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liament." They named lord lieutenants for the militia of the several counties ; the king named others by a commission of array, and each commanded the said lord lieutenants to settle the militia. Both king and parliament published their declarations, justifying their cause. --The king went to Nottingham, where he set up his standard. There were but about 2000 that came in to him there; whereas the Londoners quickly filled up a gallant army for the earl of Esser, the parliament's general; and the citizens brought in their

noney and plate, and the women their rings, to Guildhall, to support it. The king offered a treaty, and sent some general proposals. The parliament sent him nineteen proposals of their own: offering, 6. That if he would disband his

army, come to his parliament, give up delinquents to a legal course of justice, &c. he should find them dutiful."

In this contest the generality of the nobility were on the king's side. Most of their tenants followed them, and most of the poorer sort of people through the nation. On the parliament's side, were the smaller part of the gentry in most counties, the greatest part of the tradesmen and freeholders, and the middle sort of men, especially in those corporations and counties which depend on cloathing, and such manufactures. To them also adhered the far greater part of those through the nation, who were friends to a religious strictness, and enemies to formality and profaneness, superstition and immorality. It was not indeed properly bcllum episcopale, the bishops war, though by many so stiléd. For thousands who wished for good bishops, were on the parliament side ; and the generality of those who were called Puritans and Precisians, and were for serious godliness, both ministers and people, adhered to the parliament. On the other side, they who were for a loose kind of life, both ministers and people ; against the strict observation of the Lord's-day, and fond of recreations at those sacred seasons; wlio placed all their religion in going to church, and hearing Common-prayer; who were against serious preaching, and for running down all who were stricter than themselves; these adhered all along to the king. This circumstance alone determined multitudes of sober and honest persons which side to take. The nation was long before divided into two parties, with respect to religious matters; the brief consideration of the rise and progress of which division, throws not a little light on the animosities which at that time prevailed.

It unhappily fell out in the days of Queen Mary, that our Reformers being fugitives at Frankfort, fellintoa division: one part of them were for Diocesans, and the English liturgy and ceremonies, that they might not depart more than was necessary from the Papists, nor seem inconstant by departing from what King Edward had begun. The other were for Calvin's discipline and way of worship; for the setting up of parochial disci. pline, and for a plain and simple way of worship, suited as near as possible to the word of God. When these two parties returned to England, the Diocesan party got Queen Elizabeth's countenance, and their way established. The other party were discountenanced, and suppressed by law. The latter nevertheless were fervent preachers, and of holy lives : and so indeed were many of the bishops also in those days. But when Jewel, Pilkinton, Grindal, &c. were dead, many succeeded them of another stamp. The silenced Disciplinarians (as they were stiled) did by their writings, secret conference, preaching, and godly lives, work much upon such as were religiously disposed.' So that this opinion spread very much, That a just parochial discipline would very much reform the church, and that Diocesans by excluding it cherished vice.” The prelatical party finding their places and power, lands and lordships, assaulted by this opinion, thought it necessary more and more to suppress the promoters of it. Hereupon, putting episcopacy, liturgy and ceremonies, into the subscriptions which they imposed on all that would be ininister's or school-masters, they kept out or ejected many worthy and able men. Whereas, many bishops preached but seldom, and abundance of places had ignorant readers who could not preach, or weak preachers whose performances were very mean,


many of them were also scandalous in their lives ; so that many thousands of the people were perishing in ignorance and sin for want of help.

Hereupon, the Disciplinarians cried out of the severity and impositions of the prelates : and they on the other side, vehemently inveighed against the Nonconformists. They called them Puritans, which was the name whereby they were commonly known. And in process of time, the vicious multitude called all Puritans who were strict and serious, and of holy lives, though ever so conformable. So that the same name in a bishop's mouth, signified a Nonconformist; and in an ignorant drunkard'sorswearer's inouth, a godly obedient christian. Now

the ignorantrabble, hearing that the bishops were against the Puritans, were the more enraged against all those to



whom they gave that name. They cried up the bishops, partly because they were against the Puritans, and partly because they were earnest for that way of worship which they found most suitable to their ignorance, carelessness and formality; and thus the interest of the Diocesans, and of the prophane and ignorant, was unhappily united.

Many also were prejudiced against the bishops, by observ.. ing that fasting, praying, and other religious exercises, were punished in the High-Commission and the Bishops Courts, as if they were worse than common-swearing and drunkenness : And it added to their disturbance, to have a book published for recreations on the Lord's-Day, with the bishops' approbation, as if they concurred with the prophane : That afternoon sermons and lectures, tho' carried on by Conformists, were put down in divers counties : That so many pious ministers were suspended or punished for not reading the Book of sports, and for neglecting the ceremonies, &c. and so many thousand families, and so many worthy ministers were driven out of the land: That bowing towards altars, and other innovations, were daily brought in by the Hyperconformists, none knowing where they would end: And finally, that the bishops proceeded so far, as to swear men to their whole governinent by the et cætera oath, and that they approved of ship-money and other such encroachments on their civil interests. These were the causes why so many of those who were counted most religious fell in with the parliament.

It hath indeed been asserted, “ That seditious preachers stirred up the people, and were the cause of all the commotions ;" which is a notorious falsity. Many indeed discovered their dislike of the Book of Sports, bowing to altars, putting down afternoon sermons, silencing ministers, &c. and were glad that the parliament attempted a reformation ; but very few, even of these, had any concern in promoting the war, of which they dreaded the consequences. And it is certain, that of those who were more or less active in the business, almost all were Conforming ministers ; the laws and bishops having cast out the Nonconformists before. They who made up the assembly at Westminster, and who thro' the country were the honour of the parliament's party, were almost all such as had till then conformed, esteeming some things to be lawful in case of necessity, though they longed to have that necessity removed.


The mention of the Westminster Synod, seems to require some account of it. This was not a convocation accord. ing to the Diocesan way of governinent, nor was it called by the votes of the ministers according to the Presbyterian way; but the parliament chose all the members themselves, merely with a view to have their opinion and advice for settling the government, liturgy, and doctrine of the church of England. And they were confined in their debates to such things as the parliament proposed. Some counties had two members, and some but one. And because they would seein impartial, and give each party the liberty to speak, they chose many of the most learned episcopal divines; as Abp. Usher, Dr. Holdsworth, Dr. Hammond, Dr. Wincop, Bp. IVestford, Bp. Prịdeaux, Bp. Brownrigg, Dr. Sanderson, Dr. Hacket, and others to join with them, but few of them çame, because it was not a legal convocation, the king having declared against it. Dr. Featly, who was one of them, being charged with sending intelligence to the king at Oxford of what passed in synod and parliament, was imprisoned. The divines, (of whom a list is given below*) were men of eminent learning


of William Twiss, D. D. Newbery, George Walker, B. D. Prolocutor.

Edm. Calamy, B. D. Aldermanbury. Corn. Burgess, D.D.

Joseph Caryl, M. A. Lincolns-Inn. Watford,

Assessors. Lazarus Seamao, D.D. London. John White, Dorchester,

Henry Wilkinson, B. D. W. addesdon. William Gouge, D. D. Blackfryars. Richard Vines, M. A. Calcot. Robert Harris, B. D. Hanwell.. Nicholas Proffet, Marlborough. Tho. Gataker, B. D. Rotherhithe. Steph. Marshal, B. D. Finching field. Oliver Bowles, B. D. Sutton.

Joshua Hoyle, D. D. Dublin. Edward Reynolds, D. D. Bramston. Thomas Wilson, Otham. Jeremiah Whitaker, M. A. Stretton. Thomas Hodges, B. D. Kensington. Antony Tuckney, B. D. Boston. Thomas Bayly, B. D. Maningfordo John Arrowsmith, Lynn.

Bruce, Simeon Ashe, St. Bride's.

Francis Taylor, M. A. Yalding. Philip Nye, Kimbolton.

Thomas Young, Stow-market. Jeremiah Burroughs, M. A. Stepney. Thomas Valentine, B. D. Chalfont St. John Lightfoot, D. D. Ashly.

Stanley Gower, Brampton-Bryan. William Greenhill, Stepney.
Richard Heyrickc, M. A. Manchester. , Edward Peale,Compton.
Thomas Case, London.

John Green, Pencombe.
Thomas Temple, D.D. Battersea. Andrew Pern, Wilby.
George Gipps, Aylestone.

Samuel de la Place, French church. Thomas Carter, Oxford.

John de la March.
Hum. Chambers, B. D. Claverton. John Drury
Tho. Micklethwaite, Cherryburton, Philip Delme.
John Gibbon, Walthim.

Sydrach Sympson, London,
Christ. Tisdale, Uphurstborne. John Langley, il est Tuderly.
John Philips, Wrentham,

Řichard Cleyton, Skowel.
B 4

Arthur John Wincop, D. D. St. Martin's, Daniel Cawdrey, M. A.

and godliness, ministerial abilities and fidelity. Many lords and commons were joined with them, to see that they did not. go beyond their commission *. Six or seven Independents were added to them, that all sides might be heard. Five of these, viz. Mr. Philip Nye, Mr. Thomas Goodwin, Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs, Mr. Sydrach Sympson, and Mr. William Bridge, were called the Dissenting Brethren. They joined with the rest, till they had drawn up the Confession


Arthur Salwey, Severn Stoke.

Thomas Coleman, M. A, Bliton. John Ley, M. A. Budworth.

William Carter, London. Charles Herle, M. A. Winwick, (Pro- Peter Smith, D. D. Barkway. locutor after Dr. Twiss.)

John Maynard, M. A. Herbert Palmer, B. D. Ashwell, (As. William Price, Covent-Garden. sessor after Mr. White.)

William Bridge, M. A. Yarmouth. Henry Painter, B. D. Exeter.

Peter Sterry, London. Henry Scudder, Collingbourne. William Mew, B. D. Esington. Thomas Hill, D. D. Tichmarsh. Benjamin Pickering, East Hoathly. William Reynor, B. D. Egham. John Strickland, B. D. New-Sarum. Thomas Goodwin, D. D. London, Humphrey Hardwickę, William Spurstow, D.D. Hampden. Jasper Hickes, M. A. Luwrict. Matthew Newcomen, Dedham.

John Bond.
John Conant, D. D. Lymington. Henry Hall, B. D. Norwich,
Edmund Staunton, D. D. Kingston. Thomas Ford, M. A.
Anthony Burgesse, Sutton-Coldfield. Thomas Thorowgood, Massingham.
William Rathband, Highgate. Peter Clark, M. A. Carnaby,
Francis Cheynel, D.D. Petworth. William Gaad..
Henry Wilkinson, Junior, B. D. John Foxcroft, Gotham.
Obadiah Sedgwick, B. D. Coggeshall. John Ward."
Theodore Backhurst, Overton-Waa Richard Byfield, M. A.

Francis Woodcock, Cambridge,
Edw. Corbet, Merton-College, Oxon. J. Jackson, Cambridge.
Samuel Gibson, Burley.

The Commissioners for Scotland were
The Lord Maitland.

Samuel Rutherford, Alexander Henderson.

Robert Baylie; George Gillespie.

The Scribes were

Henry Robrough.

John Wallis.

Adoniram Byfield.

* Algernon Earl of Northumber. William Lord Viscount Say and land.

Seal. William Earl of Bedford.

Edward Lord Viscount Conway. Philip Earl of Pembroke.

Philip Lord Wharton. William Earl of Salisbury.

Edward Lord Howard. Henry Earl of Holland.

John Selden, Esq; Edward Earl of Manchester. Francis Rous, Esqi


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