions which in Buona see to what shifts they are reduced on cer. parte's time always followed the 5 per tain occasions,—and how greatly their wit Ceuts,-keep up their price to above 1000 strains for an opportunity of finding or ma(say 1070) which implies, that this Bank- king deductions from an exploit of a British ing Company continues to enjoy the confi- officer. dence of the Public :-owing much, as

The late memorable chastisement of Al. we conjecture, to the publicity of its re- giers, is a striking instance of this. Before ports.

Lord Exmouth arrived in the MediterraThe French Statesmen, have always nean, we had daily reports (via France,) piqued themselves on the secresy of their on the strength of the batteries, and the financial affairs: what did it end in ?- A number of the troops collected in the city. deficit, well described as a gulf. Whereas, After the destruction inflicted, we are had that very deficit, from its small begin told, that part of the Algerine navy esnings been gradually kuown to the Nation, caped ; that the people adore the Sovereign it could not have come on the people as a who has brought this calamity upon them; thunderbolt, for suddenness. It might, that they love him the better for il; that the possibly, have been stopped in an early English ships are dreadfully mauled,-(50 stage ; but, if not, it could have astonished they are) and they set down as killed, the no one, whose memory recollected the last whole report of killed and wounded. The year: it might startle a few true patriots ; secret is, that this terrible punishment has but, those who were not the heads, the been inflicted by British ships and British

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