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nos had he power to govern his clergy, who behaved, as he thought, disobediently towards him (L).

For

been already mentioned: besides which we find the banished Lords surprized him at Stirling, and caused him once more to dismiss Arran, and deprive him of his honours; and Bothwell took the fame course with him to obtain his pardon, and hinder his adverfaries from returning to court (*). Wgf

These were instances of disrespect and disregard, and 341, 394, could arise from nothing but an opinion of,the weakness of the prince to whom they were offered. Though it must be consessed that the Scotch nobility in those days were of a bold, restless temper, and were seldom quiet any longer than things went just as they pleased; and therefore were unlikely to stand in much awe of one, whose irresolution and want of courage had been from his childhood so very remarkable.

(L) His clergy behaved disobediently, as he thought, towards him.} '• The king perceiving that the death "of his mother was determined, gave orders to the "ministers to remember her in their public prayers; "which they denied to do. Upon their denial, charges "were directed to command all bishops, ministers, and "other office-bearers in the church, to make mention "of her distress in their public prayers, and commend "her to God. But of all the number, Mr. David "Lindesay at Leith, and the king's own ministers, gave "obedience. At Edinburgh, where the disobedience "was most public, the king purposing to have their "fault amended, did appoint the third of February "for solemn prayers to be made in her behalf, com"manding the bishop of St. Andrew's to prepare him*' self for that day; which when the ministers under"stood, they stirred up Mr. John Cowper, a young "man not entered as yet in the sunction, to take the "pulpit before the time, and exclude the bishop. The C 4 « king

For this he hated them most heartily % but dissembled his resentment, till he could

• show

"king coming at the hour appointed, and seeing hint S.* in the place, called to him from his seat, and faid, ?'• Mr. John, that place was destinate for another; yet "since you are there, if you will obey the charge that "is given, and remember my mother in your prayers, 5' you shall go on. He replying, he would do as the "spirit of God Jl)ould dire£l him, was commanded to f' leave the place; and making as though he would "stay, the captain of the guard went to pull him out; "whereupon he burst forth in these speeches, this day "jhall be a witness against the king, in the great day of "the Lord; and then denouncing a woe to the inhabi

f"1 jWU ." tants of Edinburgh, he went down." (a) This be., f 'haviour seems to favour much of indecency and disobedience, and I doubt not but the reader is inclined to censure it accordingly. But let us not be too hasty, lest we judge unrighteous judgment. The ministers, I think, failed more in breeding than any thing else; for what was required of them, was to pray that God would illuminate her (Mary) with the light of his truths and save her from the apparent danger in which Jhe was ca/1. Now this latter they could not in conscience do: for they looked upon her in the most detestable light, and wished not for her preservation, believing it inconsistent with the good of the state and religion. And therefore, fays secretary Walsingham, " it was wonder"ed by all wise and religious men in England, that "the king should be so earnest in the cause of his mo"ther, seeing all the papists in Europe that affected the "change of religion in both realms, did build their

ti) JW. ." -hopes altogether upon her." (b) If therefore the Scots ministers thought as all the wife and religious men . in England did, about this matter, they could not consistently, with sincerity, have prayed for her deliverance. The king therefore should have forborne pressing them to do what was contrary to their judgments, and they 1 : 1" i" should

show it with safety -, when he let all men know how much their conduct galled him, and what ill-will he bare unto them (M).

Though

should have used civil and respectsul terms of resufal; which, if they had done, I apprehend, they would have been free from blame. But this was not the only affair in which the clergy of Scotland behaved disobediently and irreverently towards James.

For Mr. Robert Bruce, finding the king willing that Huntley should return into Scotland, boldly told him, "I see, Sir, that your resolution is to take Huntley in"to favour, which if you do, I- will oppose, and you "shall chuse whether you will lose Huntley ox ms; for "both you cannot keep." (<) Mr. Blake was likewise^0^° ', charged by him with faying, " that he had detected "the treachery of his heart; that all kings were the "devil's barns; and that the devil was in the court,

"and in the guiders of it." (d) And Mr. Johnny

Welch, in the high church of Edinburgh, faid" the

"king was possessed with a devil, and one devil being

"put out, seven worse were encered in his place." (e) {i)U.?.

This was strange talking, and what could not but be43°

very displeasing to James, though he had not power

enough to curb and restrain those who were guilty of it.

(M) He dissembled with them, till with fasety he could shew his resentment, &c] Notwithstanding all the rudeness with which he had been treated by his clergy in the general assembly at Edinburgh, 1590, he stood "up with his bonnet off, and his hands lifted up to ". heaven, and faid, he praised God, that he was born "in the time of the light of the gospel,, and in such a "place, as to be king of such a church, the sincerest "[purest] kirk in the world. The church of Geneva "keep pasche and yule [Easter and Christmas] what "have they for them? they have no institution. As "for our neighbour kirk of England, their service "is an evil faid mass in English; they want nothing

"of

Though we are not to suppose, however it has been otherwise represented, either

through

"of the mass but the liftings. I charge you my good

"ministers, doctors, elders, nobles, gentlemen and

"barons, to stand to your purity, and to exhort the

"people to do the fame; and'I, forsooth, as long as I

(a)Caldcr- " brook my lise, shall maintain the fame." (a) And

wood's in his speech to the parliament 1598, he tells them, "he

Cor"rCfsls' " mm(*ed not t0 bring m papistical or anglicane bi

l»nd,p.a<6." moPs-" (Ii) And in 1602, he assured the general

Fol. Edinb. assembly, " that he would stand for the church and be

s*)H° s ''' an aavocate ror tne ministry." (() A man would

(0 Spots-1 'tmnlc hy this, that fames had a very great regard for

wood, p. his clergy,, and an high esteem of them; and doubtless

468, he himself intended they should think so too. But this

was mere artifice and dissimulation; for at bottom he

hated them heartily, and could not bear the thoughts

of them. This will appear to a demonstration from his

writings. "Some fiery spirited men in the ministry,

"he fays, oftentimes calumniated him in their popular

"sermons, not for any evil or vice in him, but be

"cause he was a king, which they thought the highest

"evil." This was the effect he thought of parity in

the church. Therefore he advises his son [prince Henry]

"to take heed to such puritans, very pests in the church

"and commonwealth, whom no deserts can oblige,

"neither oaths nor promises bind, breathing nothing

"but sedition and calumnies, aspiring without measure,

"railing without reason, and making their own ima

"ginations (without any warrant of the word) the

"square of their conscience. I protest before the great

"God, and since I am here upon my testament, it is

"no place for me to lye in, that ye shall never find

"with any hie-Iand or border thieves, greater ingrati

"tude, and more lies and vile perjuries, than with

"these phanatic spirits, and suffer not the principal of

'' them to brook your land, if ye list to set at rest;

*' except

through ignorance or prejudice to the then •' Scottish

"except ye would keep them for trying your patience,

"as Socrates did an evil wise." (d) (<0 King

And in his premonition to all christian monarch, &c. Jame8'*

he tells us, " he was ever an enemy to the confused ,60,"

"anarchy or parity of the puritans, as well appeareth

"in his Basiaikon AfiPON." And therefore adds

he, •* I cannot enough wonder with what brazen face

'' this answerer (Beilarmine) could fay, that I was a

** puritan in Scotland, and an enemy to protestants: I

'* that was persecuted by puritans there, not from my

*' birth only, but even since four months before my

"birth? I that in the year of God 84, erected bishops,

"and depressed all their popular parity. I then not be

*' ing 18 years of age, [this was the year in which the

earl of Gowry was executed, and Arran committed the

viJefr a£ts of injustice] '' I that in my faid book to my

"son, do speak ten times more bitterly of them than

"of the papists; having in my second edition thereof

"affixed a long apologetic preface, only in odium pu

n ritanorum.'' (e) This was written in England when {„) w.^

the king could speak his mind, and therefore we may 305.

be sure we have his real sentiments, especially as all his

actions were correspondent unto them. So that I had

reason to fay, that James dissembled his hatred and

resentment till a proper opportunity. But how worthy

this was of a king is not hard to judge. For nothing is

more unbecoming the rank and character of such an one,

than dissimulation, especially towards his own subjects.

It is setting an ill example unto them, which may be

of the most fatal consequences; and depriving princes

of that love, trust and confidence, in which their fasety,

strength and reputation most of all consist. But to dissent*

ble in the affairs of religion, is vile hypocrisy; which yet

'tis plain from the king's own speeches and writings he

did. But James was a weak prince, and lord Bacon has

finely observed, " that the weaker sort of politicks are

"the igreat dissemblers."*—" For, adds he, if a mart

M haye

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