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supplies, and therefore, by the advice of the guide, turned off towards the mountains, with the purpose of striking the Colorado below the great canon, and then exploring it upward as far as might be found practicable. Leaving the river then, we passed along the base of high table lands, the lava-sand lying several inches deep upon the ground, filling up the hollows, and forining ridges across the plain ; and, ascending the plateau, found it also covered with the lava detritus, and all the prominent points occupied by the ruins of stone houses of considerable size, and in some instances of three stories in height. They are evidently the remains of a large town, as they occurred at intervals for an extent of eight or nine miles, and the ground was thickly strewed with fragments of pottery in all directions. The fact that no vestige of water could be discovered in the vicinity, sufficiently accounts for their present depopulation. The encroachment of the lava-sand blown down from the adjacent mountains may have gradually filled up the springs and water-courses; it is certain, at any rate, that the heaviest rains would now be rapidly absorbed by it, and after a day or two leave no trace of water upon the surface.
The houses resemble in all respects (except that adobes do not appear to have been used in their construction) those of the existing pueblos of New Mexico; and the pottery, of a great variety of fabric and pattern, is similar to that now in use among them.
October 9, Camp No. 15.-Pursuing our way still farther into the mountains, the ruins became of rarer occurrence, or else were concealed by the cedars with which the hills were covered. *** [The mules being sent off in search of water, the party remained at this camp the second night.
October 11, Camp No. 15.-As we ascended the mountain the cedar gave place to the nut-bearing pine; and this, when near the summit, to a pine of larger growth with long leaves. IIerds of anelope were seen in all directions, but they kept to the open country, and were shy and difficult to approach.
October 12, Camp No. 17.-The ascent of the mountain was continued, with the greatest anxiety as to the result of the day's journey; for the mules had drunk but once in more than four days, and the country showed no indications of water in any direction. There was much beauty in some of the glades and mountain glens we passed. The ground was covered with fresh grass and well timbered with tall pines, mingled, after attaining a certain alti. tude, with aspens of a brilliant yellow.”
After crossing this mountain, a spring was found at its foot, where the party halted a day or two to refresh their mules. On the 15th of October, the party proceded across plains of gentle slope. A few small post-oaks were found mingled with the pines; and in a glade was found some white clover ; flowers and birds were more numerous than on the northern slope of the mountain.
The party encamped upon the dry bed of a lagoon, a mile in extent, having some small pools of water hidden among the tall grass. They remained here several days on account of the illness of one of the men. The author says of this region: 5The daily variation of the temperature was remarkable, the average range in twentyfour hours being about 55° Fahrenheit, or from 100 to 650."
After several days travel through a region of extreme sterility, and suffering much for the want of water, on the 30th of October, the party reached a small stream, of which the author says: “This rivulet, which I have called the Yampai, has its source in three small springs; it is repeatedly lost in the ground within a distance of half a mile; after which it disappears entirely. A few willow and cotton-wood trees grow upon its banks, and green grass was here seen for the first time since leaving the San Francisco mountains. Here, too, we enjoyed the luxury of a bath and clean clothes-a luxury not fully appreciable by those who have not gone a week without water to wash even their faces and hands."
The party proceeded down the valley of the Yampai for about twelve miles, but finding that it led them out of their course, they diverged from it into a wide barren plain, where they encamped without water, grass, or wood. In front of them lay a bold range of mountains which having crossed by a rugged and difficult pass, they found themselves in the valley of the great Colorado, surrounded by numerous Indians. The point where the party reached the Colorado, is below the great canon in Latitude 350 855" north and Longitude 114° 35' west, 414 miles by the route tray. elled from the pueblo of Zuni, and 243 miles above the mouth of the Gila. “At this point,” the author says, “the river was 260 vards wide, with six feet of water in the deepest part; the banks bluff and sandy, about twelve feet high, and the current rapid; but a dense growth of willows and weeds prevented me from measuring its velocity with any degree of accuracy. The presence of water seemed to afford the only relief from our former privations; for the soil, an almost impalpable sand, bore nothing but dry weeds and bushes, and the whole scene presented the most perfect picture of desolation I have ever beheld, as if some sirocco had passed over the land, withering and scorching everything to crispness." * * * “The whole country traversed from the San Francisco mountains was barren and devoid of interest. It consists of a succession of mountain ranges and desert plains, the latter having an average height of about 5,000 feet above the level of the ocean. The larger growth, almost exclusively of cedar, was confined to the mountains; and the scanty vegetation of the plains, parched by a long drought, furnished few specimens for the botanist.”
Notwithstanding the desolate aspect of the country, the valley of the Colorado seems to be inhabited by Indians--the Mohaves who to some extent cultivate the soil. Describing the first day's travel down the Colorado, the author says: “A well-worn trail leads down the river, by the side of which in several places were found traced on the ground Indian bieroglyphics, which Mr. Leroux and a Mexican of the party, who had passed many years among the Comanches, interpreted into warnings to us to turn back, and threats against our penetrating farther into the country. We had not gone far before Indians were seen in front in considerable numbers, who appeared to be assembling to dispute our advance. By the exchange of friendly signs, three of them, mounted on fine horses, were induced to approach, whom a few presents sufficed to convince of our peaceful intentions; and they joined the party, and accompanied its march. As we proceeded their number received accessions at every step, until it amounted to some two hundred men, women, and children, who followed on foot, running by the side of the mules, and talking and laughing with every appearance of friendship. In the evening the camp was crowded with them, bringing in for barter small quantities of pumpkins, beans, corn, and, in one or two instances, of wheat, which seem to be the staples of their food, for no animals, except a few horses, were seen among them; and the few sheep we had left were the objects of great admiration, especially to the women.
The appearance of the Mohaves is striking, from their unusual stature, the men averaging at least six feet in height; and their stalwart and athletic figures offered a convincing proof of the excellence of a vegetable diet. Almost all the men were naked, with the exception of the breech-cloth. The bair, cut sqare across the brows in front, hung in loose braids behind, reaching frequertly as low as the waist; occasionally it was matted on the top of the head into a compact mass with mud, for the purpose of destroying the vermia that infest them. The only garment worn by the women was a long fringe of strips of willow- bark wound around the waist, and falling as low as the knees. No covering to the feet was worn by either sex. Their arms are the bow and arrow, the spear and the club. The arrow is formed of two pieces—that to which the barb is attached, of hard wood, seven inches long, or one-fourth the entire length; and the other of a light reed that grows profusely along the banks of the river, feathered, as usual, at the extremity. The custom still prevails among them of carrying a firebrand in the hand in cold weather, which is mentioned in the account of Coronado's expedition in 1540, and induced those discoverers to give to the river the name of Rio Del Tizon. Their lodges are rectangular, formed of upright posts imbedded in the ground, and rudely thatched on the top and three sides; a portion of the interior altitude being sometimes obtained by excavation. I saw none of so great a size as those described in the account just referred to.
Our progress down the river, though heralded by signal fires as we advanced, was continued without further molestation. Numbers of the mules gave out daily for the want of food, until we were
driven to the necessity of destroying all the spare saddles, blankets, tents, ammunition, books, and whatever was not absolutely essential to our safety. Our provisions, too, became exhausted; and the mules, the poorest of which were daily killed for the purpose, supplied our only food until the 30th of November, when we arrived with a small remnant of them at Camp Yuma, near the mouth of the Gila, where rations were obtained for the subsistence of the party to San Diego, California.
Below the point at which we reached the Colorado, irregular lines of rugged mountains enclose its valley, now receding to a distance of some twenty miles, now advancing towards each other; and at three places abutting against the river, hem it in between rocky promontories, leaving no room for a roadway at their base. The passage of these defiles were the most difficult portions of the journey, requiring long detours over naked cliffs of extreme acclivity ; to cross which we were sometimes obliged to break stepping places in the rock for the mules, and to assist them in their ascent by means of ropes, and where a misstep, or the jostling of a pack against an impending crag, would occasionally precipitate one of them to the bottom of the adjacent precipice. The arable land bordering upon the river is greatly encroached upon by extensive flat spurs, hard, gravelly, and destitute of vegetatior., which reach far out into the valley, leaving a comparatively small proportion of the space between the mountains susceptible of cultiva-, tion. Some large cotton-wood trees grow directly upon the river banks, but the growth of the rest of the valley is small, consisting chiefly of mezquit, tornilla, willow, and a singular tree with a smooth, pale-green bark, and leaves so diminutive as to require a close proximity to discern them. The shrubs are the arrow-wood, wild sage, hediondilla, or creosote plant, and grease weed, 80 called from the brilliancy of its lame while burning. Cacti are not numerous ; the most remarkable is the pitahaya, or Cereus giganteus.
Only two kinds of grass were found, at rare intervals and in small quantities; a tall, coarse variety, growing in large tufts, and a smaller kind, having a perceptible incrustation of salt upon the le aves.
The trap in some places along the river showed traces of carbonate of copper; and beneath the trap was seen a coarse, gray granite, and in one instance a stratum of clay slate.
Near Camp 51 a large rock occupies the middle of the channel, and ledges extend from it across to both banks. In many other places the river is obstructed by shifting sand bars, rendering its navigation difficult, if not impossible, except during a high stage of the water. The water-stains upon the rocks marked a height of twelve feet above the actual level, but the indications of overflow were partial, except near the mouth of the Gila, where a large surface appears to be subject to inundation."
The social condition of man denominated “slavery” proceeds as. a natural consequence from the economy of his nature considered in connection with his disobedience to the laws of the Creator and his relations to the physical world. Every individual of the human family owes service of some sort to his fellow-man: it is a condidition of his being from which there is no escape with impunity. The nature and degree of this scrvice must be determined in part by natural laws, and events over which neither individuals or nations have control, and in part by institutions established by man.
In a view of the human race embracing all its parts and relations, we may observe this obligation to serve one another modified by an infinite variety of conditions and circumstances, which determine the nature of the services to be performed and the burthens borne in every conceivable case, from the kind offices which proceed from the mutual friendship and love of individuals of equal degree to a state of involuntary and absolute servitude.
The relations established between a subjugated race and their masters are determined not so much by physical power as by the difference which may exist in the degree of intelligence and virtue possessed by the respective parties. And we are warranted in the belief that the Creator in the exercise of his wisdom and benevolence, sometimes, ordains the subjugation of an ignorant and viceous race to one possessing a higher degree of civilization, that the former may be improved, and finally redeemed from their degraded condition.
Such we most sincerely believe to be the case in respect to the present relations between the Anglo-Saxon and African races on this continent. In this view of the object, it would be a national sin to sever these relations by any act of ours before the purposes for which they were established shall have been accomplished. To sever them suddenly, would degrade still lower the African race in this country, while it would leave that portion remaining in their own land in its former and present degraded state without a hope of redemption.
Viewing the subject of slavery in this light, and deprecating the political and religious strife which springs, as we believe, from ig.