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of lightning had gone by, we could not distinguish any one of the carriages. But what is the train? And how is it moved? We will endeavour to explain all this ;-we have read,

** When railroads were in their infancy, it was

a puzzle bow to contrive means, not to make the “ wheels of the carriage turn round but to make “ them move onwards ; for it was imagined that the “ smoothness of the rails, would permit the wheels “ to slip, and that thus though they would report " they would not go on. Many ingenious con & trivances were made to overcome this imaginary " difficulty, amongst others a most ingenious pair “ of metal legs were to push the carriage onwards. " But at last it was found out that rails and " wheels were

not so smooth faced to one « another, and there was friction enough between “them to let the carriages run. Then came the

question of how are the carriages to be moved ? “ Shall we pull them by hors? Or build

stationary engine houses and caul away with

ropes? Or drag by locomotives ? The decision “on the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, the 12.56 earliest of the great railroads, was in favor of

“ locomotives, and so locomotives have become “ the prime moving power on railroads."

Locomotive engines are so named, because they possess the power of moving from place to place. They consist of a strong iron frame supported on four wheels, and a cylindrical boiler made of

79

gntyce

wrought iron plates, which is fixed to this car, riage; the chimney is in the front and the furna

anto a at the hinder end; t woke and hot air,

"a kidney through a number of

rass tubes which

"Seen slumberthe lower half of the

al bed, thich has nightym chimney, and which

ous hody for half a cenynerate municate additional heat ning Arough hillsas placed steam ; the cylinder in thng of pys, in faces vertical, almost in every varietynt. The engineer stands on herizontal, and inclinelage carriage and by a long rod the hinder part of thịf Kalve for admitting the steam moves the throttle hghich regulates the motion and into the cylinder

, v tipeed of the carriage, to prevent consequently the

ying into the air and doing misignited fuel escanding is placed on the top of the chief, a wire net chimney. A scarriage called the tender with coke or welsh coal

, and water, is following the engine or the stear's carriage; this supplies the furnace and woiler w“th their necessary food; this engine will take twerhty carriages, loaded with passengers with their luggage, at the rate of thirty miles an hour, if requifred, and with only common caution there is little

fear of accident. The carriages for passengers are of two kinds, those for the first class are fitted up beautifully with cushions and glass windows, they hold three persons on each side, and the seats are detached from each other, and on some raifroads they have a lamp inside for night travelling. The second class carriages are

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mig lig. fitted with benches and are only covered at the tozuish áp. The place from where the train started, is le train ? red with a magnificerie and commodious roof deavour to exirable apartments "for passengers.

The ik When railroads his l? in thulaced at the distance of seværzzle box tò contrive means distance in other lines is four of the carriage turn rnd are laid lengthways on contin

e onwards ; sit vof wood, which we are told is a deviatioofthe

other innovation Mr. Byunel, th tre chief engineer met

- railroads, and for which with a great deal of oppositi, In going from Paddington,

p, to Slough, we saw more than fifty bridges, either line; the distance between Lor

over or under the one hundred and twenty miles,

ar don and Bristol is work will cost about 50,000,000 and this gigantic

of when

rupees completed; the train carries more

than six hundred passengers daily, but the numbe increased to three thousand, and

Cu since has

Se the weekly receipt at present amounts to £2000 In a commercial point of view,

sterling

thi bring Ireland and London nearer ea dependent of the facility it will afford ich other, incolonial produce from Bristol to the in conveying A writer in speaking of railroads, th' metropolis

. them in the London Saturday Joureus describes “ bid your friend good night and wal:—“ You “ like yourself he will go to suppe

eci fancy that “ and that next day he will revisit “ haunts, with beard neatly trim

bile

a

's railway will

act

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7, and to bed, his accustomed ed, and a clean

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6 sweet neckcloth round his neck, but he, after

coolly giving you the countersign for the night, “ walks to Euston Square, throws himself into a

carriage, and in the morning has tea and a kidney “at Liverpool; and while you have been slumber“ing on that faithful bed, which has nightly “ received your precious body for half a century, “ he has been sweeping through hills, under “ bridges, over rivers, along valleys, in fact, quietly “ going through adventures which exceed the “ wildest of your dreams, now ploughing his way “ in the darkness of a tunnel-now rushing be“tween walls of chalk, while high above aerial - bridges look like the perches of fairy land-now

rattling along a viaduct, while the placid stream “ below still wanders at its own sweet will now “ toiling onwards in a delightful valley, startling “the cattle asleep in the field, and almost scaring

away the quiet church of the hamlet; the day

after your friend, who has been floated some five “ or eight hundred, or even a thousand miles of “ hill and dale, takes his seat at his desk with a

provoking equanimity which would not have “ been tolerated a few years ago if one had only “ taken a half holiday and gone to Hornsey Wood “ House ; time was indeed, when the public were “ used more frequently to walk, and Islington or 66 Primrose Hill constituted an excursion worth “ talking about; time was when coaches had no “springs, and roads were full of ruts, and my Lord

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“ Mayor's lumbering machine was the pink of

elegance and grandeur; time was when fair “ ladies were carried in sedan chairs and could “ modestly draw the curtains,lest the torches of the “ link boys should glare too rudely on their beauty; 66 time was when the mail hobbled on a sorry nag, “ and a miserable post boy was at once carrier and “guardian ; time was when hackney coaches were “ few, and the Thames watermen flourished, and “ cabriolets were unknown, and omnibuses were “ not. Aye, and time was, and that but yesterday, 66 when our level roads, our picturesque mail “ coaches, and our country inns were thought the “summit of perfection, and made us the envy of “ surrounding nations, and the admiration of the

world, but all that is passed or passing, for the

inspiring blast of the guard's horn we have the “ shrill whistle of the locomotive; for change of “ horses, we have merely a supply of coke and “ water, and for “ John" the ostler, and “ Mary” “ the chambermaid, and “ William” the waiter, 6 with cold beef, bread and cheese, and glasses of “ ale; we have policemen and porters all as like one another as peas,

while the stomach has to “ be stayed by a hasty stare at a station house, “ above all, one sadly misses the driver, at once so 66 conceited and so cool, now praising his team, or

quizzing a passenger—now touching his hat for “ the expected half crown, and sneering when it

proves only a shilling. As for the scarlet

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