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ings of truth to the icy mountains of Greenland, and the coral islands of the Pacific sea.
It has been a part of the policy of rulers to encourage this exclusive patriotism; and the people of modern times have each inherited the feeling of Antiquity. I do not know that any one nation is in a condition to reproach the other with this patriotic selfishness. All are selfish. ` An officer of our Navy has gone beyond all Greek, all Rornan example. “Our country, be she right or wrong," was his exclamation; a sentiment dethroning God, and enthroning the devil, whose flagitious character should be rebuked by every honest heart. “Our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country,” are other words, which have often been painted on banners, and echoed by the voices of innumerable multitudes. Cold and dreary, narrow and selfish, would be this life, if nothing but one country occupied our souls; if the thoughts that wander through eternity, if the infinite affections of our nature, were restrained to that spot of earth where we have been placed by the accident of birth.
I do not inculcate an indifference to country. We incline, by a natural sentiment, to the spot where we were born, to the fields which witnessed the sports of childhood, to the seat of youthful studies, and to the institutions under which we have been trained. The finger of God writes in indelible colors all these things upon the heart of man, so that in the dread extremities of death, he reverts in fondness to early associations, and longs for a draught of cold water from the bucket in his father's well. This sentiment is independent of reflection, for it begins before reflection, grows with our growth, and strengthens with our strength. It is blind in its nature; and it is the duty of each of us to take care that it does not absorb the whole character. We find that God has not placed us on this earth alone; that there are other nations, equally with us, children of his protecting care. It is not because I love country less, but Humanity more, that I plead the cause of a higher and truer patriotism. Remember that you are men, by a more sacred bond than you are citizens; that you are children of a common Father more than you are Americans.
Viewing, then, the different people on the globe, as all deriving their blood from a common source, and separated only by the accident of mountains, rivers and seas, into those distinctions around which cluster the associations of country, we must regard all
the children of the earth as members of the great human family. Discord in this family is treason to God; while all war is nothing else than civil war. The soul stands aghast, as we contemplate fields drenched in fraternal gore, where the happiness of homes has been shivered by the unfriendly arms of neighbors, and where kinsmen have sunk beneath the cold steel that was nerved by a kinsman's hand. This is civil war, which stands forever accursed in the calendar of time; but the Muse of History, in the faithful record of the future transactions of nations, inspired by a new and loftier justice, and touched to finer sensibilities, shall extend to the general sorrows of Universal Man the sympathy which has been profusely
shed for the selfish sorrow of country, and shall pronounce all war to be civil war, and the partakers in it as traitors to God, and enemies to man.
6. I might here; pause but there is one more consideration which yields to none in importance; perhaps it is more important than all. It is at once cause and effect; the cause of much of the feeling in favor of war, and the effect of this feeling. I refer to the costly preparations for war in time of peace.
I do not propose to dwell upon the immense cost of war itself. That will be present to the minds of all in the mountainous accumulations of debt, piled like Ossa upon Pelion, with which Europe is pressed to the earth. According to the most recent tables to which I have had access, the public debt of the different European States, so far as it is known, amounts to the terrific sum of $6,387,000,000, all of this the growth of War It is said that there are throughout these states, 17,900,000 paupers, or persons subsisting at the expense of the country, without contributing to its resources. If these millions of the public debt, forming only a part of what has been wasted in war, could be appropriated among these poor, it would give to each of them $375, a sum which would place all above want, and which is about equal to the average value of the property of each inhabitant of Massachusetts.
The public debt of Great Britain amounted to $4,265,000,000 in 1839; all of this the growth of War since 1688! This amount is about equal to the sum total, according to the calculations of Humboldt, of all the treasures which have been reaped from the harvest of gold and silver in the mines of Spanish America, including Mexico and Peru, since the first discovery of our hemisphere by Christopher Columbus! It is much larger than the amount of all the precious metals, which at this moment form the circulating medium of the world! It is said rashly by some persons, who nave given little attention to this subject, that all this expenditure was good for the people; but these persons do not bear in mind that it was not bestowed on any useful object. It was wasted. The aggregate capital of all the joint stock companies in England, of which there was any known record in 1812, embracing canals, docks, bridges, insurance companies, banks, gas-lights, water, mines, railways, and other miscellaneous objects, was about $835,000,000 ; a sum which has been devoted to the welfare of the people, but how infinitely less in amount than the War Debt! For the six years ending in 1836, the average payment for the interest on this debt was about $140,000,000 annually. If we add to this sum, $60,000,000 during this same period paid annually to the army, navy and ordnance, we shall have $200,000,000 as the annual tax of the English people, to pay for former wars, and to prepare for new. During this same period there was an annual appropriation of only $20,000,000 for all the civil purposes of the government. It thus appears that War absorbed ninety cents of every dollar that was pressed by heavy taxation from the English people, who almost seem to sweat blood ! The remaining ten cents sufficed to maintain the splendor of thc throne, the adıninistration of justice, and the diplomatic relations with foreign powers, in short, all the proper objects of a Christian State.
Let us now look exclusively at the preparations for war in time of peace It is one of the miseries of war that even in peace its evils continue to be felt by the world beyond any other evils by which poor suffering humanity is oppressed. At this moment the Christian nations, worshipping a symbol of common brotherhood, live as in entrenched camps, in which they keep armed watch to prevent surprise froin each other.
It is difficult, if not impossible, to arrive at any exact estimate of the cost of these preparations, ranging under four different heads ;-the standing army, the navy, the fortifications and ordnance, and the militia or irregular troops.
The number of soldiers now keeping the peace of European Christendom, as a standing army, without counting the Navy, is upwards of two inillions. Some estimates place it as high as three millions. The army of Great Britain exceeds 300,000 men; that of France 350,000; that of Russia 730,000, and is reckoned by some as high as 1,000,000; that of Austria about 275,000; that of Prussia 150,000. Taking the smaller number, suppose these two millions to require for their annual support an average sum of only $150 each, the result would be $300,000,000, for their sustenance alone ; and reckoning one officer to ten soldiers, and allowing to each of the latter an English shilling a day, or $87 a year, for wages, and to the former an average salary of $500 a year, we should have for the pay of the whole no less than $256,000,000, or an appalling sum total for both sustenance and pay of $556,000,000. If the same calculation be made, supposing the forces to amount to three millions, the sum total will be $835,000,000! But to this enormous sum another still more enormous must be added on account of the loss sustained by the withdrawal of two millions of hardy, healthy men, in the bloom of life, from useful, productive labor. It has been supposed that it costs an average of $500 to rear a soldier; and that the value of his labor if devoted to useful objects would be $150 a year. The Christian Powers, therefore, in setting apart two millions of men, as soldiers, sustain a loss of $1,000,000,000 on account of their training; and $300,000,000 annually, on account of their labor. So much for the cost of the standing army of European Christendom in time of Peace.
Glance now at the Navy of European Christendom. The Royal Navy of Great Britain consists at present of 556 ships of all classes; and the number of hands employed in 1839, was 34,465.— The Navy of France, though not comparable in size with that of England, is of vast force. In 1837 it was fixed in time of peace at 40 ships of the line, 50 frigates, 40 steamers, and 190 smaller vessels; and the amount of crews in 1839, was 20,317 men. The Russian Navy consists of two large fleets in the Gulf of Finland, and the Black Sea; but the exact amount of their force and their available resources, has been a subject of dispute amongst naval men and politicians. Some idea may be formed of the size of the navy from the number of hands employed, altogether 50,600 in 1837.—The Austrian Navy consisted in 1837, of 8 ships of the line, 8 frigates, 4 sloop, 6 brigs, 7 schooners or galleys, and a number of sınaller vessels; the number of men in its service in 1839, was 4,547.—The Navy of Denmark consisted at the close of 1837, of 7 ships of the line, 7 frigates, 5 sloops, 6 brigs, 3 schooners, 5 cutters, 58 gun-boats, 6 gun-rafts, and 3 bomb vessels, requiring about 6,500 men to man them.—The Navy of Sweden and Norway consisted recently of 238 gun-boats, 11 ships of the line, 8 frigates, 4 corvettes, 6 brigs, with several smaller vessels.—The Navy of Greece consists of 32 ships of war, carrying 190 guns, and 2,400 men.—The Navy of Holland in 1839 consisted of 8 ships of the line, 21 frigates, 15 corvettes, 21 brigs, and 95 gun-boats. It is impossible to give any accurate idea of the immense cost of all these mighty preparations for war. It is melancholy to contemplate such gigantic means, applied by European Christendom to the erection of these superfluous wooden walls in time of Peace!
In the fortifications and arsenals of Europe, crowning every height, commanding every valley, and frowning over every plain and every sea, wealth has been sunk which is beyond calculation. Who can tell the immense sums that have been expended in hollowing out, for the purposes of defence, the living rock of Gibraltar ? Who can calculate the cost of all the preparations at Woolwich, its 27,000 cannons, and its hundreds of thousands of small arms ? France alone contains upwards of one hundred and twenty fortified places! And it is supposed that the yet unfinished fortifications of Paris have cost upwards of fifty millions of dollars !
The cost of the militia or irregalar troops, the Yeomanry of England, the National Guards of Paris, and the Landwehr and Landsturm of Prussia, must add other incalcuble sums to these enormous amounts.
Turn now to the United States. Enormous as are the expenses of this character in Europe, those in our country are still greater in proportion to the other expenditures of the Federal Government. The average expenditures of the latter for the six years ending with 1840, exclusive of payments on account of debt, were $26,474,892; of this sum, the average appropriation each year for military and naval purposes amounted to $21,328,903, being eighty per cent. of the whole
amount! The remaining twenty cents suffices to maintain the Government, the administration of justice, our relations with foreign nations, the light-houses which shed their cheerful signals over the rough waves which beat upon our long and indented coast, from the Bay of Fundy to the mouth of the Mississippi. The military expenditures, exclusive of payments on the debts, are in proportion to the whole expenditure of Government, in Austria, as 33 per cent., in France, as 38 per cent., in Prussia, as 44 per cent., in Great Britain, as 74 per cent., in the UNITED STATES, as 80 per cent.! Besides all this, the expenses of the militia throughout the country have been placed by Judge Jay (1842) at $50,000,000 a year!
By a table of the expenditures of the United States, exclusive of payments on account of the Public Debt, it appears, that, in the fifty-three years from the formation of our present Government in 1789 down to 18133, there have been $246,020,055 spent for civil purposes, comprehending the expenses of the executive, the leg. islative, the judiciary, the post-office, light houses, and intercourse with foreign govern nents. During the saine period there have been $3428,54,591 devoted to the military establishment, and $170,4337,681 to the naval establishment; the two, forroing an aggregate of $532,961,278. Deducting from this sum the appropriations during three years of war, we shall find that more than four hundred millions were absorbed by vain preparations in time of peice for war. Add to this amount a moderate sum for the expenses of the initia during the saine period, at an average of $5,000,000 a year, and we shall have the enormous sum of $1,335.000.000 to be added to the $100,000,000; the whole amounting to seventeen hundred and thirty-five millions of dollars, all sunk in mere percefu! preparations for war; more than seven times as much as was dedicated by the Government, during the same period, to all other purpuses whatsoever!
Froin this serried array of figuris the mind instinctively retreats ; but, if we compare some particular part of them with figures rep. resenting other interests in the community, they will present a front still more dread.
Within a short distance of this city, stands an institution of learning, which was one of the earliest cares of the early forefáthers of the country, the conscientious Puritans. Favored child of an age of trial and struggle, carefully nursed through a period of hardship and anxiety, endowed at that time by the oblations of men like Ilarvari), sustained from its first foundation by the paternal arm of the Cominonwealth, by a constant succession of munificent bequests, and by the prayers of all good men, the University at Cambridge now invites our homage as the most ancient, the most interesting and the most important seat of learning in the land; possessing the oldest and most valuable library, one of the largest museuins of mineralogy and natural history, a School of Law, a School of Divinity, one of the largest and most flourishing Schools of Medicine in the country--besides these, a general body of teachers, twenty-seven in nuinber, many of whose names help to keep the name of the country respectable in every part of the globe where science, learning and taste are cherished-the whole presiiled over at this mornent by a gentleman early distinguished in public life by his unconquerable energies and his masculine eloquence, at a later period by the unsurpassed ability with which he administered the affairs of our city, now, in a green old age, full of years and honors, prepared to lay down his present high trust. Such is IIarvard University; and as one of the humblest of her children, happy in the recollection of a youth nurtured in her classic retreats, I cannot allude to her without an expression of filial affection and respect. Yet her whole available property, the various accumulations of more than two centuries of generosity, amounts only to $703,175.
There now swings idly at her moorings in this harbor, a ship of