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AN

IMPARTIAL

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

CHAP. I.

Internal State of France.---Battle of Famars.--

Revolutionary Tribunal constituted.--- Appointment of a Committee of Public Safety.---The French Republic decreed one and indivisible.--Contest between the Mountain Party and the Gir'ondists.---The New Constitution.---Assassination of Marat.---Blockade and Surrender of Conde.--Siege and Surrender of Valenciennes ---Action of Arlons.--- Fall of Mentz.---Affair of Dunkirk.--Success of the Republicans.---Lord Hood takes Possession of Toulon.---Extraordinary Motion of Barrere.---Death of the Queen.---Execution of

the Girondists, &c. THE decapitation of Louis XVI. was the signal for nearly the whole of Europe to arm against the French republicans. It is true, the convention had declared war against England; but it was not till after it bad essayed every pacific measure, and even

VOL. II.

offered the most humiliating concessions. But the baughtiness and arrogance of the British ministry rejected every proposal with marked contempt; and though no just reason whatever existed for going to war with France, yet, by repeated insult, the latter was goaded to declare it.

Mr. Pitt, who was the soul and mainspring of these transactions, it seems, had altered his opinion.

On the oth of February, 1790, he made the following remarks in the house of commons :-" The present convulsion of France must sooner or later terminate in general harmony and regular order ; and notwithstanding the fortunate arrangements of such a situation might make her more formidable, it might also render her less obnoxious as a neighbor. He hoped, he might rather wish, as an Englishman, for that, respecting the accomplishment of which he felt himself interested as a man,---the restoration of tranquillity in France, though it appeared to him as distant. Whensoever the situation of France should become restored, it would prove freedom rightly understood; freedom resulting from good order and good government; and thus circumstanced France would stand forward as one of the most brilliant powers in Europe; she would enjoy that just kind of liberty which he venerated, and the invaluable existence of which it was his duty, as an Englishman, peculiarly to cherish ; nor could he under this predicament regard with envious eyes an approximation 'in neighboring states of those sentiments which were

the characteristic features of every British subject.”.

This was not the only time that the Rt. Hon. Mr. Pitt stood forward in support of a cause he afterwards deserted. Once in his life he was the strenuous advocate of Parliamentary Reform; but no şooner did he become prime minister, than Reform seemed to turn şour on his stomach, and henceforward we behold him the champion and defender of every species of corruption. When we consider the character of this man, we are not surprized therefore, that in 1790 he should speak in warm praise of a people and cause, which in 1793 he would willingly have erased from the memory of man. No person ever possessed a greater lust for power than Pitt. He was ex-, tremely tyrannical; and while we are horror-struck, with the unfeeling cruelty of a Robespierre or a Napoleon, let us not forget that a single particle of sympathy or compassion never entered into the composition of the heaven-born minister.

The struggles of the French for liberty had gained them many friends in this country. Clubs had been formed in England which corresponded with those in France: a present of 1000 pairs of shoes had been sent from a patriotic association as a present for the republican troops; and the ancient prejudices of the two nations seemed to vanish; when at length, the Tory party in particular began to be alarmedthey reflected that the French had no sooner broken their chains, than public defaulters were compelled to Ay, or be called upon to answer for their conduct.

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- The same train of reasoning represented to them, how unpleasant it would be should the like happen in England—for instance, what could be more disagreeable, than, after enjoying a snug sinecure of a few thousands a year, from the pockets of the people, to be compelled, not only to resign it, but perhaps be severely reprimanded also! to say nothing of the Melvilles, the 'Trotters, the Davidsons, &c. who might be called to a much severer account.

Under these circumstances therefore, war appeared necessary to divert the attention of the people.--Mr. Pitt, the great bulwark of borough-mongers, sinecurists, corruptionists, and public dilapidators, also ardently panted for war; yet he was unable to make such a disastrous measure palatable, till by various methods he had contrived to excite alarm. At length, however, he succeeded, and plunged this then flourishing country into a contest, the ill success of which broke his heart, and I am fearful threatens ultimately to ruin the nation. It would be a waste of time to reason upon this measure, for the purpose of demonstrating that it was pregnant with disatrous consequences, as these consequences have long since been felt, and at this period the frightful state of our manufactures and commerce carry bitter conviction to the hearts of the middling and lower classes of society. Whoever reflects on the state of this country in 1792, will behold its situation in 1811 with painful regret!-If the French chose no longer to submit to the yoke, why should it have grieved Mr. Pitt-if they thought proper to bring their king to the scaffold, it ought not to bave affected him as a politician, and as to his sympathetic feeling, his whole life exhibits not one instance where it was manifested. He ought to have recollected too, that when the English beheaded Charles I. the French neither attempted to force a form of government upon them with the bayonet, nor to animate a coalition for the purpose of dismembering their country.

With the exception of Sweden and Denmark, the republicans had to combat the whole of Europe, as the convention had declared war against Spain. The confederates, become confident from their late successes, the defection of general Dumouriez, together with the acquisition of England and Spain, now thought---not of the state of the unfortunate queen of France, and the rest of the royal family, but of those parts of the republic which would be most convenient for each to possess. The contest at first view appeared very unequal.—The infant republic of France, torn to pieces internally by war and faction, had outwardly, on every side, to encounter an overwhelming host of foes—to superior numbers of the best disciplined troops in the world, led on by the most experienced generals of the age, they had to oppose the raw and hasty levies of republicans. However, what these were deficient in number and discipline, they made up by energy; every one regarded the cause as his own, each breast was fired with the

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