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carls of Mar and Goivry, with others of the nobility, as he returned from hunting, and conveyed to Ruthven castle, they obtained a charge for the duke of Lennox to depart the country, and for the confinement of the earl of Arran (D). This was followed by a proclamation

"the state of the country, nor brought up in our relj"gion, which by time he might have been brought to "have embraced. But the earl of Arran was a scorn"er of religion, presumptuous, ambitious, covetous, "careless of the commonwealth, a despiser of the no(*•) Melvil, " bility and of all honest men." (a) Hopesul courts' '3'* sellers these for a young king! and admirably fit for governing a kingdom. And yet these were the men who carried all before them, and obtained honours and estates by wholefale. Arran from a '• private gentle"man was made gentleman of the bed-chamber, "knighted, made a privy counsellor, and tutor of Ar"ran. A sew weeks after he was made captain of (A) Lives and" his majesty's guards, and created earl of Arran." (b) characters of" Letmox in a sew days after his appearance at court,

$\hf"" " had a grant of the lordsllip of Arbroath, then he was crown and " created earl of Lennox, governor of Dumbarton castle, slateofscot-f captain of the guard, first gentleman of the bedGeor e "cllam1:'er, an(^ great chamberlain of Scotland, and Crawfurd, "duke of Lennox." (c).—'—These sudden promotions Esq; p. 137. to honour, and places of profit to such men, must ne1716.°Dd' eesiarily have been very unpopular and distastesul, and eould hot but be highly resented. However 5tis but «i.''' justice to 'James, to acquaint the reader that he was very young, and consequently most easily drawn aside by those who had influence over him; and therefore more excufable than he was in misplacing his favours afterwards, as he almost always did.

(D) Being seized by the earls of Mar, &c. they fbtained a charge for the duke pf L?nr*.°x to depart the;


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clamation from the king, discharging the commissions which he had formerly given them, and declaring that in so doing he acted not by compulsion. However, having regained his liberty, he turned out of place those who had been enemies to his favourites, and insisted on such of the nobility's asking pardon as had been concerned in the affair of Ruthven; which causing a confederacy and

a rising,

country, and for the confinement of the earl of Arran^ &c] "As the king was returning from stag- hunting "in Athole, in his way towaids Dumferling, he was "invited by the earl of Gowry to his house ot Rutbvent "near Perth. The earl, who was at the head of the "conspiracy, instantly sent to advertise his friends of "what had happened. Whereupon several of the dis"contented nobility, and all those that were in the '' English interest at hand, repaired to Ruthven, where cc without any ceremony they resolved to detain the '' king, and keep him prisoner. The next d.iy when Avz°* »J* "the king was essaying to get out, they stopt him ; *5 2' "wherefore growing into a passion and weeping, Sir "Thomas Lyon boldly, though rudely, told him, it was "no matter for his tears, better that bairns greet than "bearded men." (a) After they had him in custody (a)Crawthey presented a supplication to him, " representing ,ur^'P* , "the false accufations, calumnies, oppressions and per- «0od, p. "secutions they had suffered for two years, by means 3,}°- See »1"of the duke of Lennox, and the earl of Arran, the lo ^v'l'Cm "like whereof were never heretofore borne in Scot"land." Upon this representation, the kin<», sore against his will, sent orders to the duke to leave the kingdom, who obeying, died soon after at Paris, and the earl was confined for a time-. Before this a Proclamation had been issued forth, " declaring that it was his *' own voluntary act to abide at Perth; and thajt the

*' noble

a rising, issued in the death of the earl os Goury (E), in revenge of which, as was said, his son engaged in the conspiracy so much


"noblemen and others that attended him, had done

"nothing but what their duties obliged them unto,^

"and which he took for a good service performed both

(i) Spots. "to himself and the commonwealth." (b) But all this

»ood, p. was a mere a£ 0f djssimulation, and the effect of con

J1,< strains. As soon as he was at liberty he returned to the

fame courses, and behaved after his wonted manner.

For favourites he must have, and so their pleasure was

consulted, no matter how the kingdom was pleased.

(E) Having obtained his liberty, he insisted on such of the nobility's asking pardon as were concerned in the affair of Ruthven, &c] James was never a man of his word. We see just now, that, by proclamation, he had allowed what was done at Ruthven to be good service, and he moreover had desired the kirk " to find it "good for their parts, and to ordain the ministers and "commissioners of every shire to publish the fame to "their parishioners, and to get the principal gentlest) Melvil, " men's subscription to maintain the fame." (a) But p. 183. no sooner had he got his liberty, but he acted quite difserently from what he had declared to be his sentiments. Arran was introduced again into court, " was made "Chancellor, captain of the castles of Edinburgh and "Stirling, and ruled so as to make the whole subjects "to tremble under him, and every man to depend up"on him, daily inventing and seeking out new faults "against diverse, to get their escheats, lands, benefices." He wrought so far with the king, that a proclamation was published, " condemning the detaining his majesty's "person at Ruthven as z.fact most treasonable. Yet his "majesty declared, that he was resolved to forget and "forg;ve that offence, providing the actors and assist•' ers do shew themselves penitent for the fame, ask "pardon in due time, and do not provoke him by their


talked of, and variously censured; which terminated in the ruin of his family.


"unlawsul actions hereafter, to remember that at"tempt !" f-b) Whereupon divers noblemen and others W Craw* withdrew from the court, for sear, to some place ofsoatswood*' security; for they well knew that their destruction wasp! 3x6. aimed at. Whereupon the principal of them were ordered to confinement, which they not obeying, were denounced rebels (c). This was shocking behaviour. (<.) Id. ib, and enough to provoke the most patient men to take a severe revenge; for the king's word was no security, his promise could not be relied on, and no man was fase who affronted his favourite, who made a mere dupe of his master, and facrificed his honour on all occasions. A sure proof this of James's weakness, and a sufficient indication of what the world was to expect from him hereafter; for the tempers and dispositions of men are pretty much the fame through life. As they are in youth, so are they in reality in age, though they may know better how to gloss and disguise. By this treatment of those concerned in the Ruthven affair, several of the nobility were induced to enter into an association, for reforming abuses, securing religion, and the preservation of the king's person and estate, among whom was the earl of Gowry, who being taken, tried and condemned, was executed for treason. "His majesty "(fays Melvil) had no intention of taking his lise, buc "the earl of Arran was sully resolved to have his lands, "and therefore to make a party to assist him in that de"sign, he engaged to divide them with several others, "upon condition that they would assist him in the de"sign of ruining him ; which afterwards he did, ha"ving by this means procured their consent and votes." (i) What weakness and seebleness of government was 00 Melvil, this! Arran was in effect king, whilst James bore the gpotTwood, name, and under the royal authority committed the p. 331. most unjust actions; for all agree that Gowry had hard Crawturd,

measure dealt him. In time the Gowry family wasp'39P'


Mary, queen of Scots, having sentence of death pronounced on her, Oct. u, 1586, at Fotheringhay, by the commissioners of


restored to honour and estate, but, as historians tell us, nothing could allay the revenge of the two eldest sons, for their father's blood, but the death of the king, which they attempted to have taken away at the earl's own

WCraw" house, August 5, 1600 (e)- But they both lost their

Sportwood lives m tne attempt, and ruined thereby their family; p.458. for their houses were demolished, their estates confiscated, and the whole family, by, act of parliament, prohibited to carry the name of Ruthven. The 5th of August was likewise ordered to be kept yearly in remembrance of this deliverance. Whether there was

any such conspiracy of the Gowries against the king, or

whether it was only a pretence, in order to palliate the

murther of them, has been very much debated. Spots

wood believed it: it was generally received as truth by the

courtiers at the time it happened; and the astisters of the

Ktt <rfh-' kinS receive^ honours and rewards. (/) Burnet (no way

ownumes,'5 prejudiced in favour of the king) gives credit to it; and

Vol. t.p. 2i. Mr. Crawfurd tells us, that after what the earl of Cro

»*mo Cdt' marty hath *ain tooether in nis historical account of the conspiracies by the earls of Gowry against king James, he hopes sew or none will suspect, far less doubt its truth fe)Craw- and reality, (g) I hope I {hall not be thought to be fiird,p.39o. ,t maiicjoufly set against the royal family, or the (b)' (A) Craw- "great king who was more immediately concerned in sura's epi- *t this affair," if I give the reasons that maybe affignpreflions."" e^ for tne doubting concerning the truth of the king's narration. I could not act the part of a faithsul historian without it, and therefore must beg the reader's pardon for detaining him a little longer on this subject.

1. We are to observe, that the next day after this happened, the ministers were called together at Edinburgh, (') Spots- anij desired to convene their people, and give thanks 460.' Cai- unto God for the king's deliverance: but they by no derwood, p. persuasion could be moved to do it (/'). 4ft- 2. Though

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