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within cannon-shot of the city. The republicans were surprised and put to flight.-Not content, the allied English, Spaniards, and French royalists rushed forward in pursuit of the flying enemy, when they unexpectedly fell in with a strong body which was advancing to cover the retreat of the fugitives. At this critical moment, general O'Hara arrived upon the spot, and while exerting himself to bring off the troops in regularity and order, he was wounded in the arm and made prisoner. On this occasion the allies lost 1000 men in killed, wounded, and taken.

On the morning of the 19th of December, the French attacked Toulon. This attack was chiefly directed against an English redoubt (fort Mulgrave) defended by more than 3000 men, twenty pieces of cannon, and several mortars. The republicans attacked this formidable post at five o'clock in the morning, and in one hour succeeded in driving the English from it; but it cost the French 200 in killed, and 700 wounded.

Finding themselves unable to resist with success the fury of the republicans, the allies evacuated the other forts, and began to remove their ships out of the reach of the shot and shells which the French incessantly poured upon them. The town was bombarded from noon till ten o'clock, when the allies and part of the inhabitants set fire to it, as well as the shipping, and precipitated their flight. A scene of dreadful confusion ensued. As soon as the inbabitants observed the preparations for evacuating the town, they crowded to the shore, and demanded the protection which had been promised them. Great efforts were made to transport the wretched people to the ships. Two chaloupes filled with the fugitives were sunk by the batteries. Some were fortunate enough to reach the British vessels-numbers plunged into the sea, and perished in a vain attempt to swiin on board-others were seen to shoot themselves on the beach to avoid falling into the hands of the republicans. " During all this, the flames were spread. ing in every direction, and the ships that had been set on fire were threatening every instant to explode, and blow all around them into the air. This is bút a faint description of the scene on shore, and it was scarcely less dreadful on board the ships. Loaded with a heterogeneous mixture of different nations, with aged men and infants as well as women ; with the sick from all the hospitals, and with the mangled soldiers from the posts just deserted—their wounds still undrest : nothing could equal the horrors of the sight, except the still more appalling cries of distraction and agony that filled the ear, for husbands, fathers, and children left on shore. To increase the distress, they were without sufficient provisions for this mixed and helpless multitude of human beings; and such as they had were unfit for use." · By this disastrous business, the English gained three ships of the line, and five frigates, together with a number of the ruined and wretched Toulonese.

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There were thirty-one French ships of the line when Lord Hood entered the harbor, ten of these were burnt; four had been previously sent away to Brest and Rochefort with 5000 republican sailors, whom the English admiral did not think it prudent to detain ; thirteen were left behind, and fell into the hands of the republicans, with more than 400 oxen, sheep, and hogs, large quantities of forage and provisions, and more than 100 pieces of cannon.

Sir Sidney Smith, who had lately joined Lord Hood, distinguished himself on this occasion by his courage and activity. The firing of the ships and store-houses was committed to him, which he executed as far as possible with astonishing intrepidity and coolness, amidst an incessant shower of shot and shells from the enemy.

The warfare with Spain was confined to little more than a few skirmishes. The French had numerous enemies to encounter ; and they appear not to have been exactly prepared on the side of Spain. After some slight affairs, in wbich the Spaniards appear to bave had the advantage, the fortress of Bellegarde surrendered to them on the 22nd of June. Also, on the 22nd of Sept. general Ricardos obtained a complete victory over the French near Truxillas.

On the side of Nice the republicans were worsted. On the 12th of June, a body of these attempted to dislodge the advanced posts of the Sardinian army at Rans and Anchion, in the country of Nice, coinmanded by the generals baron Calli and baron Del

VOL. II.

lera ; but, after an engagement of eight hours, were repulsed with great loss. The French made a similar attempt on the 29th, without success.

But these affairs on the side of Spain and Sardinia were comparative trifles. The successes of the French in the most important quarters were productive of great advantages : the allies were confounded at the rapidity and boldness of the republicans : the latter had performed prodigies ; and the close of the campaign of 1793 ought to have convinced the confederates of the futility of prosecuting a war against a people, animated with the enthusiasm of liberty, and who had sworn to maintain the republic, or bury themselves beneath its ruins.

CHAP. II.

Preparations of the hostile Powers.---Subsidy of the

King of Prussia.---The Duke of Brunswick resigns the Command of the Prússian Army.---A great Council of War held at Aeth.---The German Emperor assumes the Command of the Allies. ---Siege of Landrecy.---Operations of the hostile Armies.---Siege of Charleroy.--- Battle of Fleurus.---Siege of Ypres, and Defeat of General Clairfait.---Lord Moira, with a British Corps, lands at Ostend.---He joins the Duke of York.--Defeat of Prince Coburg in the Forest of Soignies.--- Rapid Successes of the French.---They retake Landrecy, Quesnoy, &C.--- General Alarm of the allied Powers.--- The Emperor's Subsidy.--Dreadful and decisive Battle near Ruremond.-Invasion and Conquest of Holland, &c.

THE brilliant successes of the French in the campaign of 1793, though it inspired them with confidence and with a sort of conteinpt for their enemies, did not hinder them from making the most astonishing exertions for meeting the coalition; and, while they sent armies sufficiently numerous to defeat the Spaniards, and some of the minor powers of Italy, they were enabled to out-number the allies on the side of Germany in a very great degree. It was formerly a

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