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for an instant, the most watchful police over general meeting. The circulation of such
The first trial was that of Mr. Muir. It is io be a dangerous usurpation of power. I say
1 2 How. Mod. St. Tr. 603. 2-How. Mod. St. Tr. 117.
2 How. Mod. St. Tr. 803.
nishment on such as Skirving. I need go no 1: In urging this to you, I think I may refer further into details, but shall merely mention to an authority which cannot be either de that there was real, actual, and palpable sedi- spised or avoided--I mean the authority of tion in that case. My purpose, in alluding to the wbole kingdom, of the whole law, of the them, is to contrast them with the present whole majesty and power of the king, ministers, case, for eren in those times, and under all judges, and legislature of England of that the deplorable circumstances which I have country which has had the longest experience mentioned, this case would have been viewed of freedom, and has learned most thoroughly very differently from the cases then tried. by that happy experience how little real danger
The trial of Robertson and Berry* took place there is in the discontents, or even the occa. at a time far more critical than the present. sional violence of a free people. There, it They were tried for printing and publishing a would appear, they are noi so easily alarmed book entitled The Political Progress of Scot
--not so easily frightened at words, or so apt land, which, as to hurtful tendency, went far to suppose that the constitution can be brought beyond the pamphlet now in question. Such into hazard by a few intemperate expressions. and such taxes were said to have been illegally I quote, therefore, the example of England as imposed, and the constitution held out as a it stands at this present moment. Will any mere conspiracy of the rich against the poor; one say, that what passed at Kilmarnock •will yet the punishment inflicted was three months' bear any comparison, in point of indecency imprisonment to one of them, and six months and indecorum, to what is notoriously passing to the other. There were worse cases in 1793. in England every hour, and under the immeIn one, I mean that of Morton and Anderson,t diate observation of the judges and of parliait was proved that persons who were members ment. The orations of Hunt—the publications of the society of the Friends of the People of Cobbett and others-the meetings in Spahad gone into the castle-insisted that several fields and Palace-yard, are all, up to this of the soldiers should join the society—and hour, unchecked and unpunished and are given as a toast, George the third and last, met only by ridicule and precaution. In the and damnation to all crowned heads; yet, Royal Fxchange, at the doors of the houses of upon a clear verdict of conviction, nine months' parliament, at the gates of the palace, pubimprisonment, only, was inflicted. Two cases lications are openly -sold-Dot 400 copies of occurred in 1802. In one of them, under very dull speeches, but hundreds of thousands of gross circumstances, for the man was a soldier, daily and weekly effusions, containing, every and had said he was sorry the king was not one of them, matter far worse than what is shot, and that he could see his heart's blood found in this publication. I am sure no one on his bayonet, the punishment inflicted was can look into them, without being satisfied one month's imprisonment, and banishment that they contain strong excitements to disfrom Scotland for two years. The other was content, and that their authors are continually the case of one Jeffrey (I am sorry that should working upon the feelings of the country; yet have been the name), who, for wishing de- they are still holding forth their doctrines struction to king, queen, and royal fainily, without danger of interference. suffered three months' imprisonment.
See, then, what is the course, that all the wis· I have quoted these cases to show, that even dom in council, and policy of government, in in times when great rigour was necessary, that land of freedom have held? What is the cases much worse than the present were course they have pursued with regard to that leniently viewed; and I say, considering that portion of the people with whom originated we stand now in very different times, and any disorder that exists in the country, and the that the people at Kilmarnock had confessedly people to whom indeed the disorders are still no intention of holding conventions composed confined ? Notwithstanding the situation of of delegates from various quarters, or of pro- England for the last six months, this is the first pagating sedition in any way but were hungry and the only trial which the present disturbed artisans, who ouly met on os e occasion to pe- state of the country has produced. Really, I tition for something, they knew not what, which should not have expected to find the first trial they thought would afford them relief, and in this country. They that are whole need not never harboured any purpose of exciting or a physician. There has been breaking of frames rising in rebellion, but continued to prosecute in inany counties in England for eighteen their views by constitutional means; can you months; and yet his majesty's government have conceive, that if the more serious cases which a merciful reluctance, and are slow to call the I have been considering received such slight people to account even for those great excesses notice, the present case would, even then, while there is any reason to think that they have been thought worthy of any punishment have been produced chiefly by their misery. at all, or that any thing further should now be And with regard to the political commotions in done, than sending the panels home a little the metropolis, they know that a check to the admonished, and heartily frightened, to be spirit of freedom ought not to be given more cautious on any future occasion? without necessity ;--that the present tumults
have not arisen so much from wickedness of • 2 How. Mod. St. Tr. 84.
heart, as from the pressure of misery ;--- and * 2 How. Mod. St. Tr. 7.
with a paternal solicitude, they look watchfully
and compassionately upon the people as if they genius of their countrymen is so apt to hurry
the result of the meeting,—and 400 copies | in reference to which the public prosecutor only of these foolish speeches were printed. subsumes, that they are both, or one or other No steps were taken to promote disorder, but of them, guilty of the crime of sedition, actors the most entire tranquillity then and after- or actor, or art and part. wards prevailed.
You will have observed, that the evidence When I think of these things, I can have which has been laid before you is of a no doubt at all of the issue of this trial. You different nature as it affects the different cannot but perceive that the panels have not prisoners. One of them is charged with been proved guilty of sedition; for they have having delivered, at a meeting held in the not been proved to have said or done any thing neighbourhood of the town of Kilmarnock, wickedly and feloniously, or for the purpose of a speech, which the public prosecutor states to exciting tumult and disorder in the country. have been of a seditious nature, containing Their general conduct and character render a number of inflammatory remarks and assersuch an imputation in the highest degree im- tions, calculated to degrade and bring into probable; and the particular facts which have contempt the Government and Legislature, been proved are so far from supporting it, and to withdraw therefrom the confidence and that, when taken all together, they are obviously affections of the people, and fill the realm inconsistent with its truth.
with trouble and dissention; the manuscript of which speech he is charged with having
afterwards delivered to a printer, for the purLord Justice Clerk.-Gentlemen of the Jury; pose of its being printed. And with regard Although you have heard from the learned to the other prisoner, it is stated, that he preCounsel who has just now addressed you, pared for the press an account of the proceedwith infinite ability, on the part of one of the ings at the meeting, which account contains panels, that this is a case more fitted for the the speech above referred to, and others also particular consideration and final decision of alleged to be of a seditious and inflammatory a Jury than of the Court, and that here the nature, and that he assisted afterwards in its Court has less concern, and less to do, than in circulation, by exposing and actually selling it any other species of trial; I am much afraid in his own shop. that, in the view which I entertain of the duty It will be recessary for you first to consider incumbent on me on this occasion, I shall be what is the evidence of the facts as it applies under the indispensable necessity of still de to both and each of these prisoners. After taining you for some portion of time, notwith-calling your attention to the facts, I shall make standing the fatiguing duty you have had to some observations on the law of the case; perform
and I shall then desire you, upon these facts In consequence of the alteration of the law and that law, to consider whether there is relative to proceedings in this Court, it is no ground for the conclusion of the public prolonger necessary to take down the evidence in secutor. writing, but it is still the duty of the pre It may save you trouble, to state to you at siding Judge to sum up that evidence to the the beginning the definition of the crime of Jury who are to decide upon it; and notwith- sedition, as given to us by an authority, which standing what the learned gentleman said, is one of the most respectable with regard to (and I am not disposed to find fault with bis the law, that can exist in any country whatremark), I shall state for your consideration, ever. I do not know that there is any foundathe nature of the charge and the evidence ex- tion, in point of fact, for the supposition which hibited against the prisoners at the bar. But was mentioned, that the author I allude to even if I were not enjoined by the positive had ever been suspected of having any parauthority of statute to do so, I should not ticular bias in giving a view of this departhave hesitated, in such a case as the present, ment of the law. I never before heard that to state to you my view of the evidence and such a notion existed in the minds of the peoof the law applicable to it. It is your pro- ple. Bnt sure I am, if they who read his vince, indeed, to judge of the whole of the book look to the authorities and decisions to case; but sitting here as a guardian of the which he refers, they will be most decidedly rights and privileges of the people, and bound of opinion, that he has expounded the law in as I am to administer the law according to the most clear, able, and satisfactory manner. the best of my judgment, I have to state to Mr. Hume, the author to whom I allude, gives you, clearly and distinctly, my view of the this general description of the crime of sedilaw of this case, and then to leave it to you to tion*: “I had formerly, in drawing the line do your duty, as I shall now endeavour to do between sedition and leasing-making, a proper mine.
occasion to explain the general notion of this The Indictment exhibited against the pri- offence, and I shall not now attempt any fur. soners at the bar, contains in the major pro- ther to describe it (being of so various and position, a general charge of sedition, and in comprehensive a nature), than by saying that the minor you have the narrative of the fact, it reaches all those practices, whether by deed,
word, or writing, or of whatsoever kind, which Vide stat. 23 Geo. III. c. 45, made perpetual by stat. 27 Geo. III. c. 18.
* Vol. ij. p. 484.
are suited and intended to disturb the tran-, composition is, generally, that it is of an inquillity of the state, for the purpose of pro- ! flammatory kind; such as by the principles it ducing public trouble or commotion, and inculcates, and the obloquy it throws out on moving his Majesty's subjects to the dislike, the management of public affairs, tends to the resistance, or subversion of the established infusion of jealousy and discontent among the government and laws, or settled frame and multitude; but without proceeding to any order of things.
proposal of a plan, or set of active operations, "Under this description would fall a work as grounded upon these principles, and fit to (such as it has been reserved for the wicked- be followed in the existing state of things; ness of the present age to produce), which this may with propriety be referred to the should teach that all monarchy and hereditary head of verbal sedition. It was for a comporank, or all clerical dignities and establish- sition of this character that Robertson and ments of religion, are an abuse and usurp: Berry* were convicted, as has been mentioned; ation, contrary to reason and justice, and and William Stewartt was outlawed upon a unfit to be any longer suffered or continued. charge of the like nature, on the 11th March, Or, though the piece should not set out upon 1793.” So that you see it most distinctly 80 broad. a principle as this, if it argue in stated, that'words, if of an inflammatory na. common with the many compositions which ture, though not followed by active operations, have lately been pressed upon the world) that will amount to verbal sedition. the power of the king is overgrown, and I shall content myself with reading to you one oughi, at any hazard, to be retrenched; or that other passage, without offering a word of my the Commons are a mere nominal and pre- own upon the subject. This passage refers to tended representative of the people, whose the distinction between the crime of sedition laws. are entitled to no manner of regard; or and that of leasing-making, which is still recogthat the whole state is full of corruption, and nized in our law. “But sedition is a crime of that the people ought to take the office of re. a far wider and more various description, as forming it upon themselves. All exhortations well as of a deeper character, which may equalof this kind, whether any commotion follow on ly be committed in relation to any of the other them or not (for if any do follow, then it will powers, orders, or parts of the public constidepend on the degree, fashion, and immediate tution of the land, or to any class or division occasion of that disturbance. whether it is not of the society of its inbabitants, and without treason in those who partake of it), are un- the use of special calumnies or slaoders against doubted acts of sedition, being calculated and the king, or any other individual; as by the employed for the direct purpose of loosening forming of combinations, the taking of resothe hold which the Government has of the opi- lutions, the circulation of doctrines and opinnions and affections of the people, and thus ions, or, in general, the pursuit of any course preparing them for acts of resistance or of measures and actions, such as directly tends aggression."
to resistance of the legislature or established Several of the instances which he gives of government, or to the new-modelling of the this crime were already read to you, and I state without the authority of law. No invecneed not repeat them. But I refer to another tive, therefore, how violent soever, against passage further on, in which the author con- monarchy in general, -no abuse, the most outfirms and illustrates his opinion. “The rea- rageous, of the British constitution, no proson in all these cases is the same. The crime ceedings, though ever so plainly tending to of sedition, therefore, lies in the stirring of abolish that venerable system, and set up a such humours as naturally tend to change and new form of government in its room, would commotion in the state. So near, indeed, is justify a charge of leasing-making. Because, the alliance between sedition and treason, that though all involving the state and office of the if, instead of sowing the seeds of a hostile dis- king as part of the constitution, such proposition to the Government, or preparing such jects are 'levelled against the whole system, materials as in time may kindle into a fame, and are not moved out of special grudge to the offender shall seek the same object more the prince upon the throne, but spring from a immediately, by a direct and definite exhort- deeper and more malignant principle, as well ation to the people to rise at that particular as employ more direct and more extensive season and conjuncture, as advantageous for means than that of mere slander of the person gaining their ends; this measure in like man and conduct of the king. Thus sedition is a nér, as a consultation to levy war, seems to proper crime against the state, and holds the be nothing less than an act for compassing the next place after treason, to which it is nearly death of the king, being a decided and ma- allied, and which it may often but by a short terial step towards the doing of that which interval, precede. The other is a personal cannot be done without the plain danger of offence, or verbal injury, offered to the king the Sovereigu's life."*
and which the law considers in so much a Again, in speaking of a distinction which more serious light than other injuries of that has to-day been glanced at, between verbal and class, partly by reason of the just regard it has real sedition, Mr. Hume expresses himself in these wordst: “If all at can be said of the
* 2 How. Mod. St. Tr. 79.
+ 2 How, Mod. St. Tr, 25. Vol. ii. p. 494. # Ibid. p. 496.