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The other I shall mention, is that in prepared for his reception, are also cir. which the angel gives a reason why he cumstances finely imagined, and grounded should be glad to hear the story Adam was upon what is delivered in sacred story. about to relate.

These and the like wonderful incidents in * For I that day was absent as befel,

this part of the work, have in them all the Bound on a voyage uncouth and obscure,

beauties of novelty, at the same time that Far on excursion towards the gates of hell,

they have all the graces of nature. Squard in full legion (such command we had,) To see that none thence issued forth a spy,

They are such as none but a great genius Or enemy, while God was in his work,

could have thought of; though, upon the Lest he, incens'd at such eruption bold,

perusal of them, they seem to rise of themDestruction with creation might be mix'd.'

selves from the subject of which he treats. There is no question but our poet drew In a word, though they are natural, they the image in what follows from that in Vir- are not obvious; which is the true character gil's sixth book, where Æneas and the Sybil of all fine writing. stand before the adamantine gates, which The impression which the interdiction of are there described as shut upon the place the tree of life left in the mind of our first of torments, and listen to the groans, the parent is described with great strength and clank of chains, and the noise of iron whips, judgment; as the image of the several that were heard in those regions of pain and beasts and birds passing in review before sorrow,

him is very beautiful and lively:

Each bird and beast behold - Fast we found, fast shut The dismal gates, and barricado'd strong;

Approaching two and two, these cow'ring Jow

With blandishment; each bird stoop'd on his wing. But long ere our approaching heard within

I nam'd them as they pass'd.'-
Noise, other than the sound of dance or song,
Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage.'

Adam in the next place, describes a conAdam then proceeds to give an account ference which he held with his Maker upon of his condition and sentiments immediately the subject of solitude. The poet here reafter his creation. How agreeably does he presents the Supreme Being as making an represent the posture in which he found essay of his own work, and putting to the himself, the delightful landscape that sur- trial that reasoning faculty with which he rounded him, and the gladness of heart had endued his creature. Adam urges, in which grew up in him on that occasion! this divine colloquy, the impossibility of his

being happy, though he was the inhabitant • As new wak’d from soundest sleep,

of Paradise, and lord of the whole creation, Soft on the flow'ry herb I found me laid In balmy sweat, which with his beams the sun without the conversation and society of Soon dry'd, and on the reeking moisture fed, some rational creature who should partake Straight towards heaven my wond'ring eyes I turn'd those blessings with him. This dialogue, And gaz'd awhile the ample sky; till rais'd By quick instinctive motion, up I sprung,

which is supported chiefly by the beauty of As thitherward endeavouring, and upright

the thoughts, without other poetical ornaStood on my feet. About me round I saw

ment, is as fine a part as any in the whole Hill, dale, and shady woods, and sunny plains, And liquid lapse of murmuring streams: by these, poem. The more the reader examines the Creatures that liv'd and mov'd, and walk'd, or flew, justness and delicacy of its sentiments, the Birds on the branches warbling; all things smild

more he will find himself pleased with it. With fragrance, and with joy my heart o‘erflow'd.'

The poet has wonderfully preserved the Adam is afterwards described as sur character of majesty and condescension in prised at his own existence, and taking a the Creator, and, at the same time, that of survey of himself and of all the works of humility and adoration in the creature, as nature. He likewise is represented as dis particularly in the following lines: covering, by the light of reason, that he, • Thus I presumptuous; and the vision bright, and every thing about him, must have been As with a smile more brighten'd, thus reply'd, &c.

I with leave of speech implor'd, the effect of some Being infinitely good and

And humble deprecation, thus reply'd: powerful, and that this Being had a right to "Let not my words offend thee, Heavenly Power, his worship and adoration. His first address My Maker, be propitious while I speak." &c. to the Sun, and to those parts of the crea

Adam then proceeds to give an account tion which made the most distinguished of his second sleep, and of the dream in figure, is very natural and amusing to the which he beheld the formation of Eve. The imagination:

new passion that was awakened in him at Thou Sun,' said I. 'Fair light,

the sight of her is touched very finely, And thou enlighten'd earth, so fresh and gay,

Under his forming hands a creature grew, Ye hills, and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains,

Manlike, but diffrent sex: so lovely fair, And ye that live and move, fair creatures, tell,

That what seem'd fair in all the world, seem'd now 'Tell, if ye saw, how came I thus ? how here ?'

Mean, or in her summ'd up, in her contain'd,

And in her looks, which from that time infus'd His next sentiment, when, upon his first

Sweetness into my heart, unfelt before ; going to sleep, he fancies himself losing his And into all things from her air inspir'd existence, and falling away into nothing, The spirit of love and amorous delight.' can never be sufficiently admired.

His

Adam's distress upon losing sight of this dream, in which he still preserves the con- beautiful phantom, with his exclamations sciousness of his existence, together with of joy and gratitude at the discovery of a his removal into the garden which was I real creature who resembled the apparition

which had been presented to him in his

Neither her outside form'd so fair, nor aught dream; the approaches he makes to her,

In procreation common to all kinds,

(Though higher of the genial bed by far, and his manner of courtship, are all laid And with mysterious reverence I deem) together in a most exquisite propriety of So much delights me, as those graceful acts, sentiments.

Those thousand decencies that daily flow

From all her words and actions, mix'd with love Though this part of the poem is worked And sweet compliance, which declare unfeign'd up with great warmth and spirit, the love Union of mind, or in us both one soul: which is described in it is every way suit

Harmony to behold in wedded pair!' able to a state of innocence. If the reader Adam's speech at parting with the angel, compares the description which Adam here has in it a deference and gratitude agreegives of his leading Eve to the nuptial able to an inferior nature, and at the same bower, with that which Mr. Dryden has time a certain dignity and greatness suitable made on the same occasion in a scene of his to the father of mankind in his state of inFall of Man, he will be sensible of the great

nocence,

L. care which Milton took to avoid all thoughts on so delicate a subject that might be offen- No. 346.] Monday, April 7, 1712. sive to religion or good manners. sentiments are chaste, but not cold; and Consuetudinem benignitatis largitioni munerum convey to the mind ideas of the most trans- longe antepono. Hæc est gravium hominum atque mag.

norum ; illa quasi assentatorum populi, multitudinis porting passion, and of the greatest purity. levitatem voluptate quasi titillantium. Tull. What a noble mixture of rapture and in

I esteem a habit of benignity greatly preferable to nocence has the author joined together, in munificence. The former is peculiar to great and disthe reflection which Adam makes on the tinguished persons; the latter belongs to flatterers of pleasures of love, compared to those of the people, who tickle the levity of the multitude with sense!

When we consider the offices of human * Thus have I told thee, all my state, and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss

life, there is, methinks, something in what Which I enjoy; and must confess to find

we ordinarily call generosity, which, when In all things else delight indeed, but such

carefully examined, seems to flow rather As usd or not, works in the mind no change

from a loose and. unguarded temper than Nor vehement desire; these delicacies, I mean oftaste, sight, sinell, herbs, fruits, and flowers, an honest and liberal mind. For this reason Walks, and the melody of birds: but here

it is absolutely necessary that all liberality Far otherwise, transported I behold,

should have for its basis and support fruTransported touch; here passion first I felt, Commotion strange! in all enjoyments else

gality. By this means the beneficent spirit Superior and unmov'd, here only weak

works in a man from convictions of reason, Against the charm of beauty's pow'rful glance. Or nature fail'd in me, and left some part

not from the impulse of passion. The Not proof enough such object to sustain;

generous man in the ordinary acceptation, Or from my side subducting, took perhaps

without respect of the demands of his More than enough; at least on her bestow'd Too much of ornament, in outward show

family, will soon find upon the foot of his Elaborate, of inward less exact.

account, that he has sacrificed to fools, -When I approach

knaves, flatterers, or the deservedly unHer loveliness, so absolute she seems, And in berself complete, so well to know

happy, all the opportunities of affording Her own, that what she wills to do or say,

any future assistance where it ought to be. Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best; Let him therefore reflect, that if to bestow All higher knowledge in her presence falls

be in itself laudable, should not a man take Degraded : wisdom in discourse with her Loses, discountenanc'd, and like folly shows: care to secure an ability to do things praiseAuthority and reason on her wait,

worthy as long as he lives? Or could there As one intended first, not after made

be a more cruel piece of raillery upon a Occasionally, and to consummate all, Greatness of mind and nobleness their seat

man who should have reduced his fortune Build in her loveliest, and create an awe

below the capacity of acting according to About her, as a guard angelic plac'd.'

his natural temper, than to say of him, These sentiments of love in our first pa- . That gentleman was generous My berent, gave the angel such an insight into loved author therefore has, in the sentence human nature, that he seems apprehensive on the top of my paper, turned his eye with of the evils which might befall the species a certain satiety from beholding the adin general, as well as Adam in particular, dresses to the people by largesses and pubfrom the excess of his passion. He there- lic entertainments, which he asserts to be fore fortifies him against it by timely ad- in general vicious, and are always to be monitions; which very artfully prepare the regulated according to the circumstances mind of the reader for the occurrences of of time and a man's own fortune. A conthe next book, where the weakness, of stant benignity in commerce with the rest which Adam here gives such distant dis- of the world, which ought to run through coveries, brings about that fatal event which all a man's actions, has effects more useful is the subject of the poem. His discourse, to those whom you oblige and is less ostenwhich follows the gentle rebuke he received tatious in yourself. He turns his recomfrom the angel, shows that his love, how- mendation of this virtue on commercial life: ever violent it might appear, was still and, according to him, a citizen who is founded in reason, and consequently not frank in his kindnesses, and abhors severity improper for Paradise:

in his demands: he who, in buying, selling,

lending, doing acts of good neighbourhood, | Without this benignity, pride or vengeance is just and easy; he who appears naturally will precipitate a man to choose the receipt averse to disputes, and above the sense of of half his demands from one whom he has little sufferings; bears a noble character, undone, rather than the whole from one to and does much more good to mankind than whom he has shown mercy. This benignity any other man's fortune, without com- is essential to the character of a fair trader, merce, can possibly support. For the citi- and any man who designs to enjoy his wealth zen above all other men, has opportunities with honour and self-satisfaction; nay, it of arriving at the highest fruit of wealth,' would not be hard to maintain, that the to be liberal without the least expense of a practice of supporting good and industrious man's own fortune. It is not to be denied men would carry a man farther even to his but such a practice is liable to hazard; but profit, than indulging the propensity of this therefore adds to the obligation, that, serving and obliging the fortunate. My auamong traders, he who obliges is as much thor argues on this subject, in order to inconcerned to keep the favour a secret as he cline men's minds to those who want them who receives it. The unhappy distinctions most, after this manner. We must always among us in England are so great, that to consider the nature of things, and govern celebrate the intercourse of commercial ourselves accordingly. The wealthy man, friendship (with which I am daily made when he has repaid you, is upon a balance, acquainted) would be to raise the virtuous with you; but the person whom you favoured man so many enemies of the contrary party. with a loan, if he be a good man, will think I am obliged to conceal all I know of Tom himself in your debt after he has paid you. the Bounteous,' who lends at the ordinary The wealthy and the conspicuous are not interest, to give men of less fortune oppor- obliged by the benefits you do them; they tunities of making greater advantages. He think they conferred a benefit when they conceals, under a rough air and distant be- received one. Your good offices are always haviour, a bleeding compassion and wo- suspected, and it is with them the same manish tenderness. This is governed by thing to expect their favour as to receive it. the most exact circumspection, that there But the man below you, who knows, in the is no industry wanting in the person whom good you have done him, you respected he is to serve, and that he is guilty of no himself more than his circumstances, does improper expenses. This I know of Tom; not act like an obliged man only to him but who dare say it of so known a Tory? from whom he has received a benefit, but The same care I was forced to use some also to all who are capable of doing him one. time ago, in the report of another's virtue, And whatever little offices he can do for and said fifty instead of a hundred, because you, he is so far from magnifying it, that he the man I pointed at was a Whig. Actions will labour to extenuate it in all his actions of this kind are popular, without being in- and expressions. Moreover, the regard to vidious: for every man of ordinary circum- what you do to a great man at best is taken stances looks upon a man who has this notice of no further than by himself or his known benignity in his nature as a person family; but what you do to a man of an ready to be his friend upon such terms as humble fortune (provided always that he is he ought to expect it; and the wealthy who a good and a modest man) raises the affecmay envy such a character, can do no in- tions towards you of all men of that characjury to its interests, but by the imitation of ter (of which there are many) in the whole it, in which the good citizen will rejoice to city. be rivalled. I know not how to form to my- There is nothing gains a reputation to a self a greater idea of human life, than in preacher so much as his own practice; I what is the practice of some wealthy men am therefore casting about what act of bewhom I could name, that make no step to nignity is in the power of a Spectator. the improvement of their own fortunes, Alas! that lies but in a very narrow comwherein they do not also advance those of pass; and I think the most immediately other men who would languish in poverty under my patronage are either players, or without that munificence. In a nation where such whose circumstances bear an affinity there are so many public funds to be sup- with theirs. All, therefore, I am able to do ported, I know not whether he can be called at this time of this kind, is to tell the town, a good subject, who does not embark some that on Friday the 11th of this instant, part of his fortune with the state, to whose April, there will be performed in Yorkvigilance he owes the security of the whole. Buildings, a concert of vocal and instruThis certainly is an immediate way of lay- mental music, for the benefit of Mr. Edward ing an obligation upon many, and extending Keen, the father of twenty children; and your benignity the farthest a man can pos- that this day the haughty George Powell sibly, who is not engaged in commerce. hopes all the good-natured part of the town But he who trades, besides giving the state will favour him, whom they applauded in some part of this sort of credit he gives his Alexander, Timon, Lear, and Orestes, banker, may, in all the occurrences of his with their company this night, when he life, have his eye upon removing want from hazards all his heroic glory for their approthe door of the industrious, and defending bation in the humble condition of honest the unhappy upright man from bankruptcy. Jack Falstaff,

T.

Such horrid license to the barb'rous sword!

No. 347.] Tuesday, April 8, 1712. The Manifesto of Taw Waw Eben Zan

Kaladur, Emperor of the Mohocks. Quis furor, o cives! quæ tanta licentia ferri !

•Whereas we have received information, Lucan, Lib. i. 8.

from sundry quarters of this great and What blind, detested fury, could afford

populous city, of several outrages commit

ted on the legs, arms, noses, and other I do not question but my country readers parts, of the good people of England, by have been very much surprised at the se- such as have styled themselves our subjects; veral accounts they have met with in our in order to vindicate our imperial dignity public papers, of that species of men among from those false aspersions which have been us, lately known by the name of Mohocks. cast on it, as if we ourselves might have I find the opinions of the learned, as to encouraged or abetted any such practices, their origin and designs, are altogether va- we have, by these presents, thought fit to rious, insomuch that very many begin to signify our utmost abhorrence and detestadoubt whether indeed there were ever any tion of all such tumultuous and irregular such society of men. The terror which proceedings; and do hereby farther give spread itself over the whole nation some notice, that if any person or persons has or years since on account of the Irish, is still have suffered any wound, hurt, damage, or fresh in most people's memories, though it detriment, in his or their limb or limbs afterwards appeared there was not the least otherwise than shall be hereafter specified, ground for that general consternation. the said person or persons, upon applying

The late panic fear was in the opinion themselves to such as we shall appoint for of many deep and penetrating persons of the inspection and redress of the grievthe same nature, These will have it that ances aforesaid, shall be forth with committhe Mohocks are like those spectres and ted to the care of our principal surgeon, apparitions which frighten several towns and be cured at our own expense, in some and villages in her majesty's dominions, one or other of those hospitals which we though they were never seen by any of the are now erecting for that purpose. inhabitants. Others are apt to think that And to the end that no one may, either these Mohocks are a kind of bull-beggars, through ignorance or inadvertency, incur first invented by prudent married men, and those penalties which we have thought fit masters of families, in order to deter their to inflict on persons of loose and dissolute wives and daughters from taking the air at lives, we do hereby notify to the public, unseasonable hours; and that when they that if any man be knocked down or astell them the Mohocks will catch them, saulted while he is employed in his lawful it is a caution of the same nature with that business, at proper hours, that it is not of our forefathers, when they bid their chil- done by our order; and we do hereby perdren have a care of Raw-head and Bloody- mit and allow any such person, so knocked bones.

down or assaulted, to rise again, and defend For my own part, I am afraid there was himself in the best manner that he is able. too much reason for the great alarm the - We do also command all and every whole city has been in upon this occasion; our good subjects, that they do not prethough at the same time I must own, that sume, upon any pretext whatsoever, to I am in some doubt whether the following issue and sally forth from their respective pieces are genuine and authentic; the more quarters till between the hours of eleven so, because I am not fully satisfied that the and twelve. That they never tip the lion name by, which the emperor subscribes upon man, woman, or child, till the clock himself," is altogether conformable to the at St. Dunstan's shall have struck one. Indian orthography:

•That the sweat be never given but beI shall only farther inform my readers, tween the hours of one and two; always that it was some time since I received the provided, that our hunters may begin to following letter and manifesto, though, for hunt a little after the close of the evening, particular reasons, I did not think fit to any thing to the contrary herein notwithpublish them till now.

standing Provided also, that if ever they To the Spectator,

are reduced to the necessity of pinking, it

shall always be in the most fleshy parts, 'SIR,—Finding that our earnest endea- and such as are least exposed to view. vours for the good of mankind have been . It also our imperial will and pleabasely and maliciously represented to the sure, that our good subjects the sweaters world, we send you enclosed our imperial do establish their hummums in such close manifesto, which it is our will and pleasure places, alleys, nooks, and corners, that the that you forth with communicate to the patient or patients may not be in danger of public, by inserting it in your next daily catching cold. paper. We do not doubt of your ready • That the tumblers, to whose care we compliance in this particular, and there-chiefly commit the female sex, confine fore bid you heartily farewell,

themselves to Drury-lane, and the purlieus (Signed)

of the Temple; and that every other party "TAWWAW EBEN ZAN KALADAR, and division of our subjects do each of them

Emperor of the Mohocks.') keep within the respective quarters we

Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 2. 13

have allotted to them. Provided, never-, night, it will serve as an instance that theless, that nothing herein contained shall the sexes are equally inclined to defamain any wise be construed to extend to the tion, with equal malice and impotence, hunters, who have our full license and per- Jack Triplett came into my lady Airy's mission to enter into any part of the town about eight of the clock. You know the wherever their game shall lead them. manner we sit at a visit, and I need not

* And whereas we have nothing more at describe the circle; but Mr. Triplett came our imperial heart than the reformation in, introduced by two tapers supported by of the cities of London and Westminster, a spruce servant, whose hair is under a cap which to our unspeakable satisfaction we till my lady's candles are all lighted up, have in some measure already effected, we and the hour of ceremony begins: I say do hereby earnestly pray and exhort all Jack Triplett came in, and singing (for he husbands, fathers, house-keepers, and mas- is really good company).“ Every feature, ters of families, in either of the aforesaid charming creature, -he went on, “ It is cities, not only to repair themselves to their a most unreasonable thing, that people respective habitations at early and season cannot go peaceably to see their friends, able hours, but also to keep their wives but these murderers are let loose. Such a and daughters, sons, servants, and appren- shape! such an air! what a glance was that tices, from appearing in the streets at those as her chariot passed by mine!"-My lady times and seasons which may expose them herself interrupted him; “Pray, who is to a military discipline, as it is practised by this fine thing?"_“I warrant,” says anour good subjects the Mohocks; and we do other, “ 'tis the creature I was telling your further promise on our imperial word, that ladyship of, just now."-"You were telling as soon as the reformation aforesaid shall of ?” says Jack; “I wish I had been so be brought about, we will forth with cause happy as to have come in and heard you; all hostilities to cease.

for I have not words to say what she is: .Given from our court, at the Devil-tavern, but if an agreeable height, a modest air, • March 15, 1712.'

X. a virgin shame, and impatience of being

beheld amidst a blaze of ten thousand

charms _” The whole room flew outNo. 348. ] Wednesday, April 9, 1712.

“Oh Mr. Triplett!" -When Mrs. Lofty,

a known prude, said she believed she knew Invidiam placare paras virtute relicta.

whom the ntleman meant; but she was

indeed, as he civilly represented her, imTo shun detraction, wouldst thou virtue fly?

patient of being beheld.-Then turning to •MR. SPECTATOR,-I have not seen you the lady next to her,—“The most unbred lately at any of the places where I visit, so creature you ever saw!" Another pursued that I am afraid you are wholly unacquaint- the discourse; “As unbred, madam, as ed with what passes among my part of the you may think her, she is extremely belied world, who are, though I say it, without if she is the novice she appears; she was controversy, the most accomplished and last week at a ball till two in the morning: best bred of the town. Give me leave to Mr. Triplett knows whether he was the tell you, that I am extremely discomposed happy man that took care of her home; when I hear scandal, and am an utter but” This was followed by some partienemy to all manner of detraction, and cular exception that each woman in the think it the greatest meanness that people room made to some peculiar grace or adof distinction can be guilty of, However, vantage; so that Mr. Triplett was beaten it is hardly possible to come into company, from one limb and feature to another, till where you do not find them pulling one he was forced to resign the whole woman. another to pieces, and that from no other In the end, I took notice Triplett recorded provocation but that of hearing any one all this malice in his heart; and saw in his commended. Merit, both as to wit and countenance, and a certain waggish shrug, beauty, is become no other than the pos- that he designed to repeat the conversasession of a few trifling people's favour, tion: I therefore let the discourse die, and which you cannot possibly arrive at, if you soon after took an occasion to recommend have really any thing in you that is deserv- a certain gentleman of my acquaintance for ing. What they would bring to pass is, to a person of singular modesty, courage, inmake all good and evil consist in report, and tegrity, and withal as a man of an enterwith whispers, calumnies, and imperti- taining conversation, to which advantages nences, to have the conduct of those re- he had a shape and manner peculiarly ports. By this means, innocents are blasted graceful. Mr. Triplett, who is a woman's upon their first appearance in town, and man seemed to hear me with patience there is nothing more required to make a enough commend the qualities of his mind. young woman the object of envy and hatred, -He never heard indeed but that he was than to deserve love and admiration. This a very honest man, and no fool; but for a abominable endeavour to suppress or lessen fine gentleman, he must ask pardon. Upon every thing that is praiseworthy, is as fre- no other foundation than this, Mr. Triplett quent among the men as the women. If I took occasion to give the gentleman's pedican remember what passed at a visit last | gree, by what methods some part of the

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