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her presence, had such an effect on this her son, that even through his life he could not bear the sight of a drawn sword. He was placed in the throne after his mother's forced resignation, July 25, 1567, being but little above a year old. He had the famous George

Buchanan

For both these assure us, he was the person, the only spotswoo<J, person who prevailed on the queen to marry Henry lord p. 189,193. Darnley. She at first disrelished the propofal, but thro' ^'d3d'/60J.. means of Rixio, " she took ay the longer the better "liking of him, and at length determined to marry "him." (b.) No wonder then common fame was not (t) Melvil, favourable in her reports of Mary, and that the envious p- 55- *ai and ill-natured hinted things reproachsul to her virtue, Dpig,T°0' I pretend not to fay any thing crimjnal passed between the queen and her secretary (though her affair,after her husband's death, with Bothwell, would induce one to suspect her not incapable of a familiarity so dishonourable); but I think, all men must allow that things were not so decently managed between them as they ought. Persons of an elevated rank, should strive not only to. be good, but to appear so; and caresul to act in so pure and unexceptionable a manner, that envy itself may not

beable to biast their reputation. However Mary had

little regard to what the woild faid. She continued her favour to her fiddling secretary, 'till a violent death put an end to it, to her great horror and amazement. Rixio, though he had procured the queen for Darnley, could not long continue in his favour; suspicions being put into his head, he consented to his murther, which was perpetrated in the following manner: "At six o'clock "at night, when the queen was at supper in her closet, "a number of armed men entered within the court, "and going up into the closet (where the king was "leaning on the queen's chair) overthrew the table, "candles, meat and dishes. Rixio took the queen a"bout the waste, crying for mercy, but George DowgB 2 ""las.

Buchanan for his tutor, by whom he seems to have profited little, and towards whose memory he had a great aversion (B). During

"las plucked out the king's dagger, and struck Rixio "fit It with it, leaving it sticking in him. He making "great shrieks and cries, was rudely snatched from the "queen, who could not prevail either with threats or "entreaties to fave him. But he was forcibly drawn "forth of the closet, and slain in the outer hall, and

(c) Melvil, " her majesty kej>t as a captive." (c) But they had

. *' no commandment from the contrivers so to kill him,

but to bring him to public execution. "And good it "had been for them so to have done, or then to have "taken him in another place, and at another time "than in the queen's presence. For besides the great "peril of abortion which her sear might have caused, "the false aspersions cast upon her fame and honour "by that occasion, were such as she could never di"gest, and drew on all the pitisul accidents that afters') Spots. "wards ensued." (d) The fright and terror the queen wood, p. was in at tjje (jgjjt 0f the drawn sword, so far influenced the child in her Womb, that, " Sir Kenelm Digby af"sures us, he had such an aversion to a naked sword "all his lise-time, that he could not see one without a "great emotion of spirits j and though otherwise cou"ragious enough, he could not over- master his passions "in this particular. I remember, adds he, when he "dub'd me knight, in the ceremony of putting a na"ked sword upon my shoulder, he could not endure "to look upon it, but turned his face' another way; "insomuch that in lieu of touching my shoulder, he the^oJer'f" ^ a,most thrust the point into my eyes, had not sympathy",0 " the duke of Buckingham guided his hand aright." (e)

p. 188. at

Jhe end of /B) The famous George Buchanan for his tutor, by

1ns discourse .v ' , , , 6 - , .. , , '/

on bodies, whom he seems to have profited little, and towards

4to. Lond, whose memory he had a great aversion.] Buchanan's

16691 merit needs not to be celebrated by me His fame as a

3 polite

ring his minority the kingdom had several regents, viz. his uncle the earl of Murray, his grandfather the earl of Lennox, and the earls of Mar and Morton; with the latter of whom the nobility being dissatisfied, he

was

polite writer, and a man of deep learning and solid judgment, is established on the most lasting foundations [a). Even those who dislike most of all his prin- (a) See ciples, resuse not to give him his due praise. And I Jhuanus's need not be afraid to assert that his writings will be read hjnf^ent and admired as long as learning irr this part of the world Bayie's {hall live. Mehil, fays he, " was a man of notable en- Dl'ct;°naiy, "dowments for his learning and knowledge in LatinRl'^6 "poesie, much honoured in other countries, pleafantnote (h;. "in converfation, rehearsing at all occasions moralities "short and instructive, whereof he had abundance, "inventing where he wanted." (b) A tutor this, wor- ^\ MelViJ, thy a great prince, and fit to form the mind to virtue p. 125. and politeness! for I doubt not but he discharged with f1*""'0 honour the duty of his trust, and did what in him laypj"Lr *' to inspire his pupil with just opinions, and elegant sentiments. But his labour was in vain. For it does not appear th&tJames improved any thing by his master, or studied at all to copy after him, for his writings are wholly pedantic; his style low and mean ; his arguments taken from those barbarians the school-men; and his method of treating his adverfaries was after the manner of your country controvertists, infpiied with the most servent zeal. Abundant proof of these assertions will be found in the extracts I (hall give of some of his writings in the ensuing notes. However, not contented to disgrace his tutor by his want of improvement, he treated him with contempt also and reproach. Thus for instance, when the authority of Buchanan, for resisting kings, was alleged by cardinal Perron, "James replies, " Buchanan I reckon and rank among poets, w not among divines, classical or common. If the man B 3 "hath

. was obliged to quit the regency, and James entered upon the government March 12, 1578.. Too soon, it may easily be supposed,

"hath burst out here and there into some terms of

'• excess, or speech of bad temper; that must be im

, "puted to the violence of his humour, and heat of his

Worksof *' spirit." (c) What a contemptible way of speaking

the most of a tutor is this, more especially of so great a man as high and Buchanan? Had Buchanan been ever so wrong in his prince James opinion, the least sense of decency or gratitude should by the grace have restrained his pupil from speaking of him aster such ofu^'Ac' a manner. Next to parents, tutors (if they have dis

pubhfned by . r' V 1

jamesbishop charged their pans well) have always been thought to ofWinton, have deserved honour*; and those who have resused 3616. Lond. j0 ^jve it» jjave been branded with baseness and ingratitude. For to form the mind to knowledge and virtue, to teach youth prudence, self-government, and proper behaviour, is a work of labour and merit; and such as

perform it are entitled to gratitude and respect. But

in another place James plainly discovers his hatred and aversion to the memory of his instructor; for he stiles his History an infamous inveSlive: " I would have you, "fays he, to his son prince Henry, to be well versed "in authentic histories, and especially in our own

"histories: 1 mean not of such infamous invectives

"as Buchanans or Knox'$ chronicles: and if any of

. "these infamous libels remain unto your days, use the

,-6§ "law upon the keepers thereof." (d) I will leave the

reader

* Dii majorum umbris tenuem & sine pondere terram,
Spirantesque crocos, & in urna perpetuum ver,
Qui præceptorem fancti voluere parentis
Esse loco. Juv. Sat. VII. v. 207,

In peace, ye {hades of our great grandsires rest,
No heavy earth your sacred bones molest J
Eternal spring, and rising flow'rs adorn
The relicks of each venerable urn,
Who pious reverence to their tutors paid,
As parents hanoui'd and as Gods obey'.I

Chaiues Dkybxn.

fed, for his own honour, or the welfare of his subjects. He was greatly in the power of his favourites the duke of Lennox and the earl of Arran, through whose instigations he performed many unpopular actions (C). Whereupon being seized by the

earls

reader to make his own remarks on the baseness of this passage, and the littleness of that soul that .was capable of writing it concerning a preceptor. I will conclude this note by observing that the probable causes of this hatred of the memory of Buchanan were the part he had acted against his mother; the principles of his history, which were opposite to the notions of regal power entertained by James; and the great awe in which he held him in his youth, according to Melvil (e). I would (e) Melvil, have it caresully observed, that this history stiled by p- "5"James an infamous invective, is faid by archbishop Spotswood to be " penned with such judgment and elo

"quence as no country can shew a better." (/). (/) Spots

wood, p.

(C) He was greatly in the power of his favourites,315' the duke of Lennox and the earl of Arran, &c] The duke of Lennox was cousin-german to James's father, the earl of Arran was captain James Stuart, promoted to that dignity at the expence of the house of Hamilton, unjustly deprived of it. "The duke of Lennox "was led by evil council and wrong informations, "whereby he was moved to meddle in such hurtsul "and dangerous courses, that the rest of the nobility "became jealous of his intentions, and seared their "estates. As for the earl of Arran, they detested his; "proceedings, and esteemed him the worst and most lt insolent instrument that could be found out,, to. "wrack king, kirk and country. The duke had been "tolerable, had he happened upon as honest coun'' scllors, as he was well inclined-of himself: but '' he wanted experience, and was no ways versed in B 4 "the

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