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Insignem ob cladem Germanae pubis, et aris
a magnificent scale, for which he ordered the provisions of his will (Hor. S. ii. 3. 85). that contributions should be collected from The number exhibited on great occasions every quarter. As to 'laurus,' see note on went on increasing during the Empire till a Juv. iv. 149, “vepisset epistola penna." hundred became a small show. (See Dict.
45. Frigidus excutitur cinis,] The old Ant., Gladiatores.) ashes were removed, he means, to make way 50. Oleum arlocreasque popello] He for fresh sacrifices. Caesonia (Caligula's threatens to add to his extravagance by a wife, whom he had married two years before, largess of oil and bread and meat to the having had her for his mistress) contracts people. Artocreas' (apros, kpéas) is not for arms to hang up at the temple doors, found elsewhere. It seems to be a comhires shawls for the kings to wear whom pound of visceratio,'a distribution of meat, he is to bring home captive, and shaggy and 'frumentatio,' of corn, which were both auburn beards for his pseudo-German common on great occasions. (See note on prisoners, and war chariots, and stout Horace last quoted.) Vae' is a threatenGauls from the banks of the Rhine. Sue- ing exclamation, 'Woe betide you!' tonius (c. 47) says that besides his Ger- 51. Non adeo (inquis):] Not at all,' say man prisoners and deserters he chose you, your land is pretty well exhausted ;' out the tallest Gauls he could get, those like a body without the bones, it is worthwho would best adorn his triumph, and less. So he supposes the man to turn up some Gaulish chiefs too, and ordered them his nose at the inheritance. Forcellini's into dye their hair red, and let it grow, and terpretation of 'exossatus' as land that has to learn the German language, and bear been well looked after and cleared of stones, German names. "Gausapum' or 'gausape'is is certainly wrong. a rongh woollen cloth. But it is used in 52. Age, si mihi nulla] He goes on, iv. 37, an obscene passage on which I have Very well, if you don't want my inheritnot commented, as a shaggy beard, and that ance, and if I have not a relation left, I can is probably the meaning here. As to go and pick up a heres among the beggars,' · locare,' which signifies to give work to be who were numerous on the Via Appia. done or something to be used, see note on · Bovillae' was on that road, and about Hor. C. ii. 18. 17, “ Tu secanda marmora twelve miles from Rome, of which the poets Locas." Forcellini understands Rhenos to speak of it as a suburb. Prop. y. 1. 33, mean statues of the Rhine,' such as were "Quippe suburbanae parva minus urbe carried in triumphal processions. So the Bovillae.” Ovid, Fast. iii. 667, “Orta river Jordan is represented on the arch of suburbanis quaedam fuit Anna Bovillis." Titus. Jahn so understands it too. But This old woman employed herself in making there is no reason to suppose a number of cakes for the poor people, with whom her such statues would be carried in the proces. neighbourhood abounded. The clivus sion, and the above passage of Suetonius Virbi’ is the clivus Aricinus,' where the shows what Caligula's orders were. The Appia Via enters Aricia, about four miles form Rhenos is Greek, 'Pijvou. Rhenanos further than Bovillae from Rome. See is the Latin form.
note on Juv. iv. 117, “Dignus Aricinos qui 48. Centum paria] A hundred pairs of mendicaret ad axes.” This place derived gladiators whom he intends to send into its name from Virbius, who, according to the arena (inducere in arenam) in honour Virgil (Aen. vii. 771 sqq.) and his commenof Caligula's Genius. A hundred pairs was tator, Servius, was the same as Hippolytus. the number to which Staberius' heredes When he was killed, Diana, admiring his were condemned if they did not carry out chastity, had him restored to life by Aescu
Jam reliqua ex amitis, patruelis nulla, proneptis
lapius, and placed him under the care of on a royal message through the country by the nymph Aegeria in the woods of Aricia. mounted couriers (viii. 98). Lucretius (i.
56. praesto est mihi Manius heres.] 77 sq.) illustrates by the torch race the sucThere was a proverb, "multi Manii Ariciae," cession of generations in the animal world : the meaning of which is doubtful. Erasmus follows Festus, who says it means there “Inde brevi spatio mutantur secla aniwere many distinguished persons at Aricia. mantum, This is not the meaning if it is to this pro Et quasi cursores vitai lampada tradunt." verb Persius alludes. He has only to go to Aricia, or its neighbourhood, and he will Plato had used the illustration in the same find ready to his hand a Manius for his heir.' way (Legg. vi. p. 776). The author of the Manjus was a son of Earth, we see.
treatise Ad Herennium (iv. 46), applies 57. Progenies terrae !] As to this and it to one general succeeding another in com* terræ filius' (59), see note on Juv. iv. 98, mand of an army, and here Persius likens “Unde fit ut malim fraterculus esse gigan- to the runners a man of fortune and his extis." The man says Manius is a son of pectant heir. Earth, he cannot tell his own father and Qui prior es' is variously interpreted. mother. To which the poet answers, that The commentators before Casaubon, and if any one were to ask him who was his some since (Jahn, and most of our own “abavus,' his great-great-grandfather, he translators), suppose it to mean that the might be able to tell, though not very heir stands in advance of the man he is to readily. Add another to him (atavus), succeed, and receives the torch from him. and yet another (tritavus), and you come There is no point in this, though Jahn tries to a son of Earth, like Manius, who there to make one by saying the man in advance fore turns ont (v. 130, n.) in the course of would try to snatch the torch from the man generations to be brother to the poet's coming up as quick as he could, especially ancestor in the sixth degree. Major if it was nearly out. But if the runners ocavunculus' is properly uncle to one's cupied their own ground, and the rules of grandfather, and maximus avunculus' is the race required that each should stay at one degree farther back. So as the poet his post, the one who left it would lose his cannot call Manius properly his major chance. “Our critics would make a poor avunculus,' he calls him prope major,' figure at Newmarket," says Gifford ; but he which appears to Jahn ratio sane frigidius. is not more successful himself, and says this cula."
is almost the only line in Persius in which 61. Qui prior es, cur me] The reference he has found much real difficulty. Qui here is to the launadnoopia, torch race, prior es ' refers, as Casaubon, Plum, Koenig, which occurred at several of the festivals in Heinrich say, to the superior claims of the Greece. Some difficulty is found in deter- ‘legitimus heres' over Manius. Gifford sees a mining all the conditions of the race, but pathetic allusion to the poet's delicate state the chief feature of it was the passing of a of health, because he died young. For in lighted torch or sort of candle from hand to decursu,' which is the reading of nearly all hand, each runner being careful not to ex- the MSS., and of all editions but his own, tinguish the flame, till he had delivered the Heinrich reads indecursum ;' but though torch to the runner in advance of him. spatium decursum 'is a proper expression This practice served the ancients as an il. (Cic. de Senect. c. 23), cursor decursus' lustration for several purposes. Herodotus is not. compares with it the Persian way of passing
Sum tibi Mercurius ; venio Deus huc ego, ut ille
66 • Foenoris accedat merces ; hinc exime sumtus.' “Quid reliquum est ?” Reliquum ?-Nunc, nunc impensius
Vende animam lucro, mercare atque excute sollers
62. Sum tibi Mercurius ;] He says he is “ Mercedem aut nummos unde unde extri. the man's Mercurius, who was represented cat." Here the expression “foenoris in works of art as offering different persons merces' is more complete. a marsupium,' bag of money, as stated on 67. Quid reliquum est ?] The heres Horace, S. ii. 3. 68, “Rejecta praçda quam is supposed to ask how much he has got praesens Mercurius fert.” Probably Persius left after all his waste ? At which the poet had this passage in mind. He means the bursts out with an indignant answer, repeatman would be a fool to reject the purse be- ing the man's word, and then turning to cause he did not know how much it con- his servant and telling him to pour on the tained, or because it did not contain as oil more prodigally than ever. Urtica,' much as he wished, and so he would be a 'nettles,' was food for the poorest (Hor. Epp. fool to reject his . hereditas' because part i. 12. 8), and a dried pig's head with split of the property had been spent.
was neither savoury nor elegant. 63. vis tu gaudere relictis ?] Most MSS. 'Caules' are the better sort of vegetables bave 'vin' tu.' The rule now generally ac- of the cabbage kind (brassica), brocoli, cepted in regard to vis' and `vin,' is that cauliflower, &c. Iste' is as if the man which Gronovius has laid down on Seneca were before him. As to goose's liver, see de Ira, c. 28, that vis,' though interro. Juv. v. 114, where the master keeps that gative, contains something of command or delicacy for himself. exhortation, which “vin'' does not. See 73. Mihi trama figurae Sit reliqua,] He note on Juv. v. 74. This being the case I asks if he is to reduce himself to a thread do not see why the editors have all adopted while the other is to get a paunch as fat as a vin'' here when there is authority for vis.' popa's? “Trama' is properly .the woof,' the
64. Minui mihi :] •If some part of the threads that cross the stamen or warp. Here whole is gone, I have curtailed it to my own it is the thread of which the trama' or subloss ; but whatever it is that is left), to you temen' is composed. As to popa,' see it is entire.' I do not agree with Jahn who note on Juv. xii. 15, “a grandi cervix feriputs Deest aliquid summae' into the enda ministro.” The popa' had as his mouth of the heres.' Tadius is any. perquisite the parts of the victims that body. The MSS. vary between this and were not burnt, some of which he gave Stadius or Staius (ii. 19). He tells the probably to his deputy the 'cultrarius,' and man not to din into his ears the old advice they both got fat upon the spoils. • Popa that fathers give their sons, that he should venter,' a popa belly,' is like “Corvos put his money out to interest and live upon poetas et poetridas picas” (Prol. 13). the income. Reponere' is to repeat Omentum' is not elsewhere used for fat again and again.' Merces' is used for (adeps). See Juv. xjii. 118. interest of money by Horace, S. i. 2. 14, 75. Vende animam lucro,] Here he be“ Quinas hic capiti mercedes ;" and 3. 88, gins a new branch of his subject, which is
Omne latus mundi, ne sit praestantior alter
left unfinished. He ironically bids a man times for this purpose. sell his life for money, and search every 78. Rem duplica.] Juvenal (xis. 229) corner of the world as the Italian 'merca- has “ per fraudes patrimonia conduplicare." tores ' did, the most adventurous traders the What follows is like Horace's advice (Epp. world has ever known, penetrating places i. 6. 34):where civilized persons had never been before, and acting as the pioneers of Roman “ Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera, conquest. Casaubon takes these verses for
porro et a continuation of what goes before, and Tertia succedant, et quae pars quadrat supposes the 'heres' to be urging his friend acervum." to increase his store by trade, and the friend to answer ironically that he had done so. * Redit' means bis principal comes back to As to 'excute,' see i. 49, n. The Romans him increased to that extent. Rugam' is got many of their slaves from Cappa- here put for a money-bag, which if not full docia. (See Juv. vii. 15.) They were par. lies in wrinkles. • Depunge' is make a ticularly used as bearers. The poet bids mark where I am to stop.' Depinge' is his man become a mango,' slave-dealer, and a variant, but not right. Jahn has it in beat them all at a slave-auction in showing his text, but seems to prefer depunge,' as off his goods, clapping his fat men on the Casaubon does. Heinrich has depunge,' thigh, or arm, or other sinewy part, as they and compares a TokerTriv, to prick off.' stood on the platform to be exbibited. The allusion in the last line is to the arguJahn has the reading of many MSS. pa- ment called by the Greeks owpirnc. The visse,' for plausisse,' which has good au- nature of it is explained on Horace, Epp. i. thority, and was in the Scholiast's text. I. 47, “ Dum cadat elusus ratione ruentis The other editors, including Casaubon, have acervi.” The man means that if his friend
plausisse.' It depends on praestantior.' will tell him where to stop, he will have Catasta' was the regular word for a plat- done as much as to find the end of a form erected for this purpose. Rigida' is ‘sorites,' which goes on without end, as only a redundant epithet. It means . firm,' avarice does. Jahn has a different arrangenot likely to give way, as temporary erec- ment of the text, which he treats as comtions of that sort sometimes do. Cicero plete, and so do most editors. I have no speaks of slaves de lapide emptos;' so doubt Heinrich is right, treating the satire they must have used a stone too some. as a fragment. See Introduction.
INDEX TO THE NOTES.
African slaves, 96
Agamemnon, 158, 330
Adjectives, two agreeing, 69, Agamemnonides. 206
192, 213, 214, 297, 304, | Aganippe, 161, 359
Agave, Statius' poem, 169
Age, helplessness of, 243
--, mode of reckoning, 244
of animals, 327
Aediles, the lowest magis. --, respect for, 291
trates in Rome, 60, 204, Ager Romanus, extent of,
--, country, 62, 235, 320
Agere rem, 74
Ages, fabulous, 111, 288
Agitare jocos, 421
Agmine facto, 60
10, 103, 121, 155
killed by Nero,
preferred by Dido,
Aius Locutius, 264
parvulus, 102 Ajax, parody of, 173
married to Lavinia,
his death, 259
builds Lavinum, 278 his madness, 330
his strength, 341
Aera, teacher's fee, 182 Alba Longa, 83
Alban Lake, 76, 83
wine, 95, 303
Albanus Mons, 278
Album judicum, 286
Africa, school for lawyers, Alcestis, 157
*, par, 291