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views of ambitious despots, according to the destructive system of Mr. Pitt.
The loss of the British arose, not so much from the swords of the enemy, as from disease. It is true, they lost great numbers by the latter, owing too frequently to bad generalship, yet, to say nothing of their sufferings in Holland, thousands were carried off by the dysentery in Flanders the preceding winter.
On the 20th of January, Pichegru made bis formal entry into Amsterdam, at the bead of 5000 men, and was received amidst the joyful acclainations of the Dutch.
In the mean time, the stadtholder had found it necessary to adopt measures for his own personal safety. Being no way inclined to fraternize with the French sans culottes, he embarked in an open boat, at Scheveling, on the 19th of January, 1795, and landed the next day at Harwich. On the morning of bis departure from the Hague, a crowd assembled, and insisted that he should be detained and answer for his crimes ; nor was it without the utmost exertions of his guards that he was enabled to reach the water side, and embark in safety.
Opening of the Campaign against the Spaniards.--
Battle of Spanilles, and Death of General Dugommier.---Astonishing Success of the Republicans.---Alarm of the Court of Spain.---Charles IV. exhorts the People to rise en-masse to no purpose.---Contribution of the Nobles, Sinecurists, &c.--- Peace between Spain and the French Republic.---Campaign in Italy.---Success attends the French Arms.--- Internal Affairs of France,
La Vendee, &c. W HILE the brilliant career already detailed,marked the progress of the French arms in Flanders and Holland, splendid success did not forsake them in other parts. On the side of Spain, the campaign opened in the month of February; and, after several affairs of minor importance in favor of the French, the Spaniards were signally defeated on the 23rd of May, 1794, by general Dagommier. This decisive battle was fought near Collisare : besides those who fell on the field, 7000 men laid down their arms; and the whole of the Spanish cannon, baggage, &c. fell into the hands of their enemies. In the mean time, the town of Bellegarde, which the Spaniards had taken the preceding campaign, was invested ; and surrendered to the French on the 30th of August, after the failure of several bloody attempts to relieve it by the count de l'Union.
The uniform success of the French alarmed the court of Spain, which determined at length to collect such a force of their choicest troops, as would insure the overthrow at least of the army under Dugommier. On the 17th of October, the republican general encountered the enemy at Spanilles. The contest was maintained on both sides with great valor; but after a very bloody conflict, in which numbers of Spaniards and emigrants were slain, fortune declared for the French. A great number of cannon, tents for 10,000 men, and much warlike stores fell into their hands. The brave Dugommier, in the moment of victory, and while reconnoitring for the purpose of cutting off the retreat of the enemy, was slain by a cannon ball. The French service could not boast a braver, or a 'more able officer, and the convention decreed that his name should be inscribed on a column in the Pantheon of.. Paris, among those warriors who had deserved well of their country, and fallen in its service.
The Spaniards now concentrated the whole of their force in a position strong by nature, and on which six months previous labor had been bestowed in order to render impregnable. It was situated in the neighborhood of St. Fernando de Figueras, and consisted of a chain of intrenchments and about 100 batteries, defended by 40,000 men. In fact, the Spanish officers, confident of the impossibility of
forcing these works, never expected the enemy would attempt it, when on the 20th, (three days after the battle of Spanilles) their ears were saluted by the Marseillois hymn, and the republicans with fixed bayonets presented themselves at the foot of the intrenchments. In three hours they penetrated every part of the Spanish position, and put the enemy to flight. · Count de l'Union and three other Spanish general officers, fell in this engagement. The strong town of Figueras, garrisoned by 10,000 men, surrendered three days afterwards, when, amongst an immense booty which fell into the hands of the republicans, were found twelve founderies for cannon, with all the necessary materials.
The French followed the retreating Spaniards with such rapidity, as to kill great numbers and capture their rich military chest. Several towns of importance immediately surrendered, and all furtber resistance to the enemy in these parts seemed to vanish.
The northern frontier, as well as the eastern border, of Spain was doomed to feel the irresistibility of the French. At the commencement of the campaign, the Spaniards had experienced a reverse at St. Jean de Luz; but, anxious to repair their misfortune, they had made great exertions, and had assembled a large force at the same place. Towards the close of July, they were attacked in their encampment by the republicans, under general de la Forde, routed with great slaughter, and the loss of their camp equipage and military stores.
Another body of Spaniards, amounting to 15,000, strongly posted on a mountain covered with 200 pieces of cannon, presented a formidable obstacle to the progress of the enemy. The French resolved to dislodge their adversaries from this position ; and though their force detached for this important service amounted only to 6000, they rushed on the Spaniards so unexpectedly that the latter fled with precipitation, and even threw away their arms to accelerate their retreat. Two thousand prisoners fell into the hands of the republicans, as well as every appartenance of the Spanish army. The French continued the pursuit, and that very evening (August 1st) presented themselves before the walls of Fontarabia, when it immediately surrendered, and the following days its example was adopted by Port Passage and Sc. Sebastian.
The inhabitants of those places which fell into the hands of the republicans, were pleasingly astonished at the conduct of the victors. The Spanish people had been taught to regard the French as monsters, void of religion and every moral principle, who would cut their throats if they attended mass, or attempted to receive the sacrament. Heaven was implored to protect the territory of his most catholic majesty, and the lower orders were led to believe that an earthquake would swallow the republicans, the moment they polluted that faithful soil. These good natured dupes to the sinister schemes of the vicious and base minded grandees, almost fancied themselves