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gratitude, respect, or regard of her; but also with contempt, to the amazement of standers\'


'' o'clock in the afternoon; I perceived from the fatis"faction which he expressed at the new orders which "I had given, that it was indispenfably necessary to •' vanquish my repugnance: nevertheless, it publickly "gained me as much honour as if I had persisted in "it throughout, because none were ignorant I had '• complied only through absolute necessity." (a) 1(a) Suliy's make no apology for the length of this quotation; memohs, readers of taste will be glad to find it here, and will not °'' fail of remarking on the unaccountable ingratitude and weakness of James. His obligations to Elizabeth were great; she had supplied him constantly with money when in Scotland, and though she had a power, with consent of parliament, she gave not away the crown of England from him; on her death-bed she declared him her heir, and in consequence thereof he took peaceable possession of the throne. Ought he not then to have retained a respect for her memory, and treated her name with honour ? should he not have owned his obligations, and celebrated her fame ? should he have forbid his subjects mourning for the loss of so excellent a princess, or resused compliments of condolance from foreigners on the account of it? What! should the memory of such a princess be obliterated in a (ew months, even in her own court, and the glory of all her great actions he forgotten? Must her humbling Spain, her supporting the Protestant interest abroad, and establishing it at home j her attention to the national interest and honour, and raising the English crown to be the envy and admiration of Europe; must these be unspoken, uncelebrated? such was the intention of James. But posterity more gratesul, more just than that court, has mentioned her name with honour, and founded forth the glories of her reign. To resemble her has been thought honourable to princes, and her government has been set forth as a model for their imitation.—So thai

by (ee). He was excessively addicted to


envy, ignorance, spite, revenge and malice, with their united force, avail little against :he reputations sounded on great and beneficent actions; and the true hero, the patriot prince, may despise their efforts, and rest secure that in the annals of after-ages, their characters shall shine win the greatest lustre, and their actions be celebrated as they deserve. A noble motive this to generous , minds to pursue the public good with earnestness! and a motive, which, if well considered, will cause them to be unwearied, and persevering in the pursuit.

(ee) He spoke with contempt of her.] Sully giving

an account of his first audience at court, tells us, that

after James had spoken several things to him, " the

"late queen (Elizabeth) was mentioned, but without

M Sully, "one word in her praise." (a) In another converfation

Vol. ii. p. he had with the king, he observes, " that an opportu

26, "nity presenting for the king to speak of the late queen

"of England, he did it, and to my great regret, adds

"he, with some sort of contempt. He even went so

"far as to fay, that, in Scotland', long before the death

"of that princess, he had directed her whole council,

"and governed all her ministers, by whom he had been,

{*) H. p.89." better served and obeyed than her." (b) I doubt not

compare this &,// smiled inwirdly at the vanity of James, and

with what is. J .. , - . . . ,' . r . . '. J.'

said in note heartily detested his baseness with regard to the memory (»}. of Elizabeth; for no one better knew her worth than

this ambassador, no one set a greater value on it. With what indignation then may we suppose him filled, when he heard her name thus treated by her successor? and what a despicable opinion must he entertain of him? but he suppressed his sentiments on this head, and set 1 himself to please him, of whom 'tis plain from bis me

morials, he had but a poor opinion. I shall only add here, that the highest merit cannot escape the tongues of the ignorant and malicious, though, for the most part, it is unhurt by them.

ease and pleasure (ff), and indulged himself in drinking, even so far as to render


(ff) He was excessively given to ease and pleasure.J Sully relates, that " James quitted the company to go "to bed, where he usually passed part of the afternoon, ,

"sometimes the whole of it («)." "And his {a) Sully,

'• thoughts were intent on ease and pleasure, says Of- VoI< Ii"born (b)" This would have been far enough from a moslwrn virtue in a private man, but in a prince it must be looked p. 470. on as a vice. For the love of ease and pleasure enervates the mind, and tends to render it incapable of what is great. And there are but sew princes who have indulged this disposition, that have made any greater figure in history than the prince of whom we are discounting. Alexander\ C*sfar, and Henry IV. of France, loved pleasure as well as any men; but then they had nothing indolent in their temper, and had so much ambition, that they could not possibly abstain from stiiving to render their names glorious. But James not only loved pleasure, but ease, and therefore, was incapable of being more significant in lise, than are the generality of eastern princes, immured in seraglios, and strangers to every thing but what their viziers or eunuchs please to inform them of, for their entertainment or amusement. So that princes of this indolent disposition neglect the affairs oT government, and are ruled by minitters and favourites, and the people are left to be fleeced and oppressed, to supply the calls and pleasure. Unhappy princes! unhappy people! the former destitute of true worth, the latter groaning under vile bondage.— How much then does it concern those who are advanced to dominion, to exert themselves, and employ their time and talents in examining the state of those under them, vind promoting their welfare r how much does it behove them to be diligent in business, skilful in affairs, and attentive to the representations and complaints of their subjects? By these means alone can they answer . the end of their advancement, obtain reputation, pro

F cure

himself sometimes contemptible (gg). And


cure success, and have the love and affection of those over whom they bear rule. To which let me add, that indolent princes are very insecure; they become victims frequently to the ambition of their own servants, and fall, though not unpitied, yet quite unlamented. For the people have sense enough to know, that a lise devoted to ease and pleasure, is of no importance to them, and therefore, with indifference, fee it destroyed, though by those who ought to have desended it.

(gg) Indulged himself in drinking, &c] Weldon observes, that "James was not intemperate in his drink"ing; but he adds, " however in his old age, and "Buckingham's jovial suppers, when he had any turn "to do with him, made him sometimes overtaken, "which he would the very next day remember, and "repent with tears: it is true, he drank very often, "which was rather out of a custom than any delight, "and his drinks were of that kind for strength, as "frontiniack, canary, high-country wine, tent wine, "and Scotish ale, that had he not had a very strong brain, "might have daily been overtaken, although he scl"dom drank at any one time above- four spoonsuls,

(*) Weldon," many times not above one or two (a)." This is

p. 166, Very modest in Weldon. But other authors go a little farther, and make James shew himself beneath a man by his intemperance. "The king was excessively ad"dicted to hunting and drinking (fays Coke) not ordi-; "nary French and Spanish wines, but strong Greek "wines; and though he would divide his hunting from "drinking these wines, yet he would compound his "hunting with drinking these wines, and to that pur"pose he was attended with a special officer, who was "as much as could be always at hand, to fill the king's "cup in his hunting, when he called for it. I have "heard my father lay, that being hunting with the

from his kriown love of masculine bdauty, his excessive favour to such as were pos- .


"king, after the king had drank of the wine, he also

"drank of it, arid though he was young and of an

"healthsul constitution, it so disordered his head, that

"it spoiled his pleasure, and disordered him for three

"days after. Whether it was from drinking these

"wines, or from some other cause, the king became

'' so lazy and unwieldy, that he was trust on horse

f' back, and as he was set, so would he ride, without

'' otherwise poising himself on his saddle; nay, when

'' his-hat was set on his head, he would not take the

"pains to alter it, but it fat as it was upon him (£)." (£) Coke's

I doubt not but this account is true, Sully taking no- detection,

tice, that " James's custom was never to mix water °' •p,+*'

"with his wine (c)." And therefore, though Sir Edward W Sully,

Peyton be a partial writer, and prejudiced much against °' "*

the Stuart race, yet I believe the following story from

him will hot be deemed improbable, " When the king , » p

"of Denmark [brother-in-law 10 James'] was first of divine cata.

"all in'England, both kings were so drunk at Theo- <*">pne of

"bald's, as our king was carried in the arms of the Jhc £lnE,lyL

, family of the

*' courtiers, when one cheated another of the bed-house of "chamber, for gettihg a grant from king James, for StuartS. p» "that he would give him the best jewel in England for [°'JTM' *' a jewel of a hundred pound he promised him; and These quokt so put king James in his arms, and carried him to t"ions sronl "his lodging, and defrauded the bed-chamber man, c0ke°and '' who had much ado to get the king into his bed.-Peyton, are "And Denmark was so disguised, as he would have very °ii]y *' lain with the countess of Nottingham, making horns '"telyex-U" "in derision at her husband, the high admiral 6f Eng- pressed; b«{ "iand (d)." I faid just now, this story, I believed, the <TMfcr would not be thought improbable; and I doubt not the ""m as the* reader by the following letter of the countess of Not- are, and not tinvham to the Danish ambasfador, will readily assent to e*Pect ,them

f • • 1- r 1 r r » / . altered

jt, seeing it confirms 10 chief a part of it as Me rude in order, . behaviour of the Danish king to that lady. 'Tis wrote please,

F 2 with

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