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TO THE SECOND EDITION.,
BEING encouraged by the increasing demand for this work,
to undertake a new edition; I gladly embrace the opportunity now afforded of bringing forward a considerable number of articles which were received too late to be inserted in the former.; together with many important additions and corrections since made, in consequence of further researches, and the friendly comniunications of various correspondents. The chief additions which I have made are from scarce Funeral Sermons and Lives, which have fallen into my hands since the work was first published, and from the Farewell Sermons of the most distinguished of the London ministers*, the extracts from which, in some instances, will supply the defects in the biographical narratives, and throw considerable light on the characters of the men. --Some new lives have also been inserted, principally from Mr. Cotton Mather's History of New England, the most considerable of which is that of Mr.John Bailey, whose name had not been before mentionedi
Many other additions and corrections have been received since the circulation of the proposals for this new edition, from different persons, to whom particular acknowledge ments will be made in the close; as likewise to others who may bereafter contribute towards the perfection of this work: But in this place must be mentioned the special obligations which the public are under to Mr. Isaac James of Bristol, who has bestowed great pains in examining various records which had not before been consulted.
Besides the above improvements, the reader must be informed, that greater liberties have now been taken than had
* The COUNTRY-COLLECTION, intitled England's Remembrancer, I was not able to procure till the first volume of this edition was nearly printed off. I intended to have enriched the work with extracts from these discourses, which are generally more appropriate, and more perfect, than most in the London-collection. But to do justice to them, I feared would swell these volumes too much. If however there should be found room at the end of the work, probably some of the most striking passages may be subjoined by way of Appendix. The volume contains eighteen discourses, making near 600 pages, 8vo. The names of thc preachers are not mentioned, but Dr. Calamy has supplied that defect.
been before, with the original composition, which has been amended throughout; so that this may be considered as being, in a manner, a new work: which is mentioned to satis. fy such persons as have intimated, that the improvements in this edition should have been separately printed for the accommodation of those who were possessed of the former.
In consequence of the great quantity of new matter which has been introduced, it was found necessary to make an additional volume. It is to be regretted that this edition is so much more expensive than the former was: but if the addi. tional price of paper, which is now doubled, and the increased expence of printing, be duly considered, this will be allowed to have been unavoidable.
It is proper here to inform the reader, that this mark * signifies, that the article to which it is prefixed, was, in the former edition, entirely or for the most part new.
These Brackets [ ] were used chiefy to distinguish the Editor's former additions, from the original work; but sometimes now oceur to denote supplementary words in the new articles.
This * prefixed to the name of a place, signifies that it is doubtful whether that be the place intended, or whether it be the true spelling.
Denotes that the Life, paragraph or note, to which it is prefixed, is entirely new, and peculiar to this edition.
articles of moment should be dicovered by the editor, or received from correspondents, too late to be inserted in their proper places, they will be printed as Addenda, at the close of the volumes, as in the Biographia Britannica; together with such mistakes, or typographical errors as may be discovered, which it is alınost impossible wholly to avoid.
CONTAINING A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TIMES IN WHICH THE EJECTED MINISTERS LIVED, FROM THE RISE OF THE CIVIL WAR TO THE REVOLUTION: WITH THE REASONS OF THEIR
Extracted from Dr. Calamy's Abridgment of the Life of Mr. Baxter.
R. RICHARD BAXTER, in the history of his life,
published by Sylvester, has made some remarks or the occurrences of the Times in which he lived, from the rise of the civil war, which began soon after his settlement at Kidderminster (viz. in the reign of Charles I. 1641.) not unworthy the notice of posterity; the substance of which may properly serve as an Introduction to this account of the ejected ministers; in which his own life (being the original ground-work of Dr. Calamy's work) will make a distinguished figure among the Nonconformists in Worcestershire.
SECT. I. A brief Account of the Civil War, to the Death of
Charles I. THE nation had for some time been under great discon, been made, by those in power, both on its civil and religious liberties. The general cry was for justice in the punishment of delinquents ; which greatly alarmed the king and his favourites, who none of them knew how soon his own turn might come. The guilty judges were deeply accused in parliament, and some of them imprisoned, on account
of Ship-money*. But the most obnoxious persons were Lord Deputy Wentworth Earl of Strafford, and Abp. Laud. They were sent to the Tower, condemned and beheaded, for subverting the fundamental laws and liberties of their country. Some were for gratifying the king by sparing Strafford, but others were vehement against it; the Londoners petitioned the house for justice, and followed their petitions with cries and clamours. He was at length condemned, and the king signed the bill, by the advice of several bishops.
There was great heat among the members of parliament in the debates which this matter occasioned. Some were much against displeasing and provoking the king, and thought themselves not obliged to attempt any acts of justice or reformation, but what they could bring him to consent to. But others were for exerting themselves to the utmost, at all adventures, to reforın abuses, and recover and defend their liberties. “If, say they, the fears of foreseen opposition shall make us betray our country and posterity, we are perfidious to them, enemies to ourselves, and worse than infidels,” &c. Thus were mens minds divided : but some unhappy means fell out to unite them, and lead them into a war.
The king had'a considerable party that adhered to him, made up both of state politicians, and friends of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; who jointly set themselves against the parliament, not only because of their appréhended encroachments on the civil power, but also because of the church reformation intended. But the country party carried all things with a high hand, depending upon the assistance of true-hearted Englishmen if matters came to extremity. Many things heightened these discontents. The London apprentices (encouraged by some members of parliament) in a tumultuous manner brought up their petitions to Westminster, insulting the bishops as they were going to the house. On account of these tumults, the king did not think himself safe, either in the city or near it.
Great were the jealousies between him and his parliament, which were many ways increased. The two armies of Scots and English remained undisbanded in the north, till the parliament should provide for their pay. The English army, wanting pay, were discontented, and entertained å design to march suddenly to London, and master the parliament. The
* A tax laid upon the several port-towns, with the assistance of the counties adjoining, for providing a ship of war for the king's service.
parliament, to prevent insults, provided a guard, which they considered as their privilege. The king discharging this guard, set another upon them of his own choosing. This made them look like prisoners ; and they feared that the guard appointed by the king, would, if commanded, become the executioners of his wrath upon them. Upon which they disinissed them, and called for a guard of the city regiments. At length the king, being advised no longer to stand by and see himself affronted, took an unprecedented step in going suddenly to the House of Commons, with a company of cavaliers, with swords and pistols, to charge five of their members with high treason, viz. Mr. Pym, Mr. Hampden, Mr. Hollis, Mr. Strowd, Sir Arthur Hasilrigg, and Lord Kimbolton, afterwards Earl of Manchester, and Lord Chamberlain. But, having had notice, they absented themselves. The house, being hereupon alarmed, voted this action a breach of their privileges, and an effect of the king's evil counsellors; and published their votes, to awaken the people toan apprehension of danger. The king being disappointed, published a paper, in which he charged the aforesaid persons with treason, as stirring up the apprentices
. to tumultuous petitioning, &c. but he confessed his error in thus violating their privileges.
But there was nothing that wrought so much with the people as the Irish massacre and rebellion; in which the Irish papists were said to have murdered two hundred thousand protestants. The Irish declared, they had the king's commission for what they did : and many even at that time, weighing all circumstances, believed it to be fact; while others represented it as an unjust and scandalous aspersion upon his Majesty *. All England was now filled with fear; for the Irish threatened, that when they had done with the handful that was left in Ireland, they would come into England, and do the same with the parliament and protestants here. It was therefore thought necessary for the parliament to put the country into an armed posture, for their own defence.
At length the king left London, and marched to Hull, where entrance was denied him by Sir John Hotham. The parliament published their votes to the people, “ That the king, misled by evil counsel, was raising a war against his par
* N. B. This matter has never yet been thoroughly cleared. Dr. Calamy considers the story of the Marquis of Antrim as decisive against the king.–See Bennett's Mem. Ref. and Welwood's Memoirs.