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the houses of Bourbon, and Austria, [4 B]

with

without uneasiness; and submitted to be led by his favourite quite contrary to his inclinations. A siire sign of his weakness! For princes have it in their power at all times to be obeyed, if they require nothing contrary to the laws : and such of them as suffer themselves to be affronted, contradicted or menaced by their servants, and yet continue unto them their favour, (hew unto all men that they are unworthy to be trusted with the government and desence of a whole people. For their courage and understanding can be but of a very low

kind. However, possibly the fame reason which •

induced 'James to pardon Somerset, made him bear the insolence of Buckingham.

[4 B] He prosessed himself a protestant, and boasted of his having been a kind of martyr for that prosession, —but he suffered those of that persuasion in France and Germany, to be oppressed by the houses of Bourbon, and Au/lria.-] In his speech to the parliament in the year 1624, we have the following expressions: " What "religion I am of, my books do declare, my profes"sion and behaviour doth sftew; and I hope in God I "shall never live to be thought otherwise; surely I "shall never deserve it; and for my part, I wifli it "may be written in marble, and remain to posterity as "a mark upon me, when I shalj swerve from roy re"ligion; for he that doth dissemble with God, is not "to be trusted with men.

"My lords, for my part, I protest before God, that "my heart hath bled, when I have heard of the increase "of popery; God is my judge, it hath been suoh a "great grief to me, that it hath been as thorns in my "eyes, and pricks in my sides; and so far I have been, "and shall be, from turning another way. And, my "lords and gentlemen, you shall be my confessors, that "one way or other it hath been my desire to hinder the "growth of popery; and I could not have been an. "honest man, if 1 mould have done otherwise. And P 3 "this

without affording them assistance of any

value j

'' this I may fay further, that if t be not a martyr, I *' am sure I am a consessor; and in some sense I may be "called a martyr, as in the scripture, Isaac was perse"cuted by IJhmael, by mocking words; for never king '"suffered more ill tongues than I have done; and I U) frank- " am sure for no cause." (a)—'' Long before this, in hnd*s an- "in the vear 1609, rn a speech at Whitehall, he fays, »t'f -ct tnat vvith hisown pen he had brought the pope's quar"rel upon him, and proclaimed publique defiance to (i)Kmg ** Babylon." (b) Would not one think from thence wTMki%. that James had the protestant interest at heat, and that jff, * he was a mighty champion for it? that he had taken it under his protection, and had fought zealously in its cause? those who knew not the man, might have been imposed on by his speeches; such as did, could not. We have seen his unaccountable behaviour in the business of the Palatinate, the loss of which had well nigh terminated in the total ruin of the protestant religion in Germanv, as'also of the liberties of Europe. Fori^rdinand the second aimed at nothing less than being absolute master over the Gerrrianic body, and in conjunction with Spain, to have given the law to all around him. The consequence of which must have been the total extirpation of the reformed every where. But James was no way alarmed at the' consequence. He would not endeavour to prevent it, but remained in a manner neuter, if you'll believ? him, " for conscience, "honour, and example's fake. In regard of conscience c* judging it unlawsul to inthrone or dethrone kings for "religion's fake; having a quarrel against the Jesuits, '" for holding that opinion. Besides, he faw the world "inclined to make that a war of religion, which he *' would never do. In point of honour; for that when "he sent his ambassador into Germany, to treat of •* peace, in the interim, his son-in-law had taken the V crown upon him. And for example's fake; holding *' it a dangerous president against all christian princes,

value; directly contrary to all the maxims of

good

"to allow a sudden translation of crowns by the peo

"pie's authority." tc) With such pretences as these did W Rusl»;

i_ u- j- Jl- i_ L worth, Vol.

recover his cowardice, and lus unconcern about the i. p. 16. civil and religious rights of Europe.

Wars to propagate religion, are whimsical and impious: But wars for the desence of its prosessors, may be very just and lawful. To have assisted Frederick and his honest Bohemians y to have encouraged and kept together the princes of the union; to have diverted the power of Spain, which was at the commandos Ferdinand; and by every honest art to have, risen a force capable of withstanding the emperor, was at that time incumbent on a king of Great Britain. This I know has been denied by a very able writer, (d) who asserts, " that if r* 0!a. "James had entered into an immediate war to main-castle's re"tain the elector Palatine on the throne of Bohemia, n"rks»p"he must have exhausted and ruined this nation to sup- -,* "port it." But I must consess I cannot see that this would have been the event. The princes of the union were, 'tis true, not so closely connected in temper and interest as might have been wished; France weakly resused to aid the foes of Ferdinand; and the popish party at that time was most powersul: But still a resistance might have been made; an,d had James had skill and , courage enough to have joined in it, it might have been effectual to have withstood the attempts towards bringing on the whole world a blind superstition, and a lawr less rule.

To talk of ruining and exhausting the British nation, by engaging in this war as a principal, is, in my opinion, unworthy of the penetration and abilities of this writer. Was France ruined and exhausted by encountering this fame Ferdinand, when his power by success was much more formidable than it now was? did not Richlieu obtain thegreatest glory by advisingthe assistance of Gu/iavus Adolpbus; by supporting him with money and troops; by drawing off the confederates of the emperor, P 4 and

good policy, and the conduct of queen Eli-» f&abethy who valued herself, ^not unjustly, on

the

and engaging every State possible against him? Might not the fame thing have been done by James, a»d that without injuring the British, any more than Lewis the thirteenth did the French nation? Gujiavus Adolphuf indeed was a great captain, and headed a brave army* But a great captain and a brave army could not have been wanting, had the king of Great Britain fallen heartily into the war, and supported it, as the king of France afterwards did by the persons and purses of his people. In short as a protestant, Jamti was concerned to prevent the increase of the power of Ferdinand, and hinder him from triumphing; for every victory of his was a wound to the interest of the religion prosessed by him.

But we see that he was so far from doing what he ought to have done in this matter, that he suffered the Bohemians to be reduced; his son in-iaw to be expelled his dominions; and the protestants to be brought to the very brink of ruin in Germany } from which only they were delivered by the force of Gujiavus, and the abilities of Richlieu. Nor were the reformed in France more indebted to James, than those in the empire. At his accession to the English throne, the dukes la Tremouiile, and Bouillon, together with the famous du Plejfis, had a design to make him piotector of the calvinist party (») See in France. (<) But they soon laid aside their design Solly's me- after hav;ng had a thorough knowledge of his character. n!"p.'i5. * -For no man interested himself less than J41r.es in their affairs, no prince gave them less assistance. He resused to speak to Henry the fourth in favour of Bouillon, when solicited by him to do it, because he faid it did not be(/•) Id. ibid, come a great prince to intercede for a rebel subject, (f) And though the reformed were a very considerable body in France, possessed of places of strength and importance and capable with proper help, of making head against gil their enemies, as they had sully manifested in the

former

the aids she from time to time had given them, to her own, as well as their great advantage.

former civil wars: though they were thus powersul, and

consequently important, he stood tamely by, and faw

them divested of their strong holds, and rendered almost;

wholly insignificant as a party. 'Tis true, 'Jama kept

up a kind of correspondence with Bouillon, whom at

first he had resused to intercede for, and by him gave

aflurances of his " assisting the reformed if the whole

** body was assailed, the edicts broken, and they in

"danger of apparent ruin: in which case (fays Buck

*' ingham, in a letter to Sir Thomas Edmonds) his ma

''' jesty doth engage himself to assist them; which

"though he should have no other means to perform, he

"will call a parliament for that purpose, not doubting

'' but his people will be as ready to surnish him with'

'' means, as his majesty to engage himself to aid them

*' in that cause." (g) But James was not as good asfe)8'":'1^

his word. The reformed were assailed soon after, negotia

though not in a body; the edicts were broken in num-tions, &c

berless instances, particularly in taking from them theirp' +c6,

strong towns; and they were in danger of apparent

ruin; (h) and yet I know not that James afforded them(£) See

the least assistance, any farther than by ordering his am- HowelTg

bassadors to use their good ofHces on their behalf. "c"'?'

•' Yea, we are Assured by the duke of Rohan himself, Hist, of tht

"one of the protestant chiefs, that James urged him by edict of

<' letters (in any case) to make a peace, and to submit u°l2'.

"to, and wholly rely upon the promises of his own so- 420.

'* vereign, pressing him moreover to consider the affairs

"of his son-in-law, and assuring him that he could not ^ Duke of

"possibly give the reformed any assistance." (/) Rohan's

Had the reformed been properly aided during the mi- *Weoutseapnority of Lewis the thirteenth, their power pro^bly maaelesorT would have been so great, that Richlieu's arts would not Montpellier have overturned it: nor would France have given that p't4'lt the disturbance to Europe she did, under Lewis the four- memo,r,* ftenth, j. .'.* Advantages (fays a noble author) might 8-<.. Load.

"Jiavci66o.

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