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waste-weirs, 24 road and 24 farm bridges. Estimated cost of construction 8536,767.14.
The Nunda valley route presents greater facilities for the distribution of locks, and as will be seen by reference to the profiles, (folio 26-27); allows a distance of 14 miles to attain the elevation effected on the other line in 31 miles; but the extra distance, se'veral expesive ravines, and the deep cut (45 feet) through Nunda hill at Williams' render this route the most expensive.
It is 154 miles long, and will cost $559,733.73; $202,391.46 more than the river line.
Several intelligent gentlemen were of opinion that a more favorable route might be found down Dish Mill creek to its conflu. ence with the Genesee, and thence under the perpendieular river bank, partly in the bed of the stream, to Mount Morris dam. On passing over the ground, however, it was evident that the necessary protection required where the canal must be exposed to the river, would swell the cost far above that of either of the other routes, and as there would be no improvement in the location of the locks, the survey was abandoned.
MOUNT MORRIS TO ROCHESTER.
In making a cursory examination of this valley, the facilities for the construction of a canal appeared so nearly equal on each side of the river, that it was judged expedient to survey and locate two lines.
The estimates for both have been carefully made out, and the cost is herewith presented.
This portion of the Genesee valley has some peculiar features, which may be worthy of remark. The flats, which exceed in fertility and beauty any to be met with in this State, lie upon a bed of quicksand about 20 feet below the surface, and are generally from one to two miles wide, descending towards Rochester with great uniformity at the rate of two feet to the mile. Through these flats the Genesee river takes a circuitous course, frequently mingling its waters with the quicksands below, and occasionally cutting the base of the hills which skirt the valley on either side.
West side. The route upon the west side of the river crosses the Genesee near Mount Morris dam by an aqueduct of 234 feet in length. Immediately below the mill dam the rock disappears and is not again seen until we arrive at the rapids near Rochester.
An aqueduct constructed at the point proposed must rest upon gravel, and probably quicksand, in which case piles will be neces. sary for the security of the foundation. Thence over the Moscow flats to Tracy's store house, 44 miles the line is very nearly straight with the requisite cuttings, and of casy excavation.
Here the river washes the base of the hill; but by some extra cutting the canal may pass without requiring protection from the
From this point to Rochester the location is, with a few exceptions, on the flats near the upland slopes, and sufficiently elevated to be out of danger from the floods.
The base of the hill is washed by the river at 6 points, together measuring 11 miles, 40 chains of which will require extra protection, which is provided for in the estimates.
Slide banks occur at two points; near Gardner's store-house 9 chains, and below Fowlerville bridge, 36 chains = 45 chains.
To guard against these slides will be difficult and expensive; though for the most part they may be secured by driving piles. Another mode (by which the principal slides would be avoided,) is to cut down the hill and pass into a ravine, as seen on sec. 81 of folio 21 in atlas. This will increase the expense, but add to the security of the work.
Dumplin hill is a high sandy point coming out to the river's bank ncar Tone's tavern, 74 miles from Rochester. The first or river line encounters this hill. On further examination, however, a very favorable pass was discovered to the west of the ridge, through which the line may run, and avoid the river without increasing the distance.
On this side we pass Beard's, White, Dungan's, Allen's, Big and Little Black creeks. Allen's creek sends forth 3,386.40 cubic feet of water per minute, and is the only siream on which we can depend for a feeder. It may be received into the canal at Scottsville with facility, and is 124 miles from Rochester.
Connected with the Mount Morris dam (see fo. 18 of Atlas,) is a canal about 3 miles long, running to the village and thence across the flats to the Canascraga, a little to the right of the Geneseo road. This work was constructed by John R. Murray, of New-York, for hydraulic purposes; upon it are erecied I sawmill, i hemp factory and a four-mill with 4 run of stones.
The line from Olean and the Dansville side-cut come together at the foot of the hill under the village, and intersect the Mount Morris canal at the flour-mill about 1 mile from the dam. In the event of continuing the route to Rochester on either side of the river, it may be necessary to make use of a portion of the mill canal for the purposes of a fecder, or as part of a main truuk; and in that case public security would demand that the State should assume the control of the water.
Tlie dam appears to be well built; it is founded on rock, and by some additional protection at the ends, and enlargement of the embankment along the canal, and a new guard lock and pier at the pond, it may be used to advantage for the feeder, or as part of the main canal, in case it should be decn.cd advisable to cross the river in the pond, which, however, (unless there be peculiar circumstances connected with it calculated to recommend the plan,) should always be avoided. The rise here from extreme low to high water mark, is 64 feet; and the pond is favorably situated for this mode of crossing.
A company hare made arrangements for constructing a bridge over the Genesee river at a convenient point, for the connection of
a towing path; and that you may be able to form a just comparison of the merits of the two lines, I have made an estiinaic of both, and I find the cost of this to be $8,598.03 less than the other.
East side Genesee. The route upon this side of the river crosses the Canascraga near Col. Fitzhugh's, and by some extra cutting 10 avoid the river and a few deep ravines which occur, passes on to the end of section 78, three milcs below Geneseo, principally over grounds gently sloping towards the river, and in a very direct and favorable line. 'Here high lands intervene, and force us off to the left, over broken grounds, in a circuitous direction round by the river's bank, encountering the steep side-hills above Fowlerville bridge, and requiring protection from the stream.
After passing the bridge we leave the river's bank and run on to Avon Springs, with a more favorable line, avoiding several serious slides by keeping up the level over the high grounds.
Gentlemen residing on the line were of opinion that a much shorter and cheaper route might be obtained, by running across the ridge past Hogmier's, on the uplands to Black creek, avoiding all the slides on the river above Fowlerville bridge. A survey was made; but finding the cutting would be 65 feet in the summit the project was abandoned.
From Avon Springs to Rochester the location is less upon the upland slope, and with the exception of two points near Markham's, two below Scottsville road in Rush, one in Henritta, and that near the feeder dam at Rochester, a not unfuvorable line is obtained upon and near the river flats.
After passing the Canascraga, the canal crosses Fall brook, Jacock's run, Black creek, Conesus outlet, Honeyoye, Massauga and Red creeks, all inconsiderable streams, except the Concsus and Honeyoye. These are the outlets of Conesus, Hemlock, Scaneitice and Honeyoye lakes, and together send forward in the driest season 3,311.65 cubic feet of water in a minute.
These streams may be received into the canal as feeders, and their capacity may be very much increased by damming the lakes and reserving the surplus waters for the dry season.
This plan to some extent, and for a limited period, was adopted some years since, with a view of supplying a portion of the Erie canal with water.
Ninety chains of slide banks occur on this line. They are very similar in character to those on the west side of the river, and re. quire the like protection.
The Genesce river runs along the foot of the hill at fifteen pla. ces, together measuring three miles, one and a quarter miles of which requires docking to protect the canal.
Dams and short feeders necessary to receive the Conesus and Honeyoye into the canal are provided for in the estimate.
The descent to the Erie canal is 72 feet, having 9 list locks, 3 aqueducts, 21 culverts, 7 waste-weirs, and 14 road and 59 farm bridges.
The distance from Mount Morris to Rochester, on the east side of the river, is 38i's miles, and the canal is estimated to cost $106,607.67.
The west side is 37,1o miles long, having the same descent, with 9 locks, 3 aqucducts, 26 culverts, 11 waste-weirs, 28 road and 36 farm bridges: estimated cost $305,087.85.
DANSVILLE SIDE CUT. The Canascraga valley, in which this canal is located, has all the characteristics of that of the Genesee below Mount Morris, and may be considered a continution of it.
The flats average about one and a half miles in width, and extend to the village of Dansville, 45 miles from Rochester, by the road, and 527 miles, by the contemplated canal.
Opposite this place, and above McWhorter's mill, is the confluence of Great and Little Mill creeks with the Canascraga. I gauged these streams in October last, during a severe drought. Great Mill creek then furnished 887 cubic feet, and the Canascraga, below its junction with the above streams, 2,458 cubic feet, in a minute. They have a rapid descent to this point, affording va. luable water privileges. In the vicinity of the village are four establishments for the manufacture of paper, each having a double engine; also 4 or 5 grist mills, 1 clover mill
, 1 blast furnace, 2 trip hammers and several tanneries.
The paper mills employ S4 persons, manufacturing about 80,000 dollars worth of paper annually. The clover mill has prepared for market 1,500 bushels of clover seed in one season.
South of the village the land abounds with pine timber, of a quality not inferior to any in this section of the country, and within the circle of a few miles there are 55 saw mills, making large quantities of lumber, the principal part of which would be conveyed to market by this canal. The soil in the vicinity of the village is alluvial flats and superior bottom lands. The principal part of the valley, as well as the uplands, is fine quality wheat land. Sparta, (in which the village is located,) is the largest town in the county. In 1830 the population was 3,777: it is now estimated to contain 4,500.
In terminating at the village, the supply of water for 21 miles of the canal, in which are 11 locks, must nccessarily be drawn wholly from Mill creek at Dr. Faulkner's dam, which will divert the water from his paper factory, diminish the supply at McWhorter's grist-mill, and at the mills belonging to John Wood & Co.
The line crosses the Canascraga by an aqueduct near the dam and head-race conducting the water to Wood's mills, and thence on to Mount Morris, upon the west side of the creek, over grounds unusually favorable for the construction of a canal. John Wood & Co., have in operation one carding and fulling-mill, one sawmill and a grist-mill, with 2 run of stones, designed for 4. Suitable stone for the mechanical work is found near these mills, and in the vicinity of Dauisville.