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Became in, a condition to be both dreaded1


the peace of the church. But James not only spoke

well of churchmen, and endeavoured to recommend them to the esteem and regard of his subjects, but he heaped on them wealth, and suffered them to enjoy riches in abundance. "He founded a dean and chap"terof seven prebendaries at Kippon, in Yorkshire; and' ''• settled two hundred and forty-seven pounds perann*. {/) Grey's-« 0f crown lands for their maintenance." (/) William^ ofthe&cond ^ean of Wejlminjler, retained at the fame time, as himvoiumeof self tells the duke of Buckingham, the rectories of DiNeal's his- num^ Walgravt, Grafton, and Peterborough, and waspuntaiw p. a^o chaunter of Lincoln, prebendary of J/garbie, pre75- g'vo. bendary of Nonnington, and residentiary of Lincoln, (g), ^p'.1P^'And when advanced to the see of Lincoln, and made p. Ao».a ** lord-keeper-of the great seal, he was continued dean of Westminster, and held his other preserments; so that, fays Heylin, he was a persect diocess within himself, asbeing bishop, dean, prebend, residentiary,.and parson j (*5 Lise os and aj] f-hese at once. ^ This was a goodly sight ia. au 'p' 'the eyes of Laud, who made use of the example, in retaining with his bishopric of St. David's, not only bis. prebend's place in the church of Westminster, and hi* benefices in the country, but also the presidentships of {i)W.ibid, his college in Oxon. (i), In short the churchmen, throve well under James, and were greatly cherished by him. For to the wealth he permitted them to enjoy,, he added real power, and gave them liberty to crush all

their opposcrs. In the canons compiled anno 1603,

to which his majesty gave his royal sanction, we find' that whoever should hereafter affirm, that the form of God's worsl-jip in the church of England, established by law, and contained in the book of common prayer, is » a corrupt, superstitious, or unlawsul worship of God,.

or. containeth any thing in it that is repugnant to the scriptures; whosoever should affirm that any of thethirty-nine articles, are in any part superstitious or erroneous, or such as he may not with a good conscience


and envied by her adversaries. Not so trie pu-' xitans. These were the objects of his majesty's


.subscribe unto; whosoever should affirm that the rites .and [ceremonies of the church were such as men who were godly affected, may not with any good conscience approve them, use them, or, as occasion requireth, subscribe unto them; whosoever should affirm the government of the church of England under his majesty, iby archbishops, &c. is antichristian, or repugnant to 'the word of God, were to be excommunicated, (k) (k) See The fame punishment was denounced against the au-canon* J* thors of schism, the maintainers of schismaticks and+' 5' '7* mainrainers of conventicles. (J) Thus were church-.^in^anon* •men armed with power, with which, we may be as- g, 10, n< fured, they took care to desend themselves and annoy their adverfaries. Add to this that the high commission was then in being, in which the bishops were the judges who, by administring the oath ex ojficio, compelled mea to accuse themselves, and then punished them in the severest manner. Twas this court which obliged the renowned Selden, to make his submission, and beg pardon for .having published his book on tythes; (in) though L*!^''!"1'** must learned men since that time, have acquiesced inp^n^. what he has asserted concerning their original ; and be- rians, p, fore this, we find by a complaint of the.parliament, 392' that" lay-men were punished by this court for speak*^ ing of the symonie and other misdemeanours of spi"ritual men, though the thing spoken were true, and *' tJie speech tending to bring them to condigne "ment." («)—Such was the power of the clergy under . » Recora James, (uch was the use that was made of it! honest, 0(some prolearned, and worthy men were called in question, and «dmgs in subjected to all the terrible consequences of that thing ment"nno tailed an excommunication, for daring to tell church- 1610^.23. men of their vices, or denying their whimsical pretences. This at length bred much ill-blood, and issued in dreadful consequences. Let the prince therefore that would feign gloriously, curb the power of his clergy ; let him

highest aversion [4 E] and greatest hatred j


never be made the tool of their wrath o/ resentment; but by distributing equal and impartial justice to all his subjects, shew himsel/ their common father and sovereign, and thereby establish his throne in their hearts, and rtnder it jmmoveable.

[4 E] The puritans were the objects of his highest ^version, &c] This appears from what has been said in the notes [m] and [mm] so clearly, that I need fay no more concerning it. But 'James contented not himself with reproaching them, but he let his clergy loose upon them, and subje£led them to great penalties, meer}y on account of their non-conformity to the established ceremonies. Hution, archbishop of York, received orders from the privy-council, '" that the puritans "should be proceeded against according to law, except "they conformed themselves; tho' I think, fays he, "a]l or most of them love his majesty, and the present (a)Win. "estate." (a) And fays Sir Dudley Carleton in a letj»ood,Vol. ter to iVlr iyinwo"J, dated Feb. 2Q, 1604, " the poor U- P- 4°. (< puritan ministers have been serrited but in all corners, "and some of them suspended, others deprived of their "livings. Certain lecturers are silenced, and a crew of "gentlemen of Northamptonshire, who put up a petition "to the king in their beh.ilse, told roundly of their , *' boldness, both at the council tableand star-chamber:

, f and Sn Francis Hastings for drawing the petition, f and standing to it, when he had done it, put from his f lieutenancy and justiceship of the peace in his shire: "Sir Edward Mountague, and Sir Valentine Knightly, f( for resusing to subscribe to a submission, have the t' Uke sentence: the rest upon acknowledgment of a

(i)Win- '' • fault have no more faid to them." (£) And his

wood, Vol. majer}y summoned the judges into the star chamber, . • *' and in the presence of the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, and about twelve lords of the privy-council, asked of them t.hree questions with regard


these he was continually reproaching,in his


to the punishment of the puritans; the third of which was, '* whether it be an offence punishable, and what *' punishment they deserved, who framed petitions, 'c and collected a multitude of hands thereto, to preser '' to the king in a public cause, as the puritans had "done, with an intimation to the king, that if he de"nied their suit, many thoufands of his subjects would '* be discontented?" To this the judges in their great wisdom replied, " that it was an offence fineable at dif*' cretion, and very near to treason and selony in the ct punishment, for it tended to the raising sedition, re"bellion and discontent among the people." (c) This (<:) Croke's judicious resolution was agreed to by the lords then pre- rerts, p«t sent. Bancroft hereupon " required a strict confor- and Wm"mity to the rules of the church, according to the wood, Vol. "laws and canons in that behalf; and without sparingld. ?• 49' '" non-conformists, or half-conformists, at last reduced "them to that point, that they must either leave their "churches, or obey the church." (d) And that none ^ ney\\n'a might escape the penalties of the canons and high com- history of mission court, this pious prelate required " some who e.p y" '4 had formerly subscribed to testify their conformity by,76,' *' anew subscription, in which it was to be declared, "that they did willingly and ex animo subscribe to the "three articles (inserted in the 36th canon) and to all ''' things in the fame contained. Which leaving no ". starting- hole either for practising those rites and cere"monies which they did not approve, or for approving '" that which they meant not to practise, as they had ." done formerly; occasioned many of them to forfake "their benefices, rather than to subscribe according to "the true intention of the church in the said three ar." tides." (e) In short, such was the rigor of the pre-^ ld. p; lates, such the sufferings of the puritans, that we find 377. the parliament, in the year 1610, interceding with the king in their behalf. "Whereas, fay they, divers "painsul and learned pastors, that have long travelled

Q.4 "ia

writings; and not contented herewith he|


*' in the work of the ministerie with good fruit and V blessing of their labours, who were ever ready to per"form the legal subscription appointed by the statute of "13 Eliz. which only concerneth the consession of the "true christian faith and doctrine of the facraments, "yet for not conforming in some points of ceremonies, '' and resusing the subscription directed by the late '• canons, have been removed from their ecclesiastical "livings, being their freehold, and debarred from all "means of maintenance, to the great grief as sundrie '' yourmajeslies well-affected subjects; seeing the whole "people, that want instruction, are by this means "punished, and through ignorance, lye open to the "seducements of popish, and ill-affected persons: We "therefore most humbly beseech, your majesty would '' be graciously pleased, that such deprived and silenced "ministers may by licence, or permission of the re*'* verend fathers, in their several dioceffes, instruct, "and preach unto their people in such parishes, and tc places, where they may be employed: so as they ap"ply themselves, in their ministery to wholesome doc"trine, and exhortation, and live quietly, and peace"ably in their callings, and shall not by writing or ''' preaching, impugn things established by public au(/) Proceed-" thority."(y)——Soon after this Bancroft died, and ings in the was succeeded by George Abbot, a man of a more gencommons, tie and mercisul disposition, who was much more fain 1610. vourable to the puritans than his predecessor. But the "'' rigor against them was far from being wholly remitted. They were so ill used, that they preserred dwelling in a wilderness to their native soil, and chose the perils of waters before the perils they were in among their brethren; though for a time even this was denied them. "Some of the bishops, fays Wilson, were not contented <' to suppress many pious and religious men ; but I know , " not for what policy, restrained their going beyond "' sea: for there were divers families, about this time, • 'v., "(i6i2);

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