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pomps and diversions as are innocent in I never took in my youth. Among others is themselves, and only culpable when they that of an afternoon's nap, which I fell into draw the mind too much?

in the fifty-fifth year of my age, and have I could not but smile upon reading a pas- continued for the three last years past. By sage in the account which Mr. Baxter this ineans I enjoy a double morning, and gives of his own life, wherein he represents rise twice a day fresh to my speculations. it as a great blessing that in his youth he It happens very luckily for me, that some very narrowly escaped getting a place at of my dreams have proved instructive to court.

my countrymen, so that I may be said to It must indeed be confessed that levity sleep, as well as to wake, for the good of of temper takes a man off his guard, and the public. I was yesterday meditating on opens a pass to his soul for any temptation the account with which I have already enthat assaults it. It favours all the ap- tertained my readers concerning the cave proaches of vice, and weakens all the re- of Trophonius. I was no sooner fallen into sistance of virtue: for which_reason a my usual slumber, but I dreamed that this renowned statesman in queen Elizabeth's cave was put into my possession, and that I days, after having retired from court and gave public notice of its virtue, inviting public business, in order to give himself every one to it who had a mind to be å up to the duties of religion, when any of his serious man for the remaining part of his old friends used to visit him, had still this life. Great multitudes immediately reword of advice in his mouth, 'be serious.' sorted to me. The first who made the

An eminent Italian author of this cast of experiment was a Merry-andrew, who mind, speaking of the great advantage of a was put into my hand by a neighbouring serious and composed temper, wishes very justice of peace, in order to reclaim him gravely, that for the benefit of mankind he from that profligate kind of life. Poor had Trophonius's cave in his possession; Pickle-herring had not taken above one which, says he, would contribute more to turn in it, when he came out of the cave, the reformation of manners than all the like a hermit from his cell, with a peniworkhouses and bridewells in Europe. tential look and a most rueful countenance,

We have a very particular description I then put in a young laughing fop, and, of this cave in Pausanias, who tells us that watching for his return, asked him, with a it was made in the form of a huge oven, smile, how he liked the place? He replied, and had many particular circumstances, Pr'ythee, friend, be not impertinent;' and which disposed the person who was in it to stalked by me as grave as a judge. A be more pensive and thoughtful than or- citizen then desired me to give free ingress dinary; insomuch, that no man was ever and egress to his wife who was dressed in observed to laugh all his life after, who the gayest coloured ribands I had ever had once made his entry into this cave.

She went in with a flirt of her fan was usual in those times, when any one and a smirking countenance, but came out carried a more than ordinary gloominess in with the severity of a vestal; and throwing his features, to tell him that he looked like from her several female gewgaws, told me, one just come out of Trophonius's cave. with a sigh, that she resolved to go into

On the other hand, writers of a more deep mourning, and to wear black all the merry complexion have been no less severe rest of her life. As I had many coquettes on the opposite party; and have had one recommended to me by their parents, their advantage above them, that they have at- husbands, and their lovers, I let them in tacked them with more turns of wit and all at once, desiring them to divert themhumour.

selves together, as well as they could. After all, if a man's temper were at his Upon their emerging again into day-light, own disposal, I think he would not choose you would have fancied my cave to have to be of either of these parties; since the been a nunnery, and that you had seen a most perfect character is that which is solemn procession of religious marching formed out of both of them. A man would out, one behind another, in the most proneither choose to be a hermit nor a buffoon; found silence and the most exemplary dehuman nature is not so miserable, as that cency. As I was very much delighted we should be always melancholy; nor so with so edifying a sight, there came tohappy, as that we should be always merry. wards me a great company of males and In a word, a man should not live as if there females, laughing, singing, and dancing, in was no God in the world, nor, at the same such a manner, that I could hear them a time, as if there were no men in it.

great while before I saw them. Upon my asking their leader what brought them

thither? they told me all at once that they No. 599.] Monday, September 27, 1714. were French Protestants lately arrived in - Ubique

Great Britain, and that finding themselves Luctus, ubique pavor.-Virg. Æn. ii. 369. of too gay a humour for my country, they All parts resound with tumults, plaints, and fears. applied themselves to me in order to com

Dryden.

pose them for British conversation. I told It has been my custom, as I grow old, to them that, to oblige them, I would soon allow myself some little indulgences, which spoil their mirth; upon which I admitted a

It seen.

man.

whole shoal of them, who after having | patients walking by themselves in a very taken a survey of the place, came out in pensive and musing posture, so that the very good order, and with looks entirely whole space seemed covered with philosoEnglish. I afterwards put in a Dutchman, phers. "I was at length resolved to go into who had a great fancy to see the kelder, the cave myself, and see what it was that as he called it; but I could not observe that had produced such wonderful effects upon I had made any alteration in him.

the company; but as I was stooping at the A comedian, who had gained great re- entrance, the door being somewhat low, I putation in parts of humour, told me that gave such a nod in my chair that I awaked. he had a mighty mind to act Alexander the After having recovered myself from my Great, and fancied that he should succeed first startle, I was very well pleased at the very well in it if he could strike two or accident which had befallen me, as not three laughing features out of his face. He knowing but a little stay in the place might tried the experiment, but contracted so have spoiled my Spectators. very solid a look by it, that I am afraid te will be fit for no part hereafter but a Timon of Athens, or a Mute in The Funeral.

I then clapped up an empty fantastic No. 600.] Wednesday, September 29, 1714. citizen, in order to qualify him for an alder- Solemque suum, sua sidera norunt. He was succeeded by a young rake

Virg. Æn. vi. 61. of the Middle Temple, who was brought

Stars of their own, and their own suns they knoy. to me by his grandmother; but, to her

Dryder. great sorrow and surprise, he came out a I HAVE always taken a particular pleaquaker. Seeing myself surrounded with a sure in examining the opinions which men body of freethinkers and scoffers at reli- of different religions, different ages, and gion, who were making themselves merry different countries, have entertained conat the sober looks and thoughtful brows of cerning the immortality of the soul, and those who had been in the cave, I thrust the state of happiness which they promise them all in, one after another, and locked themselves in another world. For, whatthe door upon them. Upon my opening it, ever prejudices and errors human nature they all looked as if they had been frighten- lies under, we find that either reason, or ed out of their wits, and were marching tradition from our first parents, has discoaway with ropes in their hands to a wood vered to all people something in these that was within sight of the place. I found great points which bears analogy to truth, they were not able to bear themselves in and to the doctrines opened to us by divine their first serious thoughts; but, knowing revelation. I was lately discoursing on this these would quickly bring them to a better subject with a learned person who has been frame of mind, I gave them into the custody very much conversant among the inhabitof their friends until that happy change ants of the more western parts of Africa.* was wrought in them.

Upon his conversing with several in that The last that was brought to me was a country, he tells me that their notion of young woman, who at the first sight of my heaven or of a future state of happiness is short face fell into an immoderate fit of this, that every thing we there wish for laughter, and was forced to hold her sides will immediately present itself to us. We all the while her mother was speaking to find, say they, our souls are of such a nature me. Upon this, I interrupted the old lady, that they require variety, and are not capaand taking her daughter by the hand, ble of being always delighted with the same • Madam,'

said I, “be pleased to retire into objects., The Supreme Being, therefore, my closet while your mother tells me your in compliance with this taste of happiness case.' I then put her into the mouth of the which he has planted in the soul of man, cave; when the mother, after having beg- will raise up from time to time, say they; ged pardon for the girl's rudeness, told me every gratification which it is in the huthat she had often treated her father and mour to be pleased with. If we wish to the gravest of her relations in the same be in groves or bowers, among running manner; that she would sit giggling and streams, or falls of water, we shall immelaughing with her companions from one diately find ourselves in the midst of such end of a tragedy to the other; nay, that she a scene as we desire. If we would be enwould sometimes burst out in the middle of tertained with music and the melody of a sermon, and set the whole congregation a sounds, the concert arises upon our wish, staring at her. The mother was going on, and the whole region about us is filled with when the young lady came out of the cave harmony. In short, every desire will be to us with a composed countenance and a

followed by fruition; and whatever a man's low courtesy. She was a girl of such exu- inclination directs him to will be present berant mirth that her visit to Trophonius with him. Nor is it material whether the only reduced her to a more than ordinary Supreme Power creates in conformity to decency of behaviour, and made a very our wishes, or whether he only produces pretty prude of her. After having performed innumerable cures, I looked about published an account of West Barbary, &c. He died in

* Addison's father, dean Launcelot Addison, who me with great satisfaction, and saw all my 1 1703, aged 71.

such a change in our imagination as makes infinite multitude of objects, especially when us believe ourselves conversant among the soul shall have passed through the space those scenes which delight us. Our hap- of many millions of years, and shall reflect piness will be the same, whether it pro- with pleasure on the days of eternity. Every ceed from external objects, or from the other faculty may be considered in the same impressions of the Deity upon our own pri- extent. vate fancies. This is the account which I We cannot question but that the happihave received from my learned friend. ness of a soul will be adequate to its nature; Notwithstanding this system of belief be and that it is not endowed with any faculties in general very chimerical and visionary, which are to lie useless and unemployed. there is something sublime in its manner of The happiness is to be the happiness of the considering the influence of a Divine Be- whole man; and we may easily conceive to ing on a human soul. It has also, like most ourselves the happiness of the soul, while other opinions of the heathen world upon any one of its faculties is in the fruition of these important points; it has, I say, its its chief good. The happiness may be of a foundation in truth, as it supposes the souls more exalted nature in proportion as the of good men after this life to be in a state faculty employed is so: but, as the whole of perfect happiness; that in this state soul acts in the exertion of any of its parthere will be no barren hopes, nor fruitless ticular powers, the whole soul is happy in wishes, and that we shall enjoy every thing the pleasure which arises from any of its we can desire. But the particular circum- particular acts. For, notwithstanding, as stance which I am most pleased with in has been before hinted, and as it has been this scheme, and which arises from a just taken notice of by one of the greatest moreflection upon human nature, is that va- dern philosophers, * we divide the soul into riety of pleasures which it supposes the several powers and faculties, there is no souls of good men will be possessed of in such division in the soul itself, since it is the another world. This I think highly pro- whole soul that remembers, understands, bable, from the dictates both of reason and wills, or imagines. Our manner of conrevelation. The soul consists of many fa- sidering the memory, understanding, will, culties, as the understanding, and the will, imagination, and the like faculties, is for with all the senses, both outward and in the better enabling us to express ourselves ward; or, to speak more philosophically, in such abstracted subjects of speculation, the soul can exert herself in many different not that there is any such division in the ways of action. She can understand, will, soul itself. imagine, see, and hear; love, and discourse, Seeing then that the soul has many difand apply herself to many other the like ferent faculties, or, in other words, many exercises of different kinds and natures; different ways of acting; that it can be inbut, what is more to be considered, the soul tensely pleased or made happy by all these is capable of receiving a most exquisite different faculties, or ways of acting; that it pleasure and satisfaction from the exercise may be endowed with several latent faculof any of these its powers, when they are ties, which it is not at present in a condition gratified with their proper objects; she can to exert; that we cannot believe the soul is be entirely happy by the satisfaction of the endowed with any faculty which is of no memory, the sight, the hearing, or any use to it; that, whenever any one of these other mode of perception. Every faculty faculties is transcendently pleased, the soul is a distinct taste in the mind, and hath ob- is in a state of happiness: and, in the last jects accommodated to its proper relish. place, considering that the happiness of Doctor Tillotson somewhere says, that he another world is to be the happiness of the will not presume to determine in what con- whole man, who can question but that there sists the happiness of the blessed, because is an infinite variety in those pleasures we God Almighty is capable of making the are speaking of? and that this fulness of soul happy by ten thousand different ways. joy will be made up of all those pleasures Besides those several avenues to pleasure, which the nature of the soul is capable of which the soul is endowed with in this receiving ? life, it is not impossible, according to the We shall be the more confirmed in this opinions of many eminent divines, but there doctrine, if we observe the nature of variety may be new faculties in the souls of good with regard to the mind of man. The soul men made perfect, as well as new senses, does not care to be always in the same bent. in their glorified bodies. This we are sure The faculties relieve one another by turns, of, that there will be new objects offered and receive an additional pleasure from the to all those faculties which are essential novelty of those objects about which they to us.

are conversant. We are likewise to take notice that every Revelation likewise very much confirms particular faculty is capable of being em- this notion, under the different views which ployed on a very great variety of objects. it gives us of our future happiness. In the The understanding, for example, may be description of the throne of God, it reprehappy in the contemplation of moral, natu- sents to us all those objects which are able ral, mathematical, and other kinds of truth. The memory likewise may turn itself to an

* Locke. VOL. II.

50

to gratify the senses and imagination: init a being capable of receiving so much very many places it intimates to us all the bliss. He would never have made such happiness which the understanding can faculties in vain, and have endowed us with possibly receive in that state, where all powers that were not to be exerted on such things shall be revealed to us, and we shall objects as are suited to them. It is very know even as we are known; the raptures manifest, by the inward frame and constituof devotion, of divine love, the pleasure of tion of our minds, that he has adapted them conversing with our blessed Saviour, with to an infinite variety of pleasures and gratian innumerable host of angels, and with the fications which are not to be met with in spirits of just men made perfect, are like this life. We should therefore at all times wise revealed to us in several parts of the take care that we do not disappoint this his holy writings. There are also mentioned gracious purpose and intention towards us, those hierarchies or governments in which and make those faculties, which he formed the blessed shall be ranged one above an- as so many qualifications for happiness and other, and in which we may be sure a great rewards, to be the instruments of pain and part of our happiness will likewise consist: punishment. for it will not be there as in this world, where every one is aiming at power and superiority; but, on the contrary, every one No. 601.] Friday, October 1, 1714. will find that station the most proper for him in which he is placed, and will proba

«Ο ανθρωπος ευερνετος τυροκας. bly think that he could not have been so

Antonin. Lib. ix. happy in any other station. These, and Man is naturally a beneficent creature. many other particulars, are marked in divine revelation, as the several ingredients which has entertained my readers once be

The following essay comes from a hand of our happiness in heaven, which all imply fore. such a variety of joys, and such a gratification of the soul in all its different faculties, • Notwithstanding a narrow contracted as I have been here mentioning.

temper be that which obtains most in the Some of the rabbins tell us, that the world, we must not therefore conclude this cherubims are a set of angels who know to be the genuine characteristic of mankind; most, and the seraphims a set of angels who because there are some who delight in nolove most. Whether this distinction be not thing so much as in doing good, and receive altogether imaginary, I shall not here ex- more of their happiness at second hand, or amine; but it is highly probable that, among by rebound from others, than by direct and the spirits of good men, there may be some immediate sensation. Now, though these who will be more pleased with the employ- heroic souls are but few, and to appearance ment of one faculty than of another; and so far advanced above the grovelling multithis perhaps according to those innocent tude as if they were of another order of and virtuous habits or inclinations which beings, yet in reality their nature is the have here taken the deepest root.

same; moved by the same springs, and enI might here apply this consideration to dowed with all the same essential qualities, the spirits of wicked men, with relation to only cleared, refined, and cultivated. Water the pain which they shall suffer in every is the same fluid body in winter and in sumone of their faculties, and the respective mer; when it stands stiffened in ice as when miseries which shall be appropriated to it flows along in gentle streams, gladdening each faculty in particular. But, leaving this a thousand fields in its progress. It is a to the reflection of my readers, I shall con- property of the heart of man to be diffusive: clude with observing how we ought to be its kind wishes spread abroad over the face thankful to our great Creator, and rejoice of the creation; and if there be those, as we in the being which he has bestowed upon may observe too many of them, who are all us, for having made the soul susceptible of wrapped up in their own dear selves, withpleasure by so many different ways. We out any visible concern for their species, let see by what a variety of passages joy and us suppose that their good nature is frozen, gladness may enter into the thoughts of and by the prevailing force of some conman; how wonderfully a human spirit is trary quality, restrained in its operation. ! framed, to imbibe its proper satisfactions, shall therefore endeavour to assign some of and taste the goodness of its Creator. We the principal checks upon this generous may therefore look into ourselves with rap- propension of the human soul, which will ture and amazement, and cannot sufficiently enable us to judge whether, and by what express our gratitude to Him who has en- method, this most useful principle may be compassed us with such a profusion of bless- unfettered, and restored to its native freeings, and opened in us so many capacities dom of exercise. of enjoying them.

• The first and leading cause is an unThere cannot be a stronger argument that happy complexion of body. The heathens, God has designed us for a state of future ignorant of the true source of moral evil, happiness, and for that heaven which he generally charged it on the obliquity of has revealed to us, than that he has thus matter, which, being eternal and indepenvaturally qualified the soul for it, and made dent, was incapable of chanc, in any of its

properties, even by the Almighty Mind, duce a change in the body, which the others who, when he came to fashion it into a world not doing, must be maintained the same of beings, must take it as he found it. This way they are acquired, by the mere dint of notion, as most others of theirs, is a com- industry, resolution, and vigilance. position of truth and error. That matter is Another thing which suspends the opeeternal, that, from the first union of a soul rations of benevolence, is the love of the to it, it perverted its inclinations, and that world; proceeding from a false notion men the ill influence it hath upon the mind is have taken up, that an abundance of the not to be corrected by God himself, are all / world is an essential ingredient in the hapvery great errors, occasioned by a truth as piness of life. Worldly things are of such evident, that the capacities and dispositions a quality as to lessen upon dividing, so that of the soul depend, to a great degree, on the more partners there are the less must the bodily temper. As there are some fools, fall to every man's private share. The others are knaves by constitution; and par-consequence of this is, that they look upon ticularly it may be said of many, that they one another with an evil eye, each imaginare born with an illiberal cast of mind; the ing all the rest to be embarked in an inmatter that composes them is tenacious as terest that cannot take place but to his birdlime; and a kind of cramp draws their prejudice. Hence are those eager compehands and their hearts together, that they titions for wealth or power; hence one man's never care to open them, unless to grasp at success becomes another's disappointment; more. It is a melancholy lot this; but at- and, like pretenders to the same mistress, tended with one advantage above theirs, to they can seldom have common charity for whom it would be as painful to forbear good their rivals. Not that they are naturally offices as it is to these men to perform them; disposed to quarrel and fall out; but it is that whereas persons naturally beneficent natural for a man to prefer himself to all often mistake instinct for virtue, by reason others, and to secure his own interest first. of the difficulty of distinguishing when one If that which men esteem their happiness rules them and when the other, men of the were, like the light, the same sufficient and opposite character may be more certain of unconfined good, whether ten thousand enthe motive that predominates in every ac-joy the benefit of it or but one, we should tion. If they cannot confer a benefit with see men's good-will and kind endeavours that ease and frankness which are neces- would be as universal. sary to give it a grace in the eye of the world, in requital, the real merit of what

“ Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam,

Quasi lumen de suo lumine accendat, facit, they do is enhanced by the opposition they Nihilominus ipsi luceat, cum illi accenderit." surmount in doing it. The strength of their virtue is seen in rising against the weight another man's candle by one's own, which loses none

“ To direct a wanderer in the right way, is to light of nature; and every time they have the of its light by what the other gains.” resolution to discharge their duty, they make a sacrifice of inclination to conscience, But, unluckily, mankind agree in making which is always too grateful to let its fol- choice of objects which inevitably engage lowers go without suitable marks of its ap- them in perpetual differences. Learn, thereprobation. Perhaps the entire cure of this fore, like a wise man, the true estimate of ill quality is no more possible than of some things. Desire not more of the world than distempers that descend by inheritance. is necessary to accommodate you in passing However, a great deal may be done by a through it; look upon every thing beyond, course of beneficence obstinately persisted not as useless only, but burdensome. Place in; this, if any thing, being a likely way of not your quiet in things which you cannot establishing a moral habit, which shall be have without putting others beside them, somewhat of a counterpoise to the force of and thereby making them your enemies ; mechanism. Only it must be remembered and which, when attained, will give you that we do not intermit, upon any pretence more trouble to keep than satisfaction in whatsoever, the custom of doing good, in the enjoyment. Virtue is a good of a nobler regard, if there be the least cessation, na- kind ; it grows by communication ; and so ture will watch the opportunity to return, little resembles earthly riches, that the and in a short time to recover the ground it more hands it is lodged in, the greater is was so long in quitting: for there is this dif- every man's particular stock. So, by proference between mental habits and such as pagating and mingling their fires, not only have their foundation in the body; that all the lights of a branch together cast a these last are in their nature more forcible more extensive brightness, but each single and violent; and, to gain upon us, need only light burns with a stronger flame. And not to be opposed; whereas the former must lastly, take this along with you, that if be continually reinforced with fresh sup- wealth be an instrument of pleasure, the plies, or they will languish and die away, greatest pleasure it can put into your power And this suggests the reason why good is that of doing good. It is worth considerhabits in general require longer time for ing, that the organs of sense act within a their settlement than bad, and yet are narrow compass, and the appetites will sooner displaced; the reason is, that vicious soon say they have enough. Which of the habits, as drunkenness for instance, pro two therefore is the happier man-he who,

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