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and misfortune inspired the friendship and the eulogies of Jobrison, Mat tried for murder conut od n a fudden bruine
The expert ewordeinan," says Mr. Jar, the practised markkina, is ever Ibone ready to engage in personal contato, Luan the uran ubo is ubaceustanned to be use of deadly weapons. In those portions of our country where it is supposed tristitial to personal safety to go armed with pretult and bow je-knulatt, mortal afrays are so frequent as to exente but situe attention, and to secure, with rare excedtons, impunity to the murderer ; whereas, at the North and East, where we are uoprovided with such facilities for taking ide, com paratively few burders of the kind are perpetrated Me magtit indeed, saje y suvuit the decision of the principe we are discussing to the calculations of pecuniary interest. Let two men, equal in age and health, apply for an insurance on their iires; one known to be ever armed to defend bis bonor and bis lle against every assailant, and the other a metk, upresisting Quaker. Can we doubt for a lonent which of these men would be deemed by the Insurance Cospany most likely to reach a good old age?"
The second of these grounds is a part of the unalterable nature of man. It is an expansion of the old Horatian adage Si ris me flere, dolendum est primum ipsi tibi ; if you wish Ine to weep, you must yourself weep first
we all knit together that the fee ings in our own boson awaken corresponding feelings in the basons of others; as harp answers to barp in its sufust vibrations ; as deep responds to deep in the might of its passions. What within us is good, invites the good in our brother; generosity begets generosity ; love wins lore: Peace secures Peace; wbie all within us tiat is bad, challenges the bad in our brother : distrust engenders distrust; bate provokes bate; War arouses War. Life is full of illustrations of this beautiful law. Even the miserable maniac, in whose mind the common rules of conduct are overthrown, confesses its overruling power, and the vacant stare of madness may be illumined by a word of love. The wild beasts confess it; and what is the interesting story of Orpheus, whose music drew in listening rapture the lions and panthers of the forest, but an expreesion of uiis prevailing law ?
Literature abounds in illustrations of this principle. Looking back to the early dawn of the world, one of the most touching scenes which we behold, illumined by that Auroral light, is the peaceful visit of the aged Prian to the tent of Achilles to entreat the body of his son. The fierce combat has ended in the death of Hector, whose unhonored corse the bloody Greek has already trailed behind his chariot The venerable father, after twelve days of grief, is moved to efforts to regain the remains of the Hector he had so dearly loved. lie leaves his lofty cedarn chainber, and with a single aged attendant, unarmed, repairs to the Grecian camp by the side of the distant sounding sea. "Entering alone, he finds Achilies within his tent, in the company of two of his chiefs. He grasps his knees, and kisses those terrible homicidal hands which had taken the life of his son. The beart of the inflexible, the angry, the inflamed Achilles is touched by the sight which he
beholds, and responds to the feelings of Priam. He takes the suppliant by the hand, seats him by his side, consoles his grief, refreshes his weary body, and concedes to the prayers of a weak, unarmed old man, what all Troy in arms could not win. In this scene the poet, with unconscious power, has presented a picture of the omnipotence of that law of our nature, making all mankind of kin, in obedience to which no word of kindness, no act of confidence, falls idly to the earth.
Among the legendary passages of Roman history, perhaps none makes a deeper impression than that scene, after the Roman youth had been consumed at Allia, and the invading Gauls under Brennus had entered the city, where we behold the venerable Senators of the Republic, too old to flee, and careless of surviving the Roman name, seated each on his curule chair in a temple, unarmed, looking, as Livy says, more august than mortal, and with the majesty of the gods. The Gauls gaze on them as upon sacred images, and the hand of slaughter, which had raged through the streets of Rome, is stayed by the sight of an assembly of unarmed old men. At length a Gaul approaches, and gently strokes with his hands the silver beard of a Senator, who, indignant at the license, smites the barbarian with his ivory staff, which was the signal for general vengeance. Think you, that a band of savages could have slain these Senators, if the appeal to force had not first been made by one of their own number?
I cannot leave these illustrations without alluding particularly to the history of the treatment of the insane. When Pinel first proposed to remove the heavy chains from the raving maniacs of the hospitals of Paris, he was regarded as one who saw visions, or dreamed dreams. His wishes were gratified at last; and the change in the conduct of his patients was immediate; the wrinkled front of evil passions was smoothed into the serene countenance of Peace. The old treatinent by force is now universally abandoned; the law of love has taken its place; and all these unfortunates mingle together, unvexed by those restraints which implied suspicion, and therefore aroused opposition. The warring propensities, which once filled with confusion and strife the hospitals for the insane while they were controlled by force, are a dark but feeble type of the present relations of nations, on whose hands are the heavy chains of military preparations, assimilating the world to one great mad-house ; while the peace and good-will which now abound in these retreats, are the happy emblems of what awaits the world when it shall have the wisdom to recognize the supremacy of the higher sentiments of our nature; of gentleness, of confidence, of love.
I might also dwell on the recent experience, so full of delightful wisdom, in the treatment of the distant, degraded convicts of New South Wales, showing the importance of confidence and kindness on the part of their overseers, in awakening a corresponding sentiment even in these outcasts, from whose souls virtue seems, at first view, to be wholly blotted out. Thus from all quarters, from the far-off past, from the far-away Pacific, from the verse of the
"15 Ezt fx Peace" z. these tists are base. Tace arz: they are is amarre Étage: de woss oot yet prepared for teir recesion. To sucs Ercas I w. 2, Dob.cz can be beautifu: nat is not tre: basese vers are true. the time is 10# code for their resep Dow is the day. and so the sour. Every etist to invece kempresa, arrests the advancing laid on ne great d.21-5ate of besan has less.
The date of Washingga is inced as an actory for a prejudice wen Ecopony, Hoca 200 Cristiacity ail declare to be faise. Mighty and reverenc as is his same. Fore mighty and more reverend is truth. The words of cocesel wbieh be gave were in accordance with toe sont of bis age.-an age which was W sucked by we sare-trace: bat bis jofty scol, which loved site, and incu.cated juisice and benevolence, frows upon the einta of three wn9 #oid see his as'porty as an incentive to war. Gu forbind that bia sacred character sbon.d be profaneiy stretched, like the skin of John Zisku, on a militia drum to rouse the martal ardor of the American perpe! Look at the practice of Wasbington. During his administration, our expenses for the army and the navy fell short of $11,000,000, or $1,365,000 a year; while those of the eight years preceding 1844, reached nearly $164,000,000, or $20,417,000 a year; an increase of 1500 per cent. !
It is melancholy to consider the impediments which truth encounters on its first appearance. A large portion of mankind avert their countenances from all that is inconsistent with established usage ; but the practice of nations can be no apology for a system which is condemned by such principles as I have now considered. Truth enters the world like a humble child, with few to receive her; it is only when she has grown in years and stature, and the purple flush of youthful strength beams from her face, that she is sought and wooed. It has been thus in all ages. Nay, there is often an irritation excited by her presence; and men who are kind and charitable, forget their kindness, and lose their charity towards the unaccustomed stranger. It was this feeling which awarded a dungeon to Galileo, when he declared that the earth moved round the sun; which neglected the great discovery of the circulation of the blood by Harvey; and which bitterly opposed the divine philanthropy of Clarkson, when he first denounced the wickedness of the slave-trade. But the rejected truths of to-day shall become the chief corner-stones to the next generation.
Auspicious omens in the history of the past, and in the present, cheer us for the future. The terrible wars of the French Revolution were the violent rending of the body which preceded the exorcism of the fiend. Since the morning stars first sang together, the world has not witnessed a peace so harmonious and enduring as that which now blesses the Christian nations. Great questions between them, fraught with strife, and, in another age, sure heralds of war, are now determined by arbitration or mediation. Great political movements, which only a few short years ago must have led to forcible rebellion, are now conducted by peaceful discussion. Literature, the press, and various societies, all join in the holy work of inculcating good-will to man. The spirit of humanity now pervades the best writings of every kind; nor can genius ever be so Promethean as when it bears the heavenly fire of love to the hearths of men.
It was Dr. Johnson, in the last age, who uttered the detestable sentiment, that he liked “a good hater;" the man of this age shall say, he likes “a good lover.” A poet, whose few verses will bear him on his immortal flight with unflagging wing, has given expression to this sentiment in words of uncommon pathos and power:
“He prayeth well who loveth well
All things, both great and small.
us, He made and loveih all." Every where the ancient law of hate is yielding to the law of love. It is seen in the change of dress; the armor of complete steel was the habiliment of the knight, and the sword was an indispensable
companion of the gentleman of the last century; but he would be thought a madınan or a bully who should wear either now. It is seen in the change in domestic architecture; the places once chosen for castles or houses, were in the most savage, inaccessible retreats, where the massive structure was reared, destined solely to repel attacks, and to enclose its inhabitants. The monasteries and churches were fortified, and girdled by towers, ramparts and ditches, and a child was often stationed as a watchman, not of the night, but to observe what passed at a distance, and announce the approach of the enery! The houses of the peaceful citizens in towns were castellated, often without so much as an aperture for light near the ground, and with loop-holes above, through which the shafts of the cross-bow might be aimed. In the system of fortifications and preparations for war, nations act towards each other in the spirit of distrust and barbarism, which we have traced in the individual, but which he has now renounced. In so doing, they take counsel of the wild boar in the fable, who whetted his tusks on a tree of the forest, when no enemy was near, saying that in time of peace he must prepare for war. But has not the time now come, when man whom God created in his own image, and to whom He gave the heaven-directed countenance, shall cease to look down to the beasts for examples of conduct?
To Louis Philippe belongs the honest fame of first publishing from the throne (1843) the truth, that Peace is endangered by preparations for War. “ The sentiment, or rather the principle," he says, “ that in peace you must prepare for war, is one of difficulty and danger ; for while we keep arries to preserve peace, they are, at the same time, incentives and instruments of war. Peace is what all need ; and I think the time is coming when we shall get rid entirely of war in all civilized countries.”
To William Penn belongs the distinction, destined to brighten as men advance in virtue, of first in human history establishing the Law of Love as a rule of conduct for the intercourse of nations. While he recognized as a great end of government, “ to support power in reverence with the people, and to secure the people from abuse of power,” he declined the superfluous protection of arins against foreign force, and “ aimed to reduce the savage nations by just and gentle manners to the love of civil society and the Christian religion.” His serene countenance, as he stands with his followers in what he called the sweet and clear air of Pennsylvania, all unarmed, beneath the spreading elm, forming the great treaty of friendship with the untutored Indians, who fill with savage display the surrounding forest as far as the eye can reach, not to wrest their lands by violence, but to obtain them by peaceful purchase, is to my mind the proudest, picture in the history of our country. “The great God," said this illustrious Quaker, in his words of sincerity and truth addressed to the Sachems, “has written his law in our hearts, by which we are taught and commanded to love, and to help, and to do good to one another. It is not our custom to use hostile weapons against our fellow-creatures, for which reason we have come unarmed. Our object is not to do