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so circumstanced are almost always con- | midland counties. The moment the farsidered as the most to be depended upon mer obtains his wish, be takes every parand trusted: the possessing a little pro-ticle of the land to himself

, and re-lets the perty certainly gives a spur to industry; as house to the labourer, who by this means a proof of this, it has alinost always hap- is rendered miserable, the poor's-rate inpened to me, that when a labourer bas ob-creased, the value of the estate of the tained a cow, and land sufficient to mainland-owner diminished, avd the house suftain her, the first thing he has thought of, fered to go to decay; which, when once has been how he could save money enough fallent, the tenant will never rebuild, but to buy another; and I have almost always the landlord must, at a considerable exhad applications for more lavd from those pense. Whoever travels through the midpeople so circumstanced. There are seve dle counties, and will take the trouble of ral labourers in my neighbourhood, who inquiring, will generally receive for answer have got on in that manner, till they now that formerly there were a great many coto keep three, and some four cows, and yet tagers who kept cows, but that the land is are among the hardest-working men in the now thrown to the farmers; and if he incounty, and the best labourers. I believe quires still further, he will find, that in there are from 70 to 80 labourers upon my those parishes the poor's-rate have increasestate in Rutland, who keep from one to ed in an amazing degree, more than acfour cows each; and I have always heard cording to the average rise thorughout that they are hardworking industrious England."—(Earl of Winchelsea, Cuumuumen; they manage their land well, and nications, vol. i. p. 77.) always pay their rent.

Mr. Crutchley, steward to the Earl of * lu a village near me, where there Winchelsea, writes thus :-“ Wages are are a great number of labourers who keep certainly not raised by labourers having cows, the poor's rate is not at this time land.

I am persuaded they are, in fact, above sirpence in the pound: the number much lowered, if the wages were the of inhabitauts, 335. Some difficulties may same; as a more industrious rt of men occur in establishing the custom of labour.

are employed in labour, and having more ers keeping cows, in those parts of the of the comforts of life, they are enabled to country where no such custom has exist work harder than common labourers; by ed: wherever it has, or does exist, it ought this more work is done for the same wages. by all means to be encou

couraged, and not The difference between a cottager and a suffered to fall into disuse, as has been the common labourer is so much, that I am at case to a great degree in the midland coun

a loss for a comparison, except it be that ties; one of the causes of which I appre of an opulent farmer to a cottager : and hend to be, the dislike the generality of where there are a number of them in any farmers have to seeing the labourers rent parish, the rates will be low. The public any land. Perhaps one of their reasons

must be benefitted by them, there being for disliking this is, that the land, if not

not a yard of waste land upon any of their occupied by the labourers, would fall to premises to be found."—(Crutchley, Com, their own share; and another, I am afraid, is vol. I, p. 93.) that they wish rather to have the labourers more dependent upon them, for which rea

In a memoir presented to the Board, sons they are always desirous of hiring the

Lord Brownlow thus expresses himself : house and land occupied by a' labourer,

“ In many parishes the cottages are geneonder pretence, that' by that means the rally, let to under tenants by the farmers; landlord will be secure of his rent, and but this is a practice universally rejected that they will keep the house in repair

on my estates. To the cottager the conThis the agents of estates are too apt to trary system affords the comforts of life : give into, as they find it much less trouble to the parish it lowers the poor's-rates: a to meet six, thau sixty tenants at a rent known to be troublesome to a parish; and

man who keeps a cow has seldom been day, and by this means avoid the being to the public it gives an increase of hands, sometimes obliged to hear the wants and complaints of the poor; all parties, there from infancy taught to work by their pafore, join in persuading the landlord, who, rents for their advantage."--(Lord Brownit is uatural to suppose (unless he has time low, Com. vol. i. p. 85.) and inclination to investigate the matter These are not the only testimonies in very closely) will agree to this their plan, favour of this system ; but these are suffifrom the manner in which it comes recom-cient to enable farmers to answer certain mended to him: and it is in this manner questions pat to them by conscience:-they that the labourers have been dispossessed are now tbe admonitions of experience and of their cow pasture in various parts of the facts.


sea breeze, had reached the bay, and were National Register : preparing the boats and fotilla for service,

until near tuo o'clock, when, observing FOREIGN

my officer was returning with the signal fiving that no answer had been received,

after a delay of upwards of three hours, I Among the exploits of the British navy, instantly made the signal to know if the the late attack on Algiers must always slips were all ready, which being an

swered in the affirmiatve, the Queen Charhold a most conspicuous place. We ex

lotte bore up, followed up by the feel, for press our admiration of it in unqualified their appoiuted stations; the flag, leading ternis. It will be recollected, that it is a in the prescribed order, was anchored in punishment due to Mahommedan ferocity,

the entrance of the Mole, at about fifty as instanced in the slaughter of a consiliad been fired, and I began to suspect

yards distance. Althis moment not a gun derable number of unarmed Christians, full compliance with the terms whiih had who had landed at Bova, immediately after been so many hours in their hands; at concluding a creaty with Lord Exmouth in this period of profound silence, a shot was

fired at us from the Mole, and two at the forour of Christians; even those in a state ships to the northward the following; of slavery. This insult to the British power this was proniptly returned by the Queen has received signal chastisement; may it Charlotte who was then lashing to the proluce a long repentance!

mainmast of a brig, fast to the shore in (Lord Exmouth wri:e: from Algiers Bay, I steered for, as the guide to our position,

the mouth of the Mole, and which we had Aug. 23, an account of his delays, from baf.

Thus commenced a fire as auimated and fling winds: he proceeds ...

well supported, as I believe, was ever ... The Prometheus was dispatched to witnessed, from a quarter before three une Algiers some time before, to endeavour to til nine without intermission, and which get away the Consul Captain Dashwood did not cease altogether till balf past 11. had wiih oifficulty succeeded in bringing The ships immediately following me were away, disguised in midshipman's uniformi, admirably and coolly taking their stations, his wife and daughter, leaving a boat to with a precision even beyond thy most bring their infant child, coming down sanguine hope; and never did the British in a besiset with the surgeon, who thought | Aag receive on any occasion, more zealous he had composed it, but it'unhappily cried and honourable support. To look further in the gateway, and in consequence the on the line than immediately round me surgeon, three midshipmeu, in all eighteen

was perfectly impossible. .. I had about persous were seized and confined as slaves in this time the satisfaction of seeing Vice-Adthe "sual dungeons. The child was sent off miral Van Capellen's flag in the station / next morning by the Dey, and as a solitary had assigned to bim, and soon after, at ininstaure of his humanity, it ought to be tervals, the remainder of his frigates, keeprecorded by me.... The ships were all in ing up a well-supported fire on the flanking port, and between 40 aud 50 gun and batteries he had offered to cover us from, mortar boats ready, with several more as it had not been in my power, for want in forward repair.

of room, to bring him in the front of the August, 27.-As the ships were be- Mole. About sunset I received a message calmeid. I embraced this opportunity of from Rear Admiral Milue, conveying to dispatching a boat, mder cover of the Se me the severe loss the Impregnable was vern, with a flag of truce, and the demands sustaining, having then 150 killed and I had to make, in the name of his Royal wouuded, and requesting I would, if posHighness the Prince Regent, on the Deysible, send him a frigate to divert some of of Algiers, directing the officer to wait the Gre he was under. I had at this time two or three hours for the Dey's answer, sent orders to the explosion vessel, under at which time, if no reply was sent, he the charge of Lieut. Fleming and Mr. was to return to the fag ship; he was Parker, by Captain Reade of the engineers, met near the Mole by the Captain of the to bring her into the Mole; but the Reas. • port, who, on being told the answer was Admiral having thought she would do him

expertell in one hour, replied that it was essential service if exploded under the bat. impossible. The officer then said he would tery in his front, I sent orders to this vessel wait two or three hours: he then observed to that effect, which were executed. I two hours was quite sufficient. The fleet | desired also the Rear-Admiral might be inut this time, by the springing up of the formed, that many of the ships being now



in Aames, and certain of the destruction of | rected, will be seen for many years to come, the whole, I cousidered I had executed the and remembered by these barbarians for most important part of my instructions, and ever. Not an officer nor man coutined his should niake every preparation for with. exertions within the precise limits of his drawing the ships, and desired be would own duty; all were eager to attempt serdo so as soon as possible with his division vices which I found more difficult to re

There were awful moments during the strain than excite.-The Algeriues' loss conflict, which I cannot now attempt to de. was between 6 and 7,000 men. serive, occasioned by firing the ships so Abstract of the Killed and Wounded. bear us, and I had long resisted the eager Total, 15 officers, 88 seamen, 19 marines, ., entreaties of several around me, to make marine 'artillery, i rocket troop, 4 boys, kilthe attempt upon the outer frigate, distant led ; 59 officers, 459 seamen, 106 marines, 5 maabout 100 yards, which at length i gave into, rine artillery, 14 sappers and miners, 4 rocket and Major Gossett by my side, who had troop, 3 boys, 12 supernumeraries, wounded.

Toral British' killed and wounded 128 killed, been eager to land his corps of niiners, 690 wounded. pressed me most anxiously for permission Durch Squadron, 13 killed, 52 wounded, to accompany Lieutenant Richards in this Grand total, 883. ship's birge. The frigate was instantly MEMORANDUM OF THE DESTRUCTION IN THE boarded, and in ten minutes in a perfect blace. The enemy's batteries around my

27TH AUGUST, 1976, division were about ten o'clock silenced,

4 large frigates, of 44 guns; 5 large corand in a state of perfect ruin and dilapida- bettes, from 24 to 30; all the gun and mortar tiori ; and the fire was reserved as much chant brigs and schooners; a great number of as possible, to save powder, and reply to a sınall vessels of various descriptions; all the few guns now and then bearing upon us, pontoons, lighters, &c. ; store-houses and arse. although a fort on the upper angle of the nal, with all the timber and various marine city, on which our guus could not be articles, destroyed in part; a great many gun

carriages, mortar-beds, casks, and ships stores brought to bear, continued to annoy the of all descriptions. ships by shot and shells during the whole

EXMOUTH. time. Providence at this interval gave to Queen Charlotte, Algiers Bay, August 30, 1816. my anxious wishes the usual land wind, GENERAL MEMORANDUM. -The Comcommon is this bay, and my expectations mander in Chief is happy to inform the were completed. We were all hands em- fleet of the final termination of their streploed warping and towing off, and by the ouous exertions, by the signing of peace, bely of the light air, the whole were under confirmed under a salute of twenty-one mail, and came to anchor out of reach of about two in the morning, after gous, on the following conditions, dictated twelve hours incessant labour. The'Aotilla by his Royal Highness the Prince Regent

of England :of mortar, yun, and rocket boats, under

1. The abolition, for ever, of Christian the direction of their respective artillery

slavery. officers, shared, to the full extent of their power, in the hopours of this day, and per- in the dominions of the Dey, to whatever

II. The delivery to my Alay of all slaves formed good service; it was hy their fire nation they may belong, at voon to-mor. all the ships in the port (with the exception of the outer frigate) were in famex, which III. To deliver also to my flag all money extended rapidly over the whole årse received by him for the redemption of nal, store houses, and gun-boats, exhi. biting a spectacle of awful grandeur and in- slaves, since the com niencement of this

at noon also to-incrrow. terest ivhich ao pen can describe.


The sloops of war with had been appropriated British Consul for all losses be may have

IV. Reparatiou has been made to the to aid and assist the ships of the line, and sustained in consequence of bis confineprepare for their retreat, performed not

ment. only that duty well, but embraced every

V. The Dey has made a public apology opportunity of firing through the intervals, in tive presence of his ministers and encers, and were constantly in motion. The sheils and begged pardon of the Consul, in termis from the bombs were admirably well thrown by the royal marine artiilers, and dictated by the Captain of the Queen Char

lotte. though thrown directly across and over is, not an accident that I know of arcurred to

'The ('on mander in Chief takes this opany ship. The whole was conducted in portauity of again returning his portlic perfect silence, and such a thing as a cheer thanks to the admirals, captains, officers, I never heard in any part of the line ; and seamen, warmes, royal warine artillery, that the guns were well worked and di- royal sappers and winers, and royal rocket



corps, for the noble support he has receiv. the Queen Charlotte lashed herself; closer ed from them throughout the whole of this in with the shore, in the bosom of the hararduous service; and he is pleased to direct bour, were two Algerine frigates, and the that on Sunday next a public thanksgiving rest of the Algerine navy behind them. be offered up to Almighty God, for the sig. The fury and tremendous nature of the pal interposition of his Divine Providence, bombardment are already known to our during the conflict which took place on the readers. It continued with little intermis. 27th, between his Majesty's feet and the sion from near three till near eleven ; thie ferocious enemies of mankind. It is re- Algerines fighting all the time with the utquested that this memorandum may be most fury and desperation, but yet with read to the ships' companies.

great skill and eliect. About ten it was

deemed advisable to take a larger offing FURTHER PARTICULARS OF THE LATE

during the night. It was extremely dark

indeed; but the darkness was illuminated The more we consider the late victory, by a violent storm of lightning ; with thanthe more are we inrlined to rank it amongler, wbich came on suddenly, and hy the the most splendid of our naval achievements. incessant fire of the batteries. Poihing, Algiers, containing a population of 80,000 say private letters, could be more grand souls, rises abruptly from the water's edge and awful. to a great height. The batteries are one

Captain Brisbane states a fact, which the above another, strongly coustructed and modesty of Lord Exmouth omitted; viz. fortified. Sweeping from the western es inåt his Lordship received two wounds in tremity is a tongne of land which defends the late memorable action, one in the the entrance into the inper part of the

heek, and another in the thigh, but hapharbow', and asso the approach to it. pily neither of them of a severe nature. Alony Ule whole of this tongue is 'was a range of strong batteries, which ships musi

That the Dey looked for hostilities is cerpass to take their station near the towu,

tain: our public papers had informed bim, with the view of bombarding it. Our firet

as bad (it is supposed) the French in his

interest. He had, on this occasion, endea. passed along this line. Tue impregnable, from getting close'l', was exposed, not only

voured to find, or make friends, at Constan. to the fire of the batteries in mediateli op

tinople, by means of posite, but to other batteries rising behind and above iben: and this will account for On the 221 of July the Grand Vizier the enormicus loss she sustained. At a dis gave a solemn audience to the Envoy from tance behind the impregnable, but parallel the Dey of Algiers, who was not admitted with the tongue of the faol, were our mor- into the Sultan's presence. The presents tar and rocket boats, which were euabled from the Dey to his Highness were to to throw rockels, l'ot only against the bat the value of 3,000 purses (about 150,000 teries immediately in front, but over them Jollars). They consisted of a certain number to tile batteries in the rear. As we ranged of Moorish slaves, of both sexes; three along the line to take our station, the ene. fine Barbary horses, the saddles and har. y did not fire; either not thinking ihatnessing of which were enriched with gold we shonld venture so near the city, or and precious stones ; several fine arms, wishing 1o get us as close as possible, to mounted with gold and coral; a brilliant render their fire more destructive. The solitaire; a rich snuff box, carried on a Queen Charlotte took her station off the a silver stand, with corals, amber, and extreme point of the tongue, in which she oriental perfumes; eight lions; four tigers; eufiladed the whole line of baiteries along six ostriches; several paroquets; ten leopard it. So bear was she, that every part of skius; as many tiger skins; some Algerine the Mole, and what was called the Marine, dresses, richly embroidered; a quantity of was visible from our quarter deck. Both Barbary carpeting, of all colours. All were crowded with spectators, about two these presents were carried with great pomp or ibree thousand, who renained gazing at through the streets of Constantinople. The us, and seemed not at all to expect that we wild beasts were put in iron cages, were about to fire. Lord Exniouth stoos and carried to the Grand Seignior's paupon the poop, anri waved liis hat to them lace. In the evening, the Tersana Emini to refire, caurl siguitied that he was abont to(Intendant of the Arsenal) delivered, by lesin hostilities. They did not attend to order of the Grand Vizier, to M. Francis his batim:ne waruing, in the consequence Klezel, Second Dragoman of the Austrian ws, the cur first tiroadside swept off from Legation, the slaves set at liberty by the 5.080, 10 pou of them. The most advanced Regency of Algiers, in virtue of the Grand o/' the Aigerine navy was a brig, 10 wlich Seigujor's firman, consisting partly of Aus


trian subjects, and partly of the subjects planks and cork alternately: it carries 44 of other Powers who had described them. guns, four of which are 100 pounders, the selves as Austrians. These slaves were others are from 42 to 60. Besides which, conducted to the Depot of Pera , where in order to prevent boarding, it can disa report ou them was drawn up, and charge upon its assailants a hundred galmeasures immediately taken to provide Ions of boiling water every minute. By the for their maintenance, and to procure them same mechanism likewise, 330 sabres are clothes, and such other things as they moved outside its port-holes with the most might need.

perfect regularity: and four times every AMERICA: British.

minute, as many long spears are darted out

with the most incredible force, and pulled Harrest probably deficient. back every time for a fresh emission. What In consequence of the backwardness of human power can overcome the effects of the season in that quarter, and to provide such a dreadful machine? It is the chef against scarcity from a deficiency of the d'auvre of mechanism; it is at the very top crops, Major-General Wilson, Adminis- of art, being more wonderful, because, trator of the Government of Lower Ca- though useless for attack, it is invincible in nada, issued a proclamation, dated Quebec, defence. The Americans have also inventJuly 9th, 1816, forbidding the exportation cd boats, the wheels of whicli, instead of by sea or land, or by inland navigation, being put in motion by steam, are mover from the said province, of wheat, Aour, by horses embarked on board, and which biscuit, beans, and grain of all kinds used work as in a riding-house. It be

may Silgin making bread.

gested that this way may be as advantage

ous as the other, but experiment must deBoston, July 26.—The following is an

cide.-(Journal des Debais.) extract of a letter from Quebec,dated June 27, to a respectable merchant in this town : Americau descriptive powers grafted on

It is curious to observe the fruit of “The present scarcity has caused our Government to open our port for the recep take to be such a curiosity-110 offence to

French turns of expression : this article we tion of all kinds of four, grain, and pro- the Editor of the Journal des Debuts. visions from the United States, for threemonths, in British vessels. The proclama. there are at present building on the Ame

Recent letters from America state that tion will be out immediately. The price rican stocks 17 ships of the line, and 23 of flour is from 17 to 18 dollars."

frigates, besides 20 steam-frigates, a kind Steam Boats.

of floating battery, destined to defend the Extract from a Quebec Paper, dated July 18, 1916. harbours and roads. (Viu France.) -"His Excellency Sir John Cope Sher

Emigrants returning. brooke, G. C. B. and their respective

A letter from America, states the followsuites, arrived in the harbour on Friday ing important fact:-“On the 26th of June morning last, in the steam-boat Malsham, sailed from New York, for Liverpool, a from on board his Majesty's ship Niger, offvessel having on board 196 persons stowed river Quelle."

in the steerage and other miserable stations AMERICA: UNITED STATES. of the vessel, being wretched English maSteam Boats.

nufacturers and others returning to Britain,

not being able to get employment in this The Boston Paper of the 7th of August union that would produce them bed and as the following paragraph:-“The steam board." boat Fulton is under contract to sail for

Several of the Swiss who recently emiRussia, from New York, and to arrive in grated to America, have written home such Russia by the 1st of December."

dismal accounts of the distresses they expeNew York, Aug. 10.- We regret to rience, as to have completely extinguished state, that the steam boat, Vesuvius, on the rage for emigration in that quarter. the Mississippi, took fire on the 13th ult.

Bibles : Benevolence. and was burnt to the water's edge. A Hon. Elias Boudiuot, Esq. the venerable cargo of goods, to the amount of 200,000 President of the American Bible Society, dollars, shared the fate of the steam boat. has presented a donation of ten thousand She took fire from her furnace it is sup-dollars to that establishment, the interest posed.

of which will furoish 1000 Bibles annually WONDERFUL STEAM Frigate.-A Steam for gratuitous distribution.—N. York ChrisFrigate was launched at New York last tian Herald, June 22, 1816. year, three hundred feet in length, two hun The exports from Savannah for nine dred feet in breadth, and thirteen feet thick months, enuing the 30th Jove last, ale at the sides, which are composed of oak stated at 91,147 bales of cotton, 21,91%

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